SCHOONHEID (n. f.)

ANONYME, Bacchus, antique sculpture (dans GOEREE, 1670a, p. 68)
GIAMBOLOGNA, Rape of the Sabine women, Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi, 1582
PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos, c. 447 BC, chryselephantine statue, lost; or : Phidias, Athena Lemnia, c. 450-440 BC, bronze statue, lost
PHIDIAS, Zeus, c. 435 BC, chryselephantine statue, lost (5th century AD)
BEAUTÉ (fra.) · BEAUTY (eng.) · BELLEZZA (ita.) · PULCHRITUDO (lat.) · SCHÖNHEIT (deu.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
BEAU (fra.) · BEAUTÉ (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
/ · BEAUTY (eng.) · FORMOSITY (eng.) · GRATIA (lat.) · PULCHRITUDE (eng.) · PULCHRITUDO (lat.) · SCHÖNHEIT (deu.)
DE VRIES, Lyckle, How to Create Beauty. De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art, Leiden, Primavera press, 2011.
DE VRIES, Lyckle, How to Create Beauty: De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art, Leiden, Primavera press, 2011.
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « BEAU / BEAUTÉ », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 87-94.
ZAKULA, Tijana, Reforming Dutch Art: Gerard de Lairesse on Beauty, Morals and Class, Amsterdam, Stichting voor Nederlandse Kunsthistorische Publicaties, 2015.
ZAKULA, Tijana, Reforming Dutch Art : Gerard de Lairesse on Beauty, Morals and Class, PhD, Universiteit Utrecht, 2013.
ZAKULA, Tijana, « Beauty, Law and Order: The Holy Trinity of de Lairesse’s Aesthetic », Simiolus. Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, 37, 2015, p. 10-32.

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Quotation

2 Dits ooghenschijnich wel aen veel manieren
Der Natuerlijcke dinghen t’onderscheyden,
Dat schoonheyt vermindert wordt met oncieren, {Schoonheyt is minder, wanneer eenighe omstandighe deelen haer ontbreken.}
naer datter omstandicheden faelgieren,
Het welck ons sal tot ons propoost inleyden,
Hoe dat wy Schilders, met neerstich arbeyden,
Somtijts een Beeldt niet en connen ghemaken,

[D'après NOLDUS 2008, p. 49:] 2 Dans beaucoup de choses de la Nature, on peut clairement discerner que la beauté est diminuée et défigurée {La beauté est moindre quand quelques qualités secondaires lui manquent.} lorsque failissent des aspects secondaires. Ceci nous mènera à notre propos : Comment parfois, malgré un travail assidu, nous, les Peintres, n’arrivons pas à réaliser une figure qui nous contente, sans en connaître la cause.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

23 Veel verscheydenheyt, soo van verw’ als wesen,
Sullen wy naervolghen, wijs en bevroedich,
Want dat brengt een groote schoonheyt ghepresen :
Doch moeten wy vermijden neffens desen,
In Steden, Huysen, Berghen, onbehoedich,
Oft ander dinghen, te zijn t’overvloedich, {Te veel Berghen, Steden, Huysen, oft verschiet, misstaet.}
Want al te veel, neemt veel welstants ghenietens,
Al en ist maer oock al te veel verschietens.

[D'après NOLDUS 2008, p. 131:] 23 Nous devons viser, avec sagesse et prudence, beaucoup de diversité, autant par les couleurs que par les formes, parce que cela produit une grande et louable beauté. Mais à côté de cela, nous devons éviter d’introduire, sans réfléchir, une abondance de Villes, Maisons, Montagnes, ou autres éléments. {Il est malséant d’introduire trop de Montagnes, Villes, Maisons ou perspectives.} En effet, ce qui est de trop nuit à la jouissance et à la bienséance, même si ce n’est que trop de perspective.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Hier toe dienen de woorden van eenen vermaerden Platonischen Philosophe bygebracht, de Beelt-Snijders, seght hy {Maximus Tyrius dissertat. Vii}, versaemelende al wat bysondere lichaemen fraey ende aerdigh is, brenghen door de konst in een enckele naboetsinghe van de volmaeckte schoonheydt te passe al wat sy uyt menighe schoone personagien hebben opghegaedert; ten eynde dat sy een bequaeme, suyvere, wel-ghematichde ghestalte mochte treffen, soo datmen nauwelicx sulcken volkomen schoonheydt erghens kan ghevinden, die met een wel ghewrocht Stock-Beeldt ofte Statuo mach worden vergeleken, want de Konsten soecken oyt 't aller schoonste.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] To this the words of a famous Platonic Philosopher should be added, the Image-carvers, he says {…}, collecting all that is charming and pretty in specific bodies, show by art in a single imitation of perfect beauty all that they have gathered from many beautiful figures; with the goal that they will reach a able, pure, well-balanced figure, such that one can hardly find such a perfect beauty anywhere, that can be compared to a well-produced 'stock-beeldt' or statue, because the Arts always try to find the most beautiful.

