JUNIUS, Franciscus, De Schilder-konst der Oude, Begrepen in drie Boecken, Middelburg, Zacharias Roman, 1641.

JUNIUS, Franciscus, De Schilder-konst der Oude, Begrepen in drie Boecken, Middelburg, Zacharias Roman, 1641.

Getty Research Institute Los Angeles ND70 .J95 1641 Images hors-texte 850 quotations 385 terms
Franciscus Junius, alias François du Jon (Heidelberg 1591 – Oxford 1677), was a philologist with a strong interest in the history of art. Born as the son of a Hebrew professor at Leiden University, Junius was part of to the international Republic of Letters. He grew up in Dordrecht under the guidance of his brother-in-law, the important scholar Gerardus Vossius, and studied theology in Leiden and Middelburg. In 1620, he found a patron in Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, and become employed as the tutor of the Earl’s son and librarian. In 1642 he returned to the Dutch Republic in the company of his patron. Besides his De pictura veterum, Junius published several books related to language and religion. Two years after his return to England, he died in 1677 in Oxford in the house of his nephew Isaac Vossius.
 
In 1637, Junius wrote De pictura veterum (in Latin) for the Earl of Arundel, who was a prominent collector of antique art.[1] The second edition, The painting of the Ancients (in English), was published in 1638 and dedicated to the earl’s wife Alethea Howard. Developing a strong interest in the development of the Dutch language, Junius published his treatise in Dutch in 1641 (Schilder-konst der Oude), re-editing and enlarging the text considerably (see various comments throughout the analysis in this database). New editions were published in all three languages, amongst them a Dutch edition published by Willem Goeree in 1675 (that is, after Goeree had started publishing his own treatises on art). The German translation of 1770 made use of the original Latin edition of 1637.
 
De Schilderkonst der Oude is divided into three books, each with different chapters which in turn are divided into paragraphs. In his treatise, which is theoretical in nature, Junius describes the art of painting, by means of citations from the work of a wide range of ancient Greek and Roman, and medieval (Latin) authors. In the Latin edition, he comments very concisely on the citations (while including original Greek citations), whereas he increasingly formulates his interpretation of the ancient texts more freely in the English and Dutch editions (in which the citations are translated into the respective languages). In the first book, he attempts to define what painting is, focusing primarily on the notions of imitation and imagination (Cap. I-III); the relation between Poetry and Painting (esp. Cap. IV); the necessity of practice and diligence and the role of patronage (Cap. V). In the second book, Junius gives an explanation for the existence of art (Cap.I); he describes the importance of instruction and inclination (Cap. II-III); offers a list of sources on artists (Cap. III); argues for competition and emulation to make progress (Cap. IV-V); warns for the loss of simplicity (‘eenvoudigheyd’) (Cap. VI); attempts to define positive characteristics for an art work (Cap. VII) and how to reach perfection (Cap. VIII); devotes considerable space to the different uses and functions (‘ghebruyck’) of different types of visual arts through time (Cap. VIII); reflects on reputation and appreciation (in the form of both honour and monetary rewards) and the role of patrons therein (Cap. IX-X); on artistic liberty, innovation and creativity (Cap. X); as well as success (‘gheluckighe uytkomste’) and what it takes to become a great and universal master (Cap. XI); he discusses judgement of art, both for the artist and the connoisseur (Cap. XII); the flourishing of art (XIII); he finishes the book by referring to differences in success (‘fortuyne’) between artists (Cap. IV). In the third and final book of De Schilder-konst der Oude, Junius elaborates on different elements of a painting. Therefore, this book – although essentially theoretical in nature – is more directly related to artistic practice. Junius subsequently discusses (providing ample references): the subject and history, or invention and the necessity of knowledge of these subjects and the ability to depict them truthfully and in a stately and decorous manner (Cap. I); proportion and harmony (Cap. II); colour, light and shadow (Cap. III); movement and the depiction of emotions (Cap. IV); composition (Cap. V). In chapter VI, Junius argues that all the previously discussed elements in a painting should be in harmony, which will lead to a beautiful whole. In chapter VII he returns to the question of judgement and provides advice to connoisseurs, with an excursus to the theme of copies.
 
