GEMOED (n. n.)

PHIDIAS, Jupiter en Minerva, antique sculpture (dans GOEREE 1682, p. 35-36)
ANIMA (lat.) · ESPRIT (fra.) · GEMÜT (deu.) · MENS (lat.) · MENTE (ita.) · MIND (eng.) · SEELE (deu.) · UNDERSTANDING (eng.) · WIT (eng.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
ANIMA (lat.) · ANIMUS (lat.) · GEMÜT (deu.) · MENS (lat.) · MIND (eng.) · SOUL (eng.) · UNDERSTANDING (eng.) · WIT (eng.)
BLANC, Jan, « ESPRIT », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 195-201.

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11 quotations

Quotation

't Is ghewisselick een uyttermaeten groote saeck de waere verbeeldinghen van allerley roerende ende onroerende dinghen in sijn ghemoedt op te legghen; evenwel nochtans is het noch een meerder saecke datmen een levende ghelijckenisse deser inwendigher verbeeldinghen kan uytwercken, voornaemelick indien den Konstenaer niet en blijft hanghen aen dese of geene bysondere wercken der Natuere, maer liever uyt opmerkinghe van d'aller schoonste lichamen die erghens te vinden sijn een volmaeckt voor-beeldt in sijn fantasije indruckt,

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

fantasije

term translated by ANIMA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p.3
term translated by MIND in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p.6

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Blijckt dan uyt het ghene alrede verhaelt is, dat de rechte Konstenaers die in haer ghemoed een on-ver-valscht voorbeeldt der volmaeckte schoonheydt om-draegen, doorgaens henen oock in alle haere werken en eenen sekeren glimps deser inwendigher verbeeldinghe plachten uyt te storten. […]'t Is oock seer wel van eenen ouden Orateur {Panegyr. Maxim. & Constant. dictus} aen-gemerckt, dat de afbeeldinghe van de voor-naemste schoonheydt d'aller moeylickste is; aenghesien de mis-maecktheydt lichtelick door sekere merck-teyckenen kan uytghedruckt worden de verghelijckinghe daerenteghen van de waere schoonheydt is soo weynigh ghemeyn, als de schoonheydt selver.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It shows from that what has already been said, that the true Artists who carry around an unadulterated example of the perfect beauty in their mind, normally also tend to pour out a certain glimpse of these internal representations in all their works. […]It has also been noticed very well by an old Orator {…} that the depiction of the most notable beauty is the hardest; since the deformity is easily expressed by certain marks, the comparison of true beauty in contrast is very uncommon [NDR: so little common], like beauty itself.

term translated by ANIMA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p.4
term translated by MIND in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p.7

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Soo is dan dese gantsch vruchtbaere kracht onses ghemoedts, nae 't oordeel van Plato {in Sophista.}, tweederley: d’eerste soeckt maer alleen soodaenighe dinghen uyt te drucken die d'ooghe teghenwoordighlick aenschouwet; d'andere bestaet daer en boven oock die dinghen af te beelden welcker voorbeeldt maer alleen in de fantasije voor ghestelt wordt.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Thus this very fruitful power of our mind is, after the judgment of Plato {…}, twofold: the first only tries to express such things that the eye beholds presently; the other also manages to depict those things whose example is only presented in the fantasy.

In reference to Plato, Junius defines two characteristics of the (power of) the mind of an artist. In this extract, the mind functions as a tool which allows the artist to depict that which he sees with his eyes, as well as that which he constructs in his fantasy. Junius describes the faculty of the imagination more elaborately in the Latin edition (1694), also providing the Greek terms from Plato, cfr. Nativel 1996, p. 176 n.1.

term translated by ANIMA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p.9
term translated by SOUL in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p.18-19

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Dus ghebeurt het dat ons ghemoedt door de kranckheydt des oordeels verdonckert sijnde, niet en kan onderscheyden wat daer met de autoriteyt en rechte reden der bevalligheydt over een komt.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] And so it happens that our mind, darkened by the illness of judgement, cannot discern what coincides with the authority and true reason of gracefulness.

term translated by MENS in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p.23
term translated by WIT in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p.43