term translated by PULCHRITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 3
term translated by BEAUTY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 6

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Blijckt dan uyt het ghene alrede verhaelt is, dat de rechte Konstenaers die in haer ghemoed een on-ver-valscht voorbeeldt der volmaeckte schoonheydt om-draegen, doorgaens henen oock in alle haere werken en eenen sekeren glimps deser inwendigher verbeeldinghe plachten uyt te storten. […]'t Is oock seer wel van eenen ouden Orateur {Panegyr. Maxim. & Constant. dictus} aen-gemerckt, dat de afbeeldinghe van de voor-naemste schoonheydt d'aller moeylickste is; aenghesien de mis-maecktheydt lichtelick door sekere merck-teyckenen kan uytghedruckt worden de verghelijckinghe daerenteghen van de waere schoonheydt is soo weynigh ghemeyn, als de schoonheydt selver.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It shows from that what has already been said, that the true Artists who carry around an unadulterated example of the perfect beauty in their mind, normally also tend to pour out a certain glimpse of these internal representations in all their works. […]It has also been noticed very well by an old Orator {…} that the depiction of the most notable beauty is the hardest; since the deformity is easily expressed by certain marks, the comparison of true beauty in contrast is very uncommon [NDR: so little common], like beauty itself.

mismaaktheyd

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 4
term translated by BEAUTY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 7

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

[...] oversulcx, als desen grooten Meester [Zeuxis] voor-genomen hadde den inwoonderen van Crotona een uytnemende schoon vrouwelick Beeldt nae te laeten, soo en vond hy het niet gheraedtsaem de gheheele volmaecktheydt van d'aller bevallighste schoonigheydt in een lichaem te soecken, maer hy heeft vijf van d'aller schoonste Maeghden uytghepickt, ten eynde dat hy uyt d'ernstighe opmerckinghe der selvigher de rechte schoonheydt, die nae 't segghen van Lucianus {In Hermetino} noodtsaeckelijck maer een wesen kan, moght ghevinden

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …in regard to this, as this great Master had resolved to bequeath the inhabitants of Crotona an outstandingly beautiful female Image, he then did not find it wise to search for the complete perfection of the most graceful beauty in one body, but he has selected five of the most beautiful virgins, so that through earnest observation he would be able to find true beauty, which according to Lucianus {…} by necessity can only be one.

Junius connects the concept of ‘volmaaktheid’ (perfection) to that of beauty. He cites Lucianus, who stated that there exists only one perfect beauty. Zeuxis was aware of this and therefore did not seek perfection in one natural body, but combined beautiful elements from various bodies to come to perfection. [MO]

term translated by GRATIA in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 4
term translated by BEAUTY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 7
term translated by FORMOSITY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 7

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Al wat nae 't verdachte wordt ghemaeckt, is schoon. Wat daer en teghen nae 't ghene van de Nature voordt ghebracht is gemaeckt wordt, is niet schoon. Want wanneer yemant yet nae 't verdachte maeckt, soo moet hy noodtsaeckelick een van beyde doen; ofte hy druckt het verdachte voorbeeldt wel ende bequaemelicke uyt, ofte niet, indien hy 't wel afbeeldt soo sal 't uyt ghedruckte beeldt schoon wesen; aenghesien d'eerste en meeste schoonheydt in 't verdacht voorbeeldt te vinden is. Indien hy daer en teghen 't verdachte voorbeeldt niet wel uyt en druckt; soo en is sijn maecksel nae 't verdachte niet ghewrocht, maer 't valt in 't teghendeel verder af van de volcomen schoonheydt deses voorbeeldts. 't Is dan blijckelick dat die ghene de welcke yet maeckt nae 't gheene van de nature voordt ghebracht is, het selvichge niet recht schoon maecken can: overmidts 't ghene hy sich voorstelt vol ghebreckelickheydts is, en dat d' eerste en meeste schoonheydt daer niet in te vinden is; soo dat oock 't ghene daer nae ghemaeckt wordt, noch al meer van de rechte schoonheydt af dwaelen moet.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] All that is produced after the thought, is beautiful. That which on the other hand is produced and made by Nature, is not beautiful. Because when someone makes something after the thought, he necessary has to do one of both [NDR: i.e. make a choice]: or he expresses the thought example well and capably, or not, if he does depict it well, then the expressed image will be beautiful; seen that the first and most beauty is to be found in the thought example. If by contrast he does not express the thought example well; then his fabrication after the thought is not worked, but to the contrary it diverges further from the complete beauty of the example. It is then clear that he who makes something after that which has been produced by nature, cannot really make it beautiful: as that which he imagines himself is full of imperfection, and that the first and most beauty cannot be found in there; thus also that which is made after it, necessarily diverges somewhat more from straight beauty.