Our choice to work from the Dutch edition of 1641 as a basis for the analysis in the database is based on the following reasons: Firstly, the Dutch text is the most elaborate of the three first editions, both in regard to Junius’ commentary on the citations from ancient authors and for the introduction and explanation of concepts. Secondly, for the Dutch edition, Junius clearly attempted to develop a Dutch language of art. He frequently lists several alternatives (synonyms and near-synonyms) for a term in order to clarify what he means, where the Latin and English text only offer one term. Junius’ Dutch translations of the Latin and English terminology are frequently not necessarily translations in the strictest sense, but rather approximate reflections of the terms Junius chose in the earlier Latin and English to describe a certain notion or concept. Oftentimes Junius had provided a description in the Latin or English edition, rather than a precise term (this is mentioned in the comments to the different citations). From the discrepancies between the Latin and English edition and the Dutch edition, especially in Book Three, it is clear that Junius reworked large parts of the text, mainly by adding explanations and clarifications to the citations. Since Junius (or someone close to him?) himself worked on the translation of the text, he took the effort to reformulate the text of the earlier edition. From this perspective, De Pictura Veterum differs from other texts in this database, where the translations were generally done at a later date and/or by someone unrelated to the original author. In fact, it is quite probable that the Latin edition of 1694 was based on the changes that Junius had made in the different English (1638) and Dutch editions (1641, 1659 and 1675).

N.B. The translation of the selected citations was done by Marije Osnabrugge. Please note that it is only a suggested translation, produced for the convenience of the database user and that it should by no means be considered a definite scientific translation. We have tried to stay as close to the wording in the Dutch text as possible, to convey Junius’ choice of words.


Marije Osnabrugge

 
[1] For an appreciation of the different editions and the impact of the book(s), see in particular WESTSTEIJN, 2015 (esp. Chapter Two for a reflection on Junius' three first editions and the translation process and the Appendix for the major differences between the first Latin and English editions).
in-4 dutch

Dedication
Aen zijn Hoogheyd

Structure
Ode at [unnumbered page]
Dédicace(s) at ***ii-***iii
Lettre at [unnumbered pages]
Avis au lecteur at [unnumbered pages]

JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637.

JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638.

JUNIUS, Franciscus, Schilder-boeck, behelsende de schilder-konst der oude : begrepen in dry boecken. Nu wederom met een bequaem register vermeerdert,, Middelburg, Zacharias Roman, 1659.

JUNIUS, Franciscus, Begin, heerlijcke voortgangh, en grootdadigh vermogen der wijdberoemde schilderkonst der antycken; te gelyck met die van de boetseerkunde, giet-oeffeningh, en al wat vorder de reex van d'algemeene beeld-vorming der aal-oude konstenaeren aanhoorigh is, Middelburg - Amsterdam, Willem Goeree - Janssoons van Waesberge, 1675.

JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura libri tres, tot in locis emendati, et tam multis accessionibus aucti, ut plane novi possint videri : accedit Catalogus, adhuc ineditus, architectorum, mechanicorum, sed praecipue pictorum, statuariorum, caelatorum, tornatorum aliorumque artificum, et operum quae fecerunt, secundum seriem litterarum digestus, GRAEVIUS, Johannes Gregorius (éd.), London, Samuel Smith & Benjamin Watford, 1694.

JUNIUS, Franciscus, Von der Mahlerey der Alten : in drey Büchern. Aus dem Lateinischen, Breslau, Johann Ernst Meyer, 1770.

FEHL, Philipp P., « Franciscus Junius and the Defense of Art », Artibus et Historiae, II/3, 1981, p. 9-55 [En ligne : https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1483099.pdf consulté le 30/03/2018].

NATIVEL, Colette, « Franciscus Junius et le “De pictura veterum” », dans NATIVEL, Colette, WILSON-CHEVALIER, Kathleen et ZOLOTOV, Iouri Konstantinovitch (éd.), Histoire et théorie de l’art en France au XVIIe siècle en hommage à Jacques Vanuxem, Paris, Société d’étude du XVIIe siècle, 1983, p. 7-30.

NATIVEL, Colette, « La comparaison entre la peinture et la poésie dans le “de Pictura Veterum” (1,4) de Franciscus Junius (1589–1677) », Word & image, 4/1, 1988, p. 323-330.

NATIVEL, Colette, « Quelques sources antiques du “De Pictura Veterum” de Franciscus Junius », De Zeventiende Eeuw, 5, 1989, p. 33-44 [En ligne : http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/_zev001198901_01/_zev001198901_01_0027.php consulté le 14/09/2015].

WARNKE, Martin, « Kunst vor ihrer Geschichte: zum kunsthistoriographischen Verfahren des Franciscus Junius », dans GANZ, Peter, WARNKE, Martin, OSEBRUCH, Martin et MEIER, Nikolaus (éd.), Kunst und Kunsttheorie 1400 - 1900, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz in Komm, 1991, p. 135-143.

NATIVEL, Colette, « Peinture, rhétorique et philosophie  : la lecture de Cicéron dans le “De Pictura Veterum” de Franciscus Junius », Revue des études latines, 70, 1992, p. 245-261.