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → jugement

Quotation

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Indeed the Invention mainly consists in the power of our mind; seen that our mind has to imagine a lively presentation of the whole matter from the beginning; except that this lively presentation or representation of the conceived things should simultaneously move our minds so powerful, that, finding itself changed by the deceptive clarity of such imaginings after the occasion of the things that we intend, sets itself to work capably and without delay.

term translated by ANIMUS in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p.135
term translated by MIND in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p.231

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Een oprecht Konstenaer schept sijn meeste vermaeck in de volheyd van een overvloedighe ende onvernepen materie: Want hy het oordeelt met de vrijheyd van sijn edel ende onbepaelt ghemoed allerbest over een te komen, dat sich d’ongherustheyd sijnes werckenden hoofds midsgaders oock de voordvaerendheyd sijner Konst-oeffeninge aen een Beelden-rijck argument soude gaen verbinden. Het quelt sijnen wackeren werckelicken gheest, alsmen hem een dorre en schraele Inventie voorstelt; en ghelijck hy altijd nae een ghenoegsaeme stoffe is wenschende, soo soeckt hy de ruymigheyd der gantscher stoffe in ’t ghemeyn en alle de ghedeelten der selvigher in ’t bysondere nae den eysch haerer gheleghenheyd bequamelick te schicken en uyt te wercken; vermids het hem niet en kan onbekent sijn, dat sich d’uytnemenheyd sijnes verstands als oock d’ervaerenheyd sijner Konste allermeest in de menighte der voorghestelder dingen plaght t’openbaeren;

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] A sincere Artist takes the most delight in the fullness of an abundant and undiminished matter: Because he believes that it coincides best with the freedom of his noble and unrestricted mind, that together with the unrest of his working head, the energy of his Art-practice would also connect with an ornate argument. It pains his alert truthful mind, when they propose him a barren and poor Invention; and like he always wishes for a satisfying material, as such he attempts to capably order and produce the spatiousness of the whole material in general and all the parts of it in particular, after the demands of their situation; while it cannot be unknown to him, that excellence of his mind as well as the experience of his Art demonstrates itself most in the abundance of the depicted things;

Junius discusses how an artist should best approach the subject (materie, argument, stof) of a painting, without neglecting its width. He can use different qualities, such as his freedom (vrijheid), mind (verstand) and experience (ervarenheid), to order the story to the best circumstances and come to a pleasing wholesome result (welstand). This section is not included in the Latin edition of 1637. [MO]

verstand

term translated by UNDERSTANDING in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p.313-314

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Weynige worden der (met eenigh Oordeel begaeft zijnde) ghevonden, die vande inbeeldinghskracht soodanigh zijn misgedeelt, ofte sullen in het lesen der Verhael-schriften en Vertellingen, d’eene of d’andere goede Denck-beelden by haer selven gewaer worden. Laet een aendachtigh Jongelingh de Troyaense Oorlogen inde Boecken AEneas, door den vermaerden Maro Gedicht, eens met opmerckingh door-lesen, ick houde my verseeckert, dat hy sijn gedachten met wonderlijcke bedenckingen vervult, sijn fantasie vol groote inventien afgescherst, ende sijn gemoet tot uytdruckingh van menigerley hartstoghten aengeprickelt vinden sal;

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Few can be found (being blessed with some Judgement), who are not gifted with the power of imagination, or will recognize some or other Idea in themselves when reading the Stories and Tales. Let a discerning Young man read through the Trojan Wars in the books Aeneas, poeticized by Vergil, I am certain that he will fill his mind with wonderful thoughts, sketches his fantasies full of great inventions, and will find his mind incited to the expression of many passions;

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Men leest by Titius Livius, van Philopoëmen den Krijghs-Oversten, dat hy sich soo wel in de Vrede dan in Oorlogh geduerigh inde Crijghs-oeffeningen besich hieldt, op dat hy door dese neerstigheyt, wijsheyt soude in voorraet bekomen; invoeghen het hem als ’t noot soude doen, aen geen Wijse Raetsmannen ontbreecken moght. Even soo moet eenen Jongen Schilder van den beginne aen, door geduerige oeffeningen van Lesen, Teyckenen, Speculereeren, Copiëren, ondervragen, practiseeren ende uytvorssen, sijn gemoet met wijsheyt soecken te vervullen, op dat hy namaels uyt die opgeleyde schatten eens heerlijcke dingen aen de Wereldt soude konnen ten toone stellen. {Datmen sich van wijsheyt en wetenschap in voorraet moet sien te versorgen.}