term translated by PULCHRITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 10
term translated by BEAUTY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 19

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Op dese verbeeldenskracht die daer in Phidias wordt aan ghemerckt, dringhen oock andere vermaerde Schrijvers dapper aen, om te betoonen op wat voet eenen rechten Konstenaer moet aengaen. Ich houde het daer voor, seght Tullius {de perfecto oratore}, dat daer nerghens yet soo schoon ghevonden can worden, of noch is dat al vele schoonder waer nae 't selvighe, niet anders als een beeldt nae de tronie uyt ghedruckt is; aenghesien sulcks noch met d'ooghen, noch met d'ooren, noch met eenighe onser sinnen doorgrondet kan worden; wy begrijpen 't maer alleen met onse ghedachten ende met ons ghemoedt. Soo is 't oock dat wy ons selven noch altijdt eenighe verbeeldinghen connen voorstellen die de schoonheydt der Beelden van Phydias ghemaeckt verde te boven gaen, alhoewel de selvighe onder alle andere wercken van dien slagh d'aller volmaeckste waeren. Oock soo en heeft dien grooten Konstenaer, als hy 't Beelt van Jupiter ende Minerva maecte, sijne ooghen niet gheslaeghen op yemant daer hy dese ghelijckenisse uyt trock, maer hy heeft in sijn ghemoedt het voorbeeldt van een seer uyt ghelesen schoonheydt gehadt, op 't welcke hy sijne ooghen standtvastighlick houdende, beyde sijne Konst ende sijn handt nae de ghelijckenisse des selvighen voorbeeldts bestierde. Daer is dan in de ghestalte der dinghen yet-wat 't welck in volmaecktheyt uytsteket, soo dat nae 't verdachte voorbeeldt deser volmaecktheydt alle d'onsienelicke dinghen door een Konstighe imitatie worden afghebeeldet.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Other Authors likewise insist firmly on this imagination that is recognized in Phidias, to show on what foot a good Artist should continue. I consider it as such, says Tullius {…}, that nothing so beautiful can be found anywhere, or it is already much more beautiful than itself, nothing different from an image reproduced after a face; seeing that such cannot be understood neither with the eyes, nor with the ears, nor with any of our senses; we only understand it with our thoughts and with our mind. This is also why we can always imagine some representations that far surpass the beauty of the Sculptures by Phidias, although these were the most perfect amongst all works of this kind. Similarly, while he made the Sculpture of Jupiter and Minerva, this great Artist has not cast his eyes on someone from which he took this similitude, but in his mind he had the example of a very outstanding beauty, on which he steadily kept his eyes, both governing his Art and his hand after the similitude of this example. In the shape of things is something which stands out in perfection, such that all invisible things are reproduced by an artful imitation after the imagined example of this perfection.

PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos, c. 447 BC, chryselephantine statue, lost; or : Phidias, Athena Lemnia, c. 450-440 BC, bronze statue, lost
PHIDIAS, Zeus, c. 435 BC, chryselephantine statue, lost (5th century AD)

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 10 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 19-20
term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 10 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 19-20

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

De schoonheyd des lichaems, seght Cicero {lib. I de officiis}, beweeght onse ooghen door een bequaeme t'saemenschickinghe der leden; hy vermaeckt ons daer mede voornemelick, dat alle ghedeelten door een aenghenaeme lieffelickheyd met malkanderen over-een komen. Ghelijck het dan gheen wonder en is dat wy eenen sonderlinghen lust scheppen inde schoonheyd der naturelicker lichaemen, soo is het veel min verwonderenswaerd dat ons de Konstige naboetsinge deser schoonheyd noch al beter behaeght dan de natuerelicke schoonheyd selver; niet alleen omdat wy daer in bemercken hoe gheluckighlick de Konst met de nature strijd, maer ook omdat ons ghemoed sich eenmael door dese beschouwinghe vervrolickt vindende sijne blijschap niet langer en kan binnen houden,