NATIVEL, Colette, « Regards sur l’art antique  : aspects de la littérature d’art humaniste aux XVIe et XVIIe siècles », dans HOFFMANN, Philippe et LINK RINUY, Paul-Louis (éd.), Antiquités imaginaires  : la référence antique dans l’art moderne de la Renaissance à nos jours, Paris, Presses de l’École Normale Supérieure, 1996, p. 3-20.

NATIVEL, Colette, « Quelques apports du “De Pictura Ueterum Libri Tres” de Franciscus Junius à la théorie de l’art en France », Revue d’esthétique : La naissance de la théorie de l’art en France 1640-1720, 31/32, 1997, p. 119-131.

NATIVEL, Colette, « A Plea for Franciscus Junius as an Art Theorician », dans BREMMER, Rolf Hendrik (éd.), Franciscus Junius F. F. and His Circle, Amsterdam, Rodopi, 1998, p. 19-33.

NATIVEL, Colette, « La théorie de la composition dans le “De Pictura Veterum” de Franciscus Junius  : une transition entre Alberti et l’Académie », dans TAYLOR, Paul et QUIVIGER, François (éd.), Pictorial Composition from Medieval to Modern Art, Actes du colloque de Londres, London, Warburg Institute, 2000, p. 117-130.

NATIVEL, Colette, « Le triomphe de l’idée de la peinture  : la “phantasia” chez Junius et Bellori », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), Théorie des arts et création artistique dans l’Europe du nord du XVIe au début du XVIIIe siècle, Actes du colloque de Lille, Villeneuve-d’Ascq, Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille 3, 2001, p. 219-231.

NOVIKOVA, Anastassia, Virtue by Virtue of Virtuosity: Virtuosity as a Form of Virtue in English and Dutch Paintings and Art Theory in the Earlier Seventeenth Century, Thesis, University of London, 2002.

NOVIKOVA, Anastassia, « Virtuosity and Declensions of Virtue: Thomas Arundel and Aletheia Talbot seen by Virtue of a Portrait Pair by Daniel Mytens and a Treatise by Franciscus Junius », Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek, 54, 2003, p. 308-333 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/24706513 consulté le 30/03/2018].

BLANC, Jan, « Le traité de peinture dans la Hollande du XVIIe siècle, de Carel Van Mander (1604) à Samuel Van Hoogstraten (1678) », COnTEXTES, 1, 2006, [non paginé] [En ligne : http://contextes.revues.org/66 consulté le 28/04/2015].

NATIVEL, Colette, « La mise en œuvre du comparatisme au XVIIe siècle : le “De Pictura Veterum” de Junius », dans BAYARD, Marc (éd.), L’histoire de l’art et le comparatisme : les horizons du détour, Actes du colloque de Rome, Paris, Somogy, 2007, p. 233-245.

WESTSTEIJN, Thijs, « The Germanic Origins of Art: Dutch and English Antiquity according to Verstegan, Junius and Van Hoogstraten », Dutch Crossing, 32/1, 2008, p. 43-70 [En ligne : http://hdl.handle.net/11245/1.296093 consulté le 30/03/2018].

WESTSTEIJN, Thijs, « Between Mind and Body: Painting the Inner Movements according to Samuel van Hoogstraten and Franciscus Junius », Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek, 60, 2010, p. 261-281.

KOCH, Nadia J., « Der Paradigmenwechsel von der ars zum artifex um 1600. Ludovicus Demontiosius‘ und Franciscus Junius‘ Systematiken der antiken Künste », dans HEINEN, Ulrich (éd.), Welche Antike– Konkurrierende Rezeptionen des Altertums im Barock, Actes du colloque de Wolfenbüttel, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 2011, p. 1037-1046.

WESTSTEIJN, Thijs, « Translating “Schilderspraeke”: Painters’ Terminology in the Dutch Edition of Franciscus Junius’ “The Painting of the Ancients“ (1637-1641) », dans COOK, Harold John et DUPRÉ, Sven (éd.), Translating Knowledge in the Early Modern Low Countries, Berlin, LIT, 2012, p. 163–196.

WESTSTEIJN, Thijs, « Passie, Hartstocht: Painting and Evoking Emotions in Rembrandt's Studio », dans FRITZSCHE, Claudia, LEONHARD, Karin et WEBER, Gregor J. M. (éd.), Ad Fontes! Niederländische Kunst Des 17. Jahrhunderts in Quellen, Petersberg, Michael Imhof Verlag, 2013, p. 304-329.