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] One can read in Livy, about Philopos the Commander in Chief, that he occupied himself continuously both in Peace and War with the practice of War, so that he would obtain wisdom in stock through this diligence; so that he would not be lacking Wise Councilors if he needed it. Likewise, from the start a Young Painter should aim to fill his mind with wisdom, by means of a continuous practice of Reading, Drawing, Speculating, Copying, questioning, practicing and researching, so that afterwards he will be able to show delightful things to the world based on these developed treasures. {That one should try to form a stock of wisdom and science.}

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

De Teyckeningen, Schetsen, ende Printen, moetmen in ’t sien met het verstant ende niet met handt ende ooge gebruycken om daer stucken ende brocken uyt te stelen, {Recht gebruyck der Print-Konst.} veel min om die geheel na te apen (al-hoe-wel dat oock zijn nuttigheyt heeft wanneer ’t wel wort aengeleyt, gelijckw’in onse Teycken-Konst leeren,) ende blijven alsoo geduerlijck door den Bril van een ander kijcken. Maer neen, men moet alleen de deughden, als fraye maniere van ordineeringhe, Teyckeningh, geestige gedachten ende verstandighe opmerckingen, door het besien, hersien, bedencken, overleggen ende herkauwen, trachten in sijn gemoet te drucken, ende daer in, met dickwils eraen te dencken, bewaren; invoegen sy door het toedoen van uwen Geest, niet meer eenes anderen, maer in U eygen vindingen verandert worden: Ten eynde sy oock in het ordineeren, t’samenstellen, ende vercieringen van uwe inventien als wijse Raets-mannen souden konnen dienen. Ende op dese maniere salmen vol van gedachten, vlugge van ordinnantie, rijp ende overvloedigh van Schilderachtige stoffe werden:

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] In observing the Drawings, Sketches and Prints, they should be used with the mind and not with the hand or eye to steal bits and pieces from it, even less to ape it entirely (although this also has its use when it applied well, as we teach in our Teycken-Konst,) {The right use of the Art of Print.} and they will continue to look through the Glasses of someone else. But no, one should aim to only impress the virtues, such as the lovely manner of composition, Drawing, clever thoughts and wise observations in his mind by looking, looking again, reasoning, deliberating and ruminating, and all this by repeatedly thinking about it, preserving; as such they will be turned into your own discoveries by the functioning of your Mind, and not those of someone else: So that they may serve as wise Councilors in the composing, ordering and decorating of your inventions. And this way one will become full of thoughts, quick of composition, mature and abundant of Painterly matter:

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

En nadien dan alle dese dingen genoegsaam bewijsen, dat de verscheydenheyd der Schoonheyd en Bevalligheyd, ten opsigt der navolging in de Schilderkonst, niet ligt onder soo net bepaalde regelen te brengen is, datmense daar na, als na een onfeylbare Leest met aangenaamheyd, sonder verder waarneming van ’t Leven, in de Konst-tafereelen sou konnen overstorten; Soo staat ons in ’t voorby gaan aan te merken, dat een Leersaam Schilder sich uyt al sijn vermogen behoorde te beneerstigen, om door een geduurige beschouwingh van al wat hem van ’t menschelijk schoon voorkomt, het uytgelesenste daar van soodanig sijn gedagten kragtelijk in te drukken, en aan sijn inbeelding gemeen te maken, dat hy buyten de beschouwing van de selve, sich de schoonheyd van een Mensch, op verscheyde wijsen, en in onderscheyde trappen, soo bevallig en levendig kan verbeelden, als of hy de Schoonheyd selver voor hem had. {Hoe de Schoonheyd in de gedagten en ’t gemoet van den Schilder moet ingedrukt zijn.} En dit sal hy aldergeluckigst konnen doen, wanneer hy niet alleen wel en aandagtig sal na gespeurd hebben, welke Deelen en Partyen Schoon gemaakt zijn, en wat Proportie sy hebben moeten, om sulx volgens de Teykenkundige trek te verbeelden; maar dan voornamelijck, wanneer hy tot al het vorige, net sal hebben af gesien, door welk een Trap en toeval, dese en gene deelen de Schoonheyd in dit of dat voorwerp onderlingh aan ’t geheel vereenigt, Verminderd of Vermeerderd:

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] And as all these things sufficiently prove, that the diversity of Beauty and Gracefulness with regard to the imitation in Painting, is not easily to accommodate in clearly defined rules, which one can then, as with an infallible model could overflow in Art-scenes with loveliness and without any further observation of Life; As such we should note in passing, that a diligent Painter should endeavor with all his might, through a consistent observation of all that he perceives of the human beauty, to imprint that which he deems the most exquisite of it so strongly in his mind, and to make it common to his imagination, that he will be able to depict, without its direct observation, the beauty of a Man in different ways and in distinct steps, so lovely and lively, as if he had Beauty itself before his eyes. {How Beauty has to be imprinted in the thoughts and mind of the Painter.} And he will be able to do this best, when he has not only studied well and carefully which Parts and Elements have been beautifully made, and which Proportion they should have, to depict them with the Draught; but then especially, when with regard to all the previous, will have observed precisely by which Step and coincidence this and other parts unites, lessens or increases the Beauty in this or that object to the whole:

gedagte

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Welke Oeffening den Schilder niet alleen een getrouwe hulp-Suster sal ’t zijn in ’t volgen van het natuurlijk Leven, maar sy sal hem voor een ervare Meesteres konnen dienen, wanneer hy ’t Leven moet derven; om door de beseffing van een ware ingebeelde Schoonheyd sijn geest soodanig te onderwijsen, en sijn hand soo verstandig te bestuuren, dat hy de voorgestelde Schoonheyd uyt de volle Bron-ader van sijn gemoet, als met volle stroomen op den Schilder-doek sal konnen uytgieten. Waarlijk d’uitdrukking van de Schoonheyd kan door de sterke Inbeeldingskracht merkelijk verbeterd werden. Van den grooten Phydias werd verhaald, dat als hy het Beeld van Jupiter en Minerva maakte, dat hy sijn oogen op niemand sloeg daar hy die gelijkenis uyt ontleende, maar dat hy sijn gemoed het Voor-beeld van een seer uytgelesen Schoonheyd kragtelijck voor stelde, op ’t welk hy de oogen van sijn verstand, soo stantvastelijk gevesigt hield, dat hy sijn hand en sijn Konst, sonder eenige afwisseling, na de gelijkenis des selven Voor-beelds bestuurd heeft. De Oude hebben seer wel gesien, dat de Schoonheyd selden volkomen te bekomen was, doch dat en schrikten haar niet af; {De uyterste Schoonheyd vint men selden of noyt in een mensch volkomen.} maar sy wierden des te meer aangeset om door alle betamelijke middelen, en voornamelijck door de Verbeeldens-kragt, haar selven die kragtelijck in te boesemen. Den geleerden Junius heeft menige puyk-staaltjes hier van opgehaalt, die niet en behoorden onbekent te zijn. […]

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] This Practice will not only be a loyal assistant to the Painter in the imitation of the natural Life, by she will serve him as an experienced Mistress, when Life is lacking him; by instructing his mind so much through the sense of a true imagined Beauty and by guiding his hand so wisely, that he will be able to pour the imagined Beauty from the source of his mind in full streams on the Canvas. Truly, the expression of Beauty can be significantly increased by the strong Power of Imagination. It is said of the great Phydias, that when he made the Statue of Jupiter and Minerva, he did not cast his eye on anyone from whom he borrowed their likeness, but that he imagined the Example of the very exquisite Beauty powerfully in his mind, on which he held his mind’s eye so steadily focused, that he has guided his hand and his Art, without any distraction, after the likeness of this Example. The Old have noticed very well, that beauty is seldom to be obtained perfect, but this did not chase them away; {The utmost Beauty is seldom or never to be found in one entire person.} rather they were even more stimulated to procure her by all means necessary, and especially through the power of imagination. The learned Junius has evoked many excellent examples of this, which should not be unknown. […]

PHIDIAS, Jupiter en Minerva, antique sculpture (dans GOEREE 1682, p. 35-36)

Anciens (les)
JUNIUS, Franciscus
PHIDIAS

verstand · geest

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination