FANTASIE

FANTASIE (n. f.)

EINBILDUNG (deu.) · FACULTAS IMAGINATIVA (lat.) · FANTAISIE (fra.) · FANTASY (eng.) · IMAGINATIO (lat.) · NACHDENKEN (deu.) · PHANTASIE (deu.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
/ · ANIMA (lat.) · FANTASY (eng.) · GEDANK (deu.) · IMAGINATIO (lat.) · IMAGINATION (eng.) · MIND (eng.) · NACHDENKEN (deu.) · PHANTASIA (lat.) · PHANTASIE (deu.)
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « IMAGINATION », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 283-289.

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LINKED QUOTATIONS

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16 quotations

Quotation

't Is ghewisselick een uyttermaeten groote saeck de waere verbeeldinghen van allerley roerende ende onroerende dinghen in sijn ghemoedt op te legghen; evenwel nochtans is het noch een meerder saecke datmen een levende ghelijckenisse deser inwendigher verbeeldinghen kan uytwercken, voornaemelick indien den Konstenaer niet en blijft hanghen aen dese of geene bysondere wercken der Natuere, maer liever uyt opmerkinghe van d'aller schoonste lichamen die erghens te vinden sijn een volmaeckt voor-beeldt in sijn fantasije indruckt,

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

gemoed

term translated by ANIMA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 3
term translated by MIND in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 6

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Beneffens dese voornoemde Imitatie der naturelicker lichaemen door welcke de Konstenaers aengeleyd worden om allerley sienelicke dingen nae 't leven uyt te drucken, so staet ons alhier noch een andere soorte van Imitatie aen te mercken, door welcke den Konstenaer sich verstoutet oock soodaenighe dinghen af te beelden die van 's menschen ghesicht verde sijn afgescheyden. Ende al hoewel de voornaemste kracht van dese imitatie in de fantasije bestaet, soo is het nochtans dat wy d'eerste beginselen deser imaginatie onsen ooghen moeten danck weten; want d'inwendighe verbeeldinghen die in onse ghedachten spelen, konnen daer in noyt ghefatsoenert worden 't en sy dat wy eerst de ghedaente der dinghen ergens in 't rouwe met onse ooghen hebben aenschouwet, of ten minsten met d'een of d'ander onser vijf sinnen hebben ghevoelt.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Besides this aforementioned Imitation of natural bodies by which the Artists are stimulated to express all sorts of visible things after life, we should here consider another type of Imitation, by which the Artists dares to also depict such things that are far removed from man's view. And although the principal power of this imitation exists in the fantasy, then we should still thank our eyes for the first beginnings of this imagination; as the internal representations that play in our thoughts can never be modeled there, unless we have first beheld the shape of things somewhere in coarse with our eyes, or at least have felt with one or another of our five senses.

Junius identifies to types or levels of imitation. The first type occupies itself with expressing the natural world directly. The second type of imitation starts by this direct observation of nature, but subsequently processes this observation in the mind, by means of fantasy.[MO]

imaginatie

term translated by PHANTASIA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 8-9
term translated by FANTASY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 17-18