WESTSTEIJN, Thijs, Art and Antiquity in the Netherlands and Britain: the Vernacular Arcadia of Franciscus Junius (1591-1677), Leiden, Brill, 2015.

WESTSTEIJN, Thijs, « The Sublime and the "Beholder's Share": Junius, Rubens, Rembrandt », Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art, 8/2, 2016, n.p. [En ligne : http://dx.doi.org/10.5092/jhna.2016.8.2.2 consulté le 06/03/2018].

JANSEN MA, Wieneke L., « Translations of Longinus' Sublime Terminology in Franciscus Junius' "De pictura veterum" », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline, FREYSSINET, Marianne et TROUVÉ, Stéphanie (éd.), Lexicographie artistique : formes, usages et enjeux dans l'Europe moderne, Actes du colloque de Montpellier et Paris, Montpellier, PULM, 2018, p. 395-407 [En ligne : http://dx.doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_644313 consulté le 15/03/2018].

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

QUOTATIONS

[...] 't en waer saeck dat die ghene noch verder gingen de welcke dese wonderen der Nature niet alleen nae de maete des menschelicken vernufts beschouwen, maer oock de ghelijckenisse der selvigher wonderen nae 't leven wonderbaerlick af-maelen.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …it is necessity that those go even further, who observe these wonders of Nature not only to the extent of human ingenuity, but also wonderfully reproduce the similitude after life of the same wonders.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …it is necessity that those go even further, who observe these wonders of Nature not only to the extent of human ingenuity, but also wonderfully reproduce the similitude after life of the same wonders.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …it is necessity that those go even further, who observe these wonders of Nature not only to the extent of human ingenuity, but also wonderfully reproduce the similitude after life of the same wonders.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

St Chrysostomus […] maeckt een wijdt-loopigh verhael der dinghen die de Schilder-konst plaght nae te boetsen; De schilders, seght hy {Homilia de Psal. 50.}, bestaen de Nature door hare Konst uyt te drucken, nae't vermenghen haere verwen, afmaelende allerley ghelijckenisse der sienelicker lichamen;

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] St Chrysostomus (…) constructs a verbose story of the things that the Art of Painting tends to imitate; The painters, he says {…}, consist in expressing Nature by her Art, after mixing her paints, reproducing all sorts of similitudees of visible bodies.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] St Chrysostomus (…) constructs a verbose story of the things that the Art of Painting tends to imitate; The painters, he says {…}, consist in expressing Nature by her Art, after mixing her paints, reproducing all sorts of similitudees of visible bodies.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] St Chrysostomus (…) constructs a verbose story of the things that the Art of Painting tends to imitate; The painters, he says {…}, consist in expressing Nature by her Art, after mixing her paints, reproducing all sorts of similitudees of visible bodies.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] St Chrysostomus (…) constructs a verbose story of the things that the Art of Painting tends to imitate; The painters, he says {…}, consist in expressing Nature by her Art, after mixing her paints, reproducing all sorts of similitudees of visible bodies.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] St Chrysostomus (…) constructs a verbose story of the things that the Art of Painting tends to imitate; The painters, he says {…}, consist in expressing Nature by her Art, after mixing her paints, reproducing all sorts of similitudees of visible bodies.

The practical term ‘vermengen’ (to mix) rarely occurs in the book. Junius uses the term in combination to ‘verf’ (paint or pigment , color). [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

De wijdtlopigheydt der dinghen welcker ghelijckenissen dese dappere kunste soeckt voor te stellen, wordt op een gantsch andere wijse van Socrates verhandelt; de Schilders, seght hy {apud Xenoph. Lib. 3 Apomnem.}, soecken met haere verwen af te beelden verdiepte ende verhooghte, verdonckerde ende verlichte, harde ende sachte, ruyghe ende gladde, nieuwe ende oude lichaemen.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

ruygh

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

sacht

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

glad

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

verhooghte

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

verlichten

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

verdiepte

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

verdonckeren

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The diffuseness of things which similitudees this brave art tries to portray, is treated by Socrates in a completely different manner; the Painters, he says {…}, try to depict with her paints deepened and heightened, darkened and lit, hard and soft, rough and smooth, new and old bodies.

This is one of the few instances in this text where Junius refers directly to the effect of the material, the colours. [MO]

hard

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Apelles heeft oock dinghen gheschildert die niet en konnen af-gemaelt worden; als naemelick donder-slaeghen, weder-licht, blixem. Plin. Xxxv.10. Soo dat Theophylactus Simocasus hier op een oogh schijnt ghehadt te hebben, als hy seght {epist. 37}, dat de Schilders sich onder-winden soodaenighe dinghen uyt te drucken, die de Nature selver niet en kan ghedoen.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Apelles has also painted things that cannot be reproduced; such as for example thunderbolts, heat lightning, lightning, (…) So that Theophylactus Simocasus seems to have thought of this, when he says {…}, that the Painters strain themselves to express such things, that Nature itself cannot do.

From this extract, it is clear that Junius associates ‘afmaelen’ with painting directly after something which is before the artist’s eyes. Here, he remarks that ‘afmaelen’ is not possible in the case of temporary things like thunder and lightning, but that artists – in this case Apelles – have nonetheless painting such subjects. He then goes on to state that painters hereby manage to express something which Nature itself cannot. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Apelles has also painted things that cannot be reproduced; such as for example thunderbolts, heat lightning, lightning, (…) So that Theophylactus Simocasus seems to have thought of this, when he says {…}, that the Painters strain themselves to express such things, that Nature itself cannot do.

From this extract, it is clear that Junius associates ‘afmaelen’ with painting directly after something which is before the artist’s eyes. Here, he remarks that ‘afmaelen’ is not possible in the case of temporary things like thunder and lightning, but that artists – in this case Apelles – have nonetheless painting such subjects. He then goes on to state that painters hereby manage to express something which Nature itself cannot. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

So is het dan blijckelick dat onder 't ghetal van soo veele ende verscheyden Konsten door de welcke eenen grooten naem ende een ontsterffelicke beroemtheydt verworven wordt, dese Konste gheen van de geringhste en is, dewelcke daer af-beeldet alles watmen onder 't wijde uyt-spansel des Hemels bedeckt siet.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is then clear that amongst the number of so many and diverse Arts in which a great name and immortal fame is obtained, this Art, which depicts all that one sees covered under the wide firmament of Heaven, is not one of the least.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
SPECTATEUR → jugement

So is het dan blijckelick dat onder 't ghetal van soo veele ende verscheyden Konsten door de welcke eenen grooten naem ende een ontsterffelicke beroemtheydt verworven wordt, dese Konste gheen van de geringhste en is, dewelcke daer af-beeldet alles watmen onder 't wijde uyt-spansel des Hemels bedeckt siet.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is then clear that amongst the number of so many and diverse Arts in which a great name and immortal fame is obtained, this Art, which depicts all that one sees covered under the wide firmament of Heaven, is not one of the least.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
SPECTATEUR → jugement

't Is ghewisselick een uyttermaeten groote saeck de waere verbeeldinghen van allerley roerende ende onroerende dinghen in sijn ghemoedt op te legghen; evenwel nochtans is het noch een meerder saecke datmen een levende ghelijckenisse deser inwendigher verbeeldinghen kan uytwercken, voornaemelick indien den Konstenaer niet en blijft hanghen aen dese of geene bysondere wercken der Natuere, maer liever uyt opmerkinghe van d'aller schoonste lichamen die erghens te vinden sijn een volmaeckt voor-beeldt in sijn fantasije indruckt,

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

gemoed

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

fantasije

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Hier toe dienen de woorden van eenen vermaerden Platonischen Philosophe bygebracht, de Beelt-Snijders, seght hy {Maximus Tyrius dissertat. Vii}, versaemelende al wat bysondere lichaemen fraey ende aerdigh is, brenghen door de konst in een enckele naboetsinghe van de volmaeckte schoonheydt te passe al wat sy uyt menighe schoone personagien hebben opghegaedert; ten eynde dat sy een bequaeme, suyvere, wel-ghematichde ghestalte mochte treffen, soo datmen nauwelicx sulcken volkomen schoonheydt erghens kan ghevinden, die met een wel ghewrocht Stock-Beeldt ofte Statuo mach worden vergeleken, want de Konsten soecken oyt 't aller schoonste.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] To this the words of a famous Platonic Philosopher should be added, the Image-carvers, he says {…}, collecting all that is charming and pretty in specific bodies, show by art in a single imitation of perfect beauty all that they have gathered from many beautiful figures; with the goal that they will reach a able, pure, well-balanced figure, such that one can hardly find such a perfect beauty anywhere, that can be compared to a well-produced 'stock-beeldt' or statue, because the Arts always try to find the most beautiful.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Blijckt dan uyt het ghene alrede verhaelt is, dat de rechte Konstenaers die in haer ghemoed een on-ver-valscht voorbeeldt der volmaeckte schoonheydt om-draegen, doorgaens henen oock in alle haere werken en eenen sekeren glimps deser inwendigher verbeeldinghe plachten uyt te storten. […]'t Is oock seer wel van eenen ouden Orateur {Panegyr. Maxim. & Constant. dictus} aen-gemerckt, dat de afbeeldinghe van de voor-naemste schoonheydt d'aller moeylickste is; aenghesien de mis-maecktheydt lichtelick door sekere merck-teyckenen kan uytghedruckt worden de verghelijckinghe daerenteghen van de waere schoonheydt is soo weynigh ghemeyn, als de schoonheydt selver.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It shows from that what has already been said, that the true Artists who carry around an unadulterated example of the perfect beauty in their mind, normally also tend to pour out a certain glimpse of these internal representations in all their works. […]It has also been noticed very well by an old Orator {…} that the depiction of the most notable beauty is the hardest; since the deformity is easily expressed by certain marks, the comparison of true beauty in contrast is very uncommon [NDR: so little common], like beauty itself.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It shows from that what has already been said, that the true Artists who carry around an unadulterated example of the perfect beauty in their mind, normally also tend to pour out a certain glimpse of these internal representations in all their works. […]It has also been noticed very well by an old Orator {…} that the depiction of the most notable beauty is the hardest; since the deformity is easily expressed by certain marks, the comparison of true beauty in contrast is very uncommon [NDR: so little common], like beauty itself.

schoonheid

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It shows from that what has already been said, that the true Artists who carry around an unadulterated example of the perfect beauty in their mind, normally also tend to pour out a certain glimpse of these internal representations in all their works. […]It has also been noticed very well by an old Orator {…} that the depiction of the most notable beauty is the hardest; since the deformity is easily expressed by certain marks, the comparison of true beauty in contrast is very uncommon [NDR: so little common], like beauty itself.

mismaaktheyd

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It shows from that what has already been said, that the true Artists who carry around an unadulterated example of the perfect beauty in their mind, normally also tend to pour out a certain glimpse of these internal representations in all their works. […]It has also been noticed very well by an old Orator {…} that the depiction of the most notable beauty is the hardest; since the deformity is easily expressed by certain marks, the comparison of true beauty in contrast is very uncommon [NDR: so little common], like beauty itself.

voorbeeld

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It shows from that what has already been said, that the true Artists who carry around an unadulterated example of the perfect beauty in their mind, normally also tend to pour out a certain glimpse of these internal representations in all their works. […]It has also been noticed very well by an old Orator {…} that the depiction of the most notable beauty is the hardest; since the deformity is easily expressed by certain marks, the comparison of true beauty in contrast is very uncommon [NDR: so little common], like beauty itself.

verbeeldinghe

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

[...] oversulcx, als desen grooten Meester [Zeuxis] voor-genomen hadde den inwoonderen van Crotona een uytnemende schoon vrouwelick Beeldt nae te laeten, soo en vond hy het niet gheraedtsaem de gheheele volmaecktheydt van d'aller bevallighste schoonigheydt in een lichaem te soecken, maer hy heeft vijf van d'aller schoonste Maeghden uytghepickt, ten eynde dat hy uyt d'ernstighe opmerckinghe der selvigher de rechte schoonheydt, die nae 't segghen van Lucianus {In Hermetino} noodtsaeckelijck maer een wesen kan, moght ghevinden

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …in regard to this, as this great Master had resolved to bequeath the inhabitants of Crotona an outstandingly beautiful female Image, he then did not find it wise to search for the complete perfection of the most graceful beauty in one body, but he has selected five of the most beautiful virgins, so that through earnest observation he would be able to find true beauty, which according to Lucianus {…} by necessity can only be one.

Junius place art above nature, as one ‘beeldt’ (image) made by an artist can contain a collection of beautiful aspects from several natural things. It is not entirely clear whether the term should be translated as ‘image’ or as ‘sculpture’, the former would appear more appropriate, seen that Zeuxis was a painter. Indeed, the terms used in the Latin (forma) and English (choice patterne) edition are unambiguously pointing to ‘image’ as the best translation. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …in regard to this, as this great Master had resolved to bequeath the inhabitants of Crotona an outstandingly beautiful female Image, he then did not find it wise to search for the complete perfection of the most graceful beauty in one body, but he has selected five of the most beautiful virgins, so that through earnest observation he would be able to find true beauty, which according to Lucianus {…} by necessity can only be one.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard
L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …in regard to this, as this great Master had resolved to bequeath the inhabitants of Crotona an outstandingly beautiful female Image, he then did not find it wise to search for the complete perfection of the most graceful beauty in one body, but he has selected five of the most beautiful virgins, so that through earnest observation he would be able to find true beauty, which according to Lucianus {…} by necessity can only be one.

Junius connects the concept of ‘volmaaktheid’ (perfection) to that of beauty. He cites Lucianus, who stated that there exists only one perfect beauty. Zeuxis was aware of this and therefore did not seek perfection in one natural body, but combined beautiful elements from various bodies to come to perfection. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …in regard to this, as this great Master had resolved to bequeath the inhabitants of Crotona an outstandingly beautiful female Image, he then did not find it wise to search for the complete perfection of the most graceful beauty in one body, but he has selected five of the most beautiful virgins, so that through earnest observation he would be able to find true beauty, which according to Lucianus {…} by necessity can only be one.

Junius connects the concept of ‘volmaaktheid’ (perfection) to that of beauty. He cites Lucianus, who stated that there exists only one perfect beauty. Zeuxis was aware of this and therefore did not seek perfection in one natural body, but combined beautiful elements from various bodies to come to perfection. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Dit is dan dese naeboetsinghe, die men ghemeyndelick d'Imitatie noemt, uyt welcke de Teycken-Konst, de Schilder-Konst, de Giet-Konst en al 'andere Konsten van desen aerd voord-spruyten. Oock so is 't dat dese Imitatie van Philostratus {in proaemio Iconum} genaemt wordt een seer oude vont ende met de Nature selver wonderlick wel overeen komende. […]Oock soo en moghen wy in 't minste niet eens twijfelen of 't grootste deel der Konsten, ghelijck den selvighen Quintilianus elders {orat. Instit. Lib. X. cap. 2} steunt op d'imitatie, jae dat noch meer is, 't gantsche belydt onses levens bestaet daerin dat wy altijdt vaerdighlick naetrachten, 't ghene wy in andere hoogh achten.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] This is than that imitation, which one commonly calls imitation, from which the Art of Drawing, the Art of Painting, the Art of Casting and all the other Arts of this earth spring forth. Just as this Imitation is called by Philostratus {…} a very old source and wonderfully similar to Nature itself. […]Just like that we cannot doubt in the least or 'the larger part of the Art, like the same Quintilianus [says] elsewhere {…}, leans on Imitation, yes even more so, the whole ruling of our lives consists therein that we always capably aim to that which we esteem highly in others.

For the translation, I could not find a suitable synonym for Imitation, that would reflect the sense of the Dutch term 'nabootsing'/'imitatie'. [MO]

naeboetsinghe

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] This is than that imitation, which one commonly calls imitation, from which the Art of Drawing, the Art of Painting, the Art of Casting and all the other Arts of this earth spring forth. Just as this Imitation is called by Philostratus {…} a very old source and wonderfully similar to Nature itself. […]Just like that we cannot doubt in the least or 'the larger part of the Art, like the same Quintilianus [says] elsewhere {…}, leans on Imitation, yes even more so, the whole ruling of our lives consists therein that we always capably aim to that which we esteem highly in others.

For the translation, I could not find a suitable synonym for Imitation, that would reflect the sense of the Dutch term 'nabootsing'/'imitatie'. [MO]

imitatie

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] This is than that imitation, which one commonly calls imitation, from which the Art of Drawing, the Art of Painting, the Art of Casting and all the other Arts of this earth spring forth. Just as this Imitation is called by Philostratus {…} a very old source and wonderfully similar to Nature itself. […]Just like that we cannot doubt in the least or 'the larger part of the Art, like the same Quintilianus [says] elsewhere {…}, leans on Imitation, yes even more so, the whole ruling of our lives consists therein that we always capably aim to that which we esteem highly in others.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] This is than that imitation, which one commonly calls imitation, from which the Art of Drawing, the Art of Painting, the Art of Casting and all the other Arts of this earth spring forth. Just as this Imitation is called by Philostratus {…} a very old source and wonderfully similar to Nature itself. […]Just like that we cannot doubt in the least or 'the larger part of the Art, like the same Quintilianus [says] elsewhere {…}, leans on Imitation, yes even more so, the whole ruling of our lives consists therein that we always capably aim to that which we esteem highly in others.

For the translation, I could not find a suitable synonym for Imitation, that would reflect the sense of the Dutch term 'nabootsing'/'imitatie'. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Nu soo en behoeft sich hier niemandt van dese Konst af-keerigh te houden, ten aensien van d'ontallicke menichte der naturelicker dingen die af-ghebeeldt worden; ghemerckt daer nerghens een Konst is in welcke alles wat de Konst betreft van den Leer-Meester moet voor ghehouden worden. Ghewisselick, de wijds en sijds verspreyde nature der dinghen kan 't niet verdraeghen dat een Leer-Meester in dese Konst sijnen Leerlinghen elcke bysondere ghedaente soude gaen voorstellen: ende indien erghens yemant sulcks aenvanght, deselvighe sal, nae 't seggen van Quintilianus {orat. Instit. Lib. 5. cap.10}, dese twee onghemacken ondergaan, dat hy sijne Leer-jonghens altijds te vele sal voorhouden, en nimmermeer ghenoeg.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] As such now no one has to stand aloof from this Art, regarding the countless mass of natural things that are depicted; considering there is no Art anywhere in which everything regarding the Art has to be demonstrated by the Master. Certainly, the far and wide spread nature of things cannot bear it that a Master in this Art would be showing every specific shape to his Pupils: and if someone somewhere initiates something like that, he will, as is said by Quintilianus {…}, undergo these two discomforts, that he will always show his apprentice too much, and never enough.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Dit selvighe wordt mede bevestight met dese woorden van den gheleerden Quintilianus; t staet eenen Leer-Meester toe, seght hy {Orat. Institut. Lib. 7. cap. 10.}, daghelicks aen te wijsen hoedanigh 't vervolge der dinghen sy, als oock hoe de selvighe aen elck-ander hanghen: want het onmoghelick is, al 't ghene de Konst aen-gaet, in 't bysonder voor te schrijven. Waer vindt men doch erghens een Schilder, die al 't ghene in de nature voor-valt, heeft leeren naetrecken? Nochtans sal hy, de rechte maniere der imitatie maer eens gevat hebbende, al wat hem voor-komt lichtelick af-beelden.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The same is also confirmed with these words by the learned Quintilianus; it is allowed to a Master, he says {…}, to designate daily how the continuation of the things will be, as well as how things are connected to each other: as it is impossible to lay out all that concerns Art in its specificity. Where then does one find a Painter, who has learned to trace all that happens in nature? Nonetheless he will, once he has grasped the right manner of imitation, easily depict all that occurs to him.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The same is also confirmed with these words by the learned Quintilianus; it is allowed to a Master, he says {…}, to designate daily how the continuation of the things will be, as well as how things are connected to each other: as it is impossible to lay out all that concerns Art in its specificity. Where then does one find a Painter, who has learned to trace all that happens in nature? Nonetheless he will, once he has grasped the right manner of imitation, easily depict all that occurs to him.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

De beginselen dan deser konsten die sich met de Imitatie bemoeyen, vereyschen geenen on-eyndelicken arbeydt- maer bieden haer selven in 't teghendeel vaerdighlick aen, tevreden sijnde met seer gemaetighde ende niet al te swaere voor-schriften der behoorlicker proportie.

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The principles of these arts that concern themselves with Imitation, do not demand endless effort, but by contrast offer themselves readily, content with very moderate and not too heavy instructions of adequate proportion.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The principles of these arts that concern themselves with Imitation, do not demand endless effort, but by contrast offer themselves readily, content with very moderate and not too heavy instructions of adequate proportion.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Ende in der waerheydt, de gantsche Schilder-Konst wordt in dapper weynighe leerstucken begrepen; de welcke, gelyck se heel en d'al nodigh sijn den ghenen die niet te vergeefsch willen arbeyden, so moeten se nochtans den aenkomelinghen op 't aller kortste ende op t'aller eenvoudichste voorghestelt worden. Wanneer men in 't teghendeel een groot ghebaer maeckt omtrent de grondslaeghen deser Konste, so ghebeurt het menigh werven dat de nieuwelinghen t'eenemael van de Konst vervreemden, afgheschrickt sijnde door de verdrietsaemheydt van sulck een veelvoudigh ende inghewickelt onderwijs: ook soo wordt altemts haer verstandt, 't welck in 't eerste op 't aller lieffelickste gekoestert moet worden, verduft ghemaeckt door de schraelheydt van allerley opghesochte voorslaeghen:

terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] And in truth, the whole Art of Painting is understood in very few precepts; which, as they are totally necessary for those who do not want to work in vain, then they should be introduced to the beginners in the briefest and most simple [NDR: way]. When one, to the contrary, makes a grand gesture regarding the precepts of this Art, then it happens many times that the newcomers immediately alienate from the Art, frightened by the sadness of such a manifold and complicated education: similarly often their mind, which should first and most kindly be cherished, is sedated by the scarcity of all sorts of far-fetched advices:

leerstuck

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
terms translations

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] And in truth, the whole Art of Painting is understood in very few precepts; which, as they are totally necessary for those who do not want to work in vain, then they should be introduced to the beginners in the briefest and most simple [NDR: way]. When one, to the contrary, makes a grand gesture regarding the precepts of this Art, then it happens many times that the newcomers immediately alienate from the Art, frightened by the sadness of such a manifold and complicated education: similarly often their mind, which should first and most kindly be cherished, is sedated by the scarcity of all sorts of far-fetched advices:

grondslaeghe