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Themistius heeft dit alles wonderlick wel uyt gedruct. De fantasije, seght hy {Lib II. Geograph.}, is een Printe ende eenen voetstap der dinghen die wy sien en voelen. Want ghelijck den handtboom door onse handen bewoghen sijnde, den steen beweeght: ghelijck oock de Zee door den windt bewoghen zijnde, het Schip beweeght: soo en is 't gheen wonder dat het selvighe mede voorvalt in die dinghen dewelck wy sien ende ghevoelen, want ons ghevoelen door d'uytwendighlick ghevoelicke dinghen gaende ghemaeckt sijnde, ende alsoo een ghedaente aenghenomen hebbende van 't ghene daer door het sich selven bewoghen vindt, beweeght oock in de volmaeckte schepselen een andere kracht haeres ghemoedts, die men de fantasije naemt; welckers aerdt is de Printen die haer door 't ghevoelen worden over ghelevert ende in ghedruckt binnen in haer selven op te legghen, ende alsoo daer in te verseghelen dat se voor een goede wijle tijdts, nae dat nu de ghevoelicke dinghen uyt d'ooghen wech ghenomen sijn, de Voet-Printen der selvigher dinghen behouden.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Themistius has expressed all of this remarkably well. The fantasy, he says {…}, is a print and a footstep of the things we see and feel. Because like the lever [NDR: which is] moved by our hands, moves the rocks: and like the sea [NDR: which is] moved by the wind, moves the Ship: so it is no wonder that the same happens as well in those things which we see and feel, as our feelings have been put into motion by externally felt things, and as such have taken a shape of that which is moved by it, a different power of mind moves in the perfect creatures, which one calls fantasy; whose nature it is to enforce the Prints that are transferred to it by feeling and imprinted in itself, and also insure therein that for a considerable time, after that the tangible things have been taken away from the eyes, the foot-print of these things are kept.

term translated by PHANTASIA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 9
term translated by FANTASY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 18

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Soo is dan dese gantsch vruchtbaere kracht onses ghemoedts, nae 't oordeel van Plato {in Sophista.}, tweederley: d’eerste soeckt maer alleen soodaenighe dinghen uyt te drucken die d'ooghe teghenwoordighlick aenschouwet; d'andere bestaet daer en boven oock die dinghen af te beelden welcker voorbeeldt maer alleen in de fantasije voor ghestelt wordt.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Thus this very fruitful power of our mind is, after the judgment of Plato {…}, twofold: the first only tries to express such things that the eye beholds presently; the other also manages to depict those things whose example is only presented in the fantasy.

In reference to Plato, Junius defines two characteristics of the (power of) the mind of an artist. In this extract, the mind functions as a tool which allows the artist to depict that which he sees with his eyes, as well as that which he constructs in his fantasy. Junius describes the faculty of the imagination more elaborately in the Latin edition (1694), also providing the Greek terms from Plato, cfr. Nativel 1996, p. 176 n.1.

term translated by IMAGINATIO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 9
term translated by FANTASY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 18-19

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Dit selvighe wordt ons noch duydelicker voor ghestelt in die treffelicke saemen-sprekinghe die nae 't verhael van Philostratus ghehouden is gheweest tusschen Thespesion den voornaemsten der Gymnosophisten ende Apollonius Tyaneus. De woorden van Philostratus {Lib VI de vita Apollonii, cap. 9} sijn aenmerkenswaerd, Hebben Phidias en Praxiteles seght Thespesion, den Hemel bekommen ende vandaer e ghedaente der Goden tot de Konst neder ghebracht; of is het wat anders, 't welck hun de ghestaltenisse der Goden heeft leeren af-vormen? Vry wat anders, seght Apollonius, en dat vol van allerley wijsheydt. Wat is doch dat? Seght Thespesion, want du en wetest behalven d'Imitatie anders niet voordt te brenghen. De fantasije, seght Apollonius, heeft dese dinghen voltrocken, als wesende een Konstenaer vele wijser dan d'Imitatie. Want d'Imitatie werkt maer alleen wat sy ghesien heeft; de fantasije werckt oock wat sy niet ghesien en heeft s'haer selven 't ghene sy noyt gheseien heeft voorstellende met een opsicht op 't ghene in de nature is, noch soo wordt d'Imitatie menighmael door een verbaesde dusyelinghe verhindert; de fantasije daer en teghen wil sich niet laeten stutten, maer sy vaere koenelick voordt in 't ghene sy voor heeft.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The same is explained to us even clearer in the striking dialogue which according to Philostratus was held between Thespesion the most prominent amongst the Gymnosophists and Apollonius Tyaneus. The words of Philostratus {…} are remarkable, Have Phidias and Praxiteles says Thespeison, climbed the Heavens and from there brought down the shape of the Gods to the Art; or is it something else, that has taught them to reproduce the shape of the Gods? Truly something else, says Apollonius, filled with all sorts of wisdom. What then is this? Says Thespesion, because you do not know to produce anything besides Imitation. Fantasy, says Apollonius, has developed these things, being an Artist much wiser than Imitation. Because Imitation only makes what it has seen; fantasy also makes what she has not seen and she has by imagining to hetself that which she has never seen by looking towards that which is in nature, similarly Imitation is often obstructed by an unexpected dizziness; fantasy by contrast does not let herself be stopped, but she boldly sails on in that which she intends.

term translated by PHANTASIA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 11
term translated by FANTASY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 20-21

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Blijckt dan uyt dese beurt-spraecke ghehouden tusschen Apollonius and Thespesion, als oock uyt het gene wy tot noch toe bewesen hebben, dat de verbeeldenskracht den konstenaeren op 't hoochtste van noode is; niet soo seer den genen die de ghelijckenis der sienelicker dinghen af-beelden manneken nae manneken maeckende, als wel diengenen dewelcke nae de volmaecktheydt deser Konsten trachten. Want het staet de soodaenighte toe door 't oeffenen haerer fantasije de verbeeldinghen van afwesighe ofte oock onsienelicke dinghen sich soo ghemeyn te maecken, dat sy de selvighte altijdt by de handt hadden, om nae 't verdachte voorbeeldt der selvigher wat volmaeckts voordt te brenghen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] From this dialogue between Apollonius and Thespesion it thus becomes clear, as well as from that which we have proved until now, that the imagination is highly necessary to artists; not so much those who depict the similitude of visible things by producing little man after little man, but rather those who aspire to the perfection of these Arts. As it allows such persons, by appropriating the representations of absent as well as invisible things by training one's fantasy, to always have this on hand to produce something perfect after the imagined example.

verbeeldenskracht

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 11
term translated by FANTASY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 21

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Want als dese groote Meesters bevonden dat hun haere fantasije volmaeckt ter verbeeldingen sonder eenigh exempel voor droegh, soo en konde het niet gheschieden dat sulcken puyck der menschen de rechte reden soo verde van sich soude verbannen, als dat sy de liefde van een mis-prijselicke ghewoonte hoogher souden achten dan 't ghene sy verstonden de Konst dienstigher te sijn. Dus blijckt het hoe gantsch grooten goedt dese fantasije te weghe brenght; wanneer sy naemelick de wackere verstanden der Konstenaeren van den onvruchtbaeren arbeydt der ghewoonelicker imitatie tot een groot-moedigher stoutigheydt overbrenght, soo dat sy haer selven nu niet meer aen soo een slaefachtighe maniere van doen verbinden, maer bestaen met eenen vryen Gheest verder te gaen dan haere voorganghers wel oyt hebben gedaen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Because if these great Masters thought that their fantasy presented them representations completely without any example, then it could not happen that such splendid men would ban the true reason so far, that they would consider the love of a disdainful habit better than that which they understood to be more useful for the Art. So it becomes clear how much good this fantasy brings forth; namely when she conducts the alert minds of Artists from the unprofitable labour of the usual imitation to generous boldness, such that they no longer relate to such a slavish manner, but manage with a free mind manage to go further than their predecessors ever did.

In this excerpt, Junius calls imitation a ‘slavish manner’, which can be improved by means of fantasy. As such, imitation is placed in a negative light. [MO]

term translated by PHANTASIA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 21
term translated by IMAGINATION in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 39-40
term translated by FANTASY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 39-40

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Nu komen wy eyndelick tot de voornaemste 't welck ons bewoghen heeft dese verghelijckinghe der Poesije met de Schilder-Konste dus verde te vervolghen. De Schilder-Konst, seght den jonghen Philostratus {in proemio iconum}, wordt bevonden met de Poesije nae vermaaghschape te sijn; soo schenense oock beyde een sekere fantasije ofte verbeeldenskracht ghemeyn te hebben. De Poeten brenghen de teghenwoordigheydt der Goden in haere wercken te passe, en al wat met groten staet, deftigheyddt, ende vermackelickheydt vermenght is. De Schilder-Konst maelt insghelijkcks af op een Tafereel al 't ghene de Poeten konnen verhalen. Soo steunt dan de Schilder-Konst soo wel als de Poesije op een sekere kracht der fantasije die haer selven veeltijdts iets nieuws placht  t'onderwinden.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Now we finally reach the principal [NDR: reason] which has urged us to continue this comparison between Poetry and the Art of Painting further. The Art of Painting, says the young Philostratus {…}, is found to be closely related to Poetry; as such both appear to have a certain fantasy or imagination in common. The Poets let the presence of the Gods appear in their works, and everything that is mixed with great standing, stateliness and entertainment. The Art of Painting likewise paints in a scene all that the Poets can narrate. This is why the Art of Painting as well as the Poetry lean on a certain force of fantasy which often tends to take on something new.

verbeeldenskracht

term translated by PHANTASIA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 35
term translated by FANTASY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 60

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Staet de Konstenaers maer alleen daer op te letten, dat sy haer selven in dit stuck niet al te vele toe geven, met Dionysius Longynus {de sublimi oratione par. 2} wat onderscheydt maeckende tusschen de verbeeldenskracht die de Poeten gaerne maeckt; en d'andere die de Schilders te werck stelt. De Poetische fantasije en heeft anders gheen ooghenmerck, als een onsinnigheyds der verwonderinghe te verwecken: De Konstenaers daer en teghen sijn maer allen op de uytdruckelickheydt uyt. Soo soecken 't oock de Poeten alsso te maecken, seght den selvighen Autheur {par. 13}, dat haere ghedichten fabelachtigh en de waerheydt onghelick souden schijnen te sijn; 't fraeyste daer en teghen 't welck in de fantasije der Schilders aen ghemerckt moet worden, bestaet daerin, dat haere verbeeldinghen krachtigh sijn en de waerheydt over-een komen. Aenghesien wy dan uyt het ghene tot noch toe gheseyt is ten volsten overtuyght sijn dat de fantasije de Schilders soo wel als de Poeten treffelicke verbeeldinghen voordraeght, soo en mach oock niemant daer aen twijffelen of 't staet hun beyde toe dese milde Beelden-voetster in grooter waerdt te houden, ten eynde dat de selvighe door een daghelicksche oeffeninghe vast en seker ginghe, sonder in 't minste te wanckelen of sich yet van 't ghene sy eens ghevat heeft te laeten ontvallen. […] Soo verstaen wy dan oock uyt het gene voor desen gheseyt is de reden waerom Dionysius Longinus {par. 13} betuyght dat het voornaemste eynde der fantasije in de uytdruckelickheyt ofte duydelickheyt bestaet: als oock dat de Konst door 't behulp der fantasije gheholpen sijnde ghemackelick van de menschen schijnt te verwerven het ghene sy hun afdringht,

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is only necessary for the Artists to pay attention that they do not show themselves too much in this part, discerning somewhat, together with Dionysius Longynus {…}, between the imagination that makes the Poets; and the other that puts the Painters to work. The Poetic fantasy has no other aim than to stir a senselessness of astonishment: The Artists by contrast only aim at perspicuity. The Poets also try to make it such, says the same Author {…}, that her poems would appear to be fabulous and different from the truth; by contrast the most splendid [NDR: element] which has to be noticed in the fantasy of Painters, consists of this, that her representations are powerful and consistent with the truth. Seeing that we are then completely convinced, from that which has been said up until now, that the fantasy offers striking representations, as such nobody can doubt that both place high value on this mild 'Image-nurse', with the result that it surely goes through daily exercise, without ever staggering or letting go of anything they once comprehended. […]From that which has been said before we thus we understand the reason why Dionysius Longinus {…} declares that the principal aim of fantasy exists in the perspicuitys or the clarity: as well that the Art, helped by the assistance of fantasy, appears to easily obtain of man that which she exacts of him.

verbeeldenskracht

term translated by PHANTASIA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 37