BEAUTY (n.)

BEAUTÉ (fra.) · BELLEZZA (ita.) · PULCHRITUDO (lat.) · SCHÖNHEIT (deu.) · SCHOONHEID (nld.) · WELSCHAPENTHEYT (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
BEAUTÉ (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
BEAUTÉ (fra.)
BECQ, Annie, Genèse de l'esthétique française moderne : de la raison classique à l'imagination créatrice, Paris, Albin Michel, 1994.
DE VRIES, Lyckle, How to Create Beauty. De Lairesse on the Theory and Practice of Making Art, Leiden, Primavera press, 2011.
GROULIER, Jean-François et BRUGÈRE, Fabienne, « Beauté », dans CASSIN, Barbara (éd.), Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles, Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 2004, p. 160-170.
HARD, Frederick, « Ideas from Bacon and Wotton in William Sanderson's "Graphice" », Studies in Philology, 36/2, 1939, p. 227-234 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/4172440 consulté le 30/03/2018].
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « BEAU / BEAUTÉ », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 87-94.
JONES, Robert, Gender and the Formation of Taste in Eighteenth-Century Britain: the Analysis of Beauty, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
MACMAHON, Philip, « Francis Bacon’s “Essay of Beauty” », PMLA, 60/3, 1945, p. 719-759 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/459174 consulté le 30/03/2018].
SAINT GIRONS, Baldine, « Beau », dans DELON, Michel (éd.), Dictionnaire européen des Lumières, Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1997, p. 173-179.
SALERNO, Luigi, « Seventeenth-Century English Literature on Painting », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 14/3-4, 1951, p. 234-258 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/750341 consulté le 30/03/2018].
STANIC, Milovan, « Les tribulations du Beau idéal en France au temps de Bellori », dans BONFAIT, Olivier (éd.), L’idéal classique : les échanges artistiques entre Rome et Paris au temps de Bellori, Actes du colloque de Rome, Roma - Paris, Académie de France à Rome - Somogy, 2002, p. 16-25.

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LINKED QUOTATIONS

5 sources
13 quotations

Quotation

{2. Proportion.} Of Proportion.
It’s called
Symmetry, Analogie, Harmony.
Proportion is of any part ; a Hand fitted to the bigness of a body.
Symmetry is the proportion of each finger to that bigness ; Analogie or Harmonie. All together in one ; a Concinnity of Harmony ; A congruence, or equality of parts and members ; or due connexion, in reference of all parts, one to the other, and all to the whole, which produceth a perfect Nature, or beauty.
{Of true beauty.} Whatsoever is made, after a conceived or Intelligible thing is Fair.
Whatsoever is made, after a thing generated, is not faire.
Beauty, may be perfectly conceived.
{Naturall and conceived.} True
beauty in any Creature, is not to be found ; being full of deformed disproportions, far remote from truth ; for sinne is the cause of deformity.
Beauty in truth, is, where Joynts and severally every part with the whole, hath its due proportion and measure ; and therefore hard to describe.
Beauty should consist but of One at the most ; and deformity contrariwise, measured by many : for the eeven Lineaments and due proportion of fair and goodly Persons, seem to be created and framed, by the judgement and sight of one form alone, which cannot be in deformed persons ; as with blub cheeks, bigg eyes, little nose, flat mouth, out chin, and brown skin, as it were moulded from many ill faces ; and yet some one part considered about, to be handsome, but altogether become ugly ; not for any other cause, but that they may be Lineaments of many fair women, and not of One. The Painter, did well, to procure all the fair maides naked, to judge of each severall and single perfection ; and so from the Idea of fancie, to shape a Venus. {By the Idea.}
{His brave and unpattern’d and unparallel’d Piece of
Artimesia.} And thus, by often exercise from severall beauties, you shall fixe a conceived Idea is your mind of accomplished Pulchritude grace or comlinesse, according to the true rule of Symmetry. […].
A
Beauty may be expressed by a comely body, though not of delicate features ; rather dignity of presence, than beauty of aspect. It is seen at the first sight. Favour more than Colour ; and yet that of decent and gratious motion, more than that of favour.
There is no excellent
beauty without some strangeness in the proportion, and both Apelles and Albert Durer, doe but trifles out the time and trouble us ; The One to compose a Personage by Geometricall proportion ; and Apelles by collecting the best parts from severall faces, to make one excellent. Indeed a Painter may make a better personage than ever was seen since the first Creation ; which he does by a kind of felicity, not by Rule, as a Musician doth his French Aires, not by true Method of setting.
[…].

Sanderson s'inspire ici de Sir Francis Bacon (voir F. Hard, 1939, p. 228-229).

pulchritude · comeliness · grace

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Such is the Importance and Vertue of Proportion, that nothing can any way satisfie the Eye without the help thereof : So that whatsoever worketh any Pleasure or Delight in us, doth therefore content us ; because the Grace of Proportion consisting in the measure of the Parts, appeareth therein ; Wherefore all the Inventions of Men carry with them so much the more Grace and Beautie, by how much the more Ingeniously they are proportioned, whence Vitruvius saith, That whosoever will proceed in his Works with Judgment, must needs be acquainted with the Nature and Force of Proportion ; which being well and kindly understood, will make him not only an excellent Judge of ancient and late Workmen, but also an Inventor and Performer of Rare and Excellent Matters himself.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Now the Effects proceeding from Proportion are unspeakable, the Principal whereof, is that Majestie and Beautie which is found in Bodies, called by Vitruvius, EURITHMIA. And hence it is, that when behold a well-proportioned thing, we call it Beautiful, as if we should say, Indued with that exact and comely Grace, whereby all the Perfection of sweet Delights belonging to the Sight, are communicated to the Eye, and so conveyed to the Understanding.
But if we shall enter into a farther Consideration of this
Beauty, it will appear most evidently in things appertaining to Civil Discipline ; for it is strange to consider what effects of Piety, Reverence and Religion, are stirred up in mens Minds, by means of this suitable comeliness of apt proportion. A pregnant example whereof we have in the Jupiter carved by Phidias at Elis, which wrought an extraordinary sense of Religion in the People, whereupon the antient and renowned Zeuxis well knowing the excellency and dignity thereof, perswaded Greece in her most flourishing Estate, that the Pictures wherein this Majesty appeared were dedicated to great Princes, and consecrated to the Temples of the Immortal gods, so that they held them in exceeding great estimation ; partly because they were the Works of those famous Masters, who were reputed as gods amongt men ; and partly because they not only represented the Works of God, but also supplyed the defects of Nature : ever making choice of the Flower and Quintessence of Eye-pleasing delights.

comeliness

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Albeit Dame Nature, the cunningest Work-Mistress of all others, doth ordinarily observe so great variety, in all her Workes, that each of her particulars differeth in Beauty and Proportion ; yet notwithstanding, we find by experience, that she is more industrious, In shewing her Art and Skill in some few most Beautifull creatures, whereupon I (insomuch as Art being the counterfeiter of Nature, must ever endeavour to imitate the most absolute things) intending to handle the proportion of a Woman mean not to spend much time in discoursing of the several proportions of all the Sorts of Women which Nature affordeth […].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

The Beauty, and Harmony of the Colouring gives Me a great Degree of Pleasure [ndr : dans le portrait de la comtesse Dowager d’Exeter par Van Dyck] ; for tho’ This is Grave and Solid, it has a Beauty not less than what is Bright, and Gay. So much of the Composition as is Good does also much Delight the Eye ; And tho’ the Lady is not Young, nor remarkably Handsome, the Grace, and Greatness that is here represented pleases exceedingly. In a Word, as throughout this whole Picture one sees Instances of an Accurate Hand, and Fine Thought, These must give proportionable Pleasure to so hearty a Lover as I am.

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 37.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

PAINTING is indeed a Difficult Art, productive of Curious pieces of Workmanship, and greatly Ornamental ; and its Business is to represent Nature. Thus far the Common Idea is just ; Only that ‘tis More Difficult, More Curious, and More Beautifull than is Commonly Imagin’d.
‘Tis an entertaining thing to the Mind of Man to see a fine piece of Art in Any kind ; and every one is apt to take a sort of Pride in it as being done by one of his Own Species, to whom with respect to the Universe he stands related as to one of the Same Countrey, or the Same Family. Painting affords us a great Variety of This kind of Pleasure in the Delicate, or Bold management of the Pencil ; in the mixture of its Colours, in the Skilful Contrivance of the several parts of the Picture, and infinite Variety of the Tincts, so as to produce Beauty, and Harmony. This alone gives great Pleasure to those who have learn’d to see these things.

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 119-120.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

I own there are Beauties in Nature which we cannot reach ; Chiefly in Colours, together with a certain Spirit ; Vivacity, and Lightness ; Motion alone is a Vast Advantage ; it occasions a great degree of Beauty purely from that Variety it gives ; so that what I have said elsewhere is true, ‘tis impossible to Reach Nature by Art ; But This is not inconsistent with what I have been saying just now ; Both are True in different Senses. We cannot reach what we set [ndr : une erreur est notée dans l’errata présent au début de l’ouvrage : il s’agit du verbe see et non du verbe set] before us, and attempt to Imitate, but we Can carry our Ideas, so far beyond what we have seen, that tho’ we fall short of executing them with our hands, what we do will nevertheless excel Common Nature, Especially in Some particulars, and those very considerable ones.
When I say Nature is to be Rais’d, and Improv’d by Painting it must be understood that the Actions of Men must be represented better than probably they Really were, as well as that their Persons must appear to be Nobler, and more Beautifull than is Ordinarily seen. In treating a History a Painter has Other Rules to go by than a Historian, whereby he is as much Oblig’d to Imbellish his Subject, as the other is to relate it Justly.

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 123-124.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

That the Pleasure of Connoissance is a Virtuous, and a Useful one, and such a one therefore as is worthy the Pursuit of a Wise, and Good Man appears by what has been said heretofore. Wherein this Pleasure consists is what I am Now about to shew : Which will also serve as a Specimen of what may be done in other Instances, a Vast many of which I have observ’d are overlook’d and neglected as well as This :
What is Beautiful, and Excellent is naturally adapted to Please ; but all Beauties, and Excellencies are not naturally Seen. Most Gentlemen see Pictures, and Drawings as the Generality of People see the Heavens in a Clear, Starry Night, they perceive a sort of Beauty there, but such a one as produces no great Pleasure in the Mind : But when one considers the Heavenly Bodies as other Worlds, and that there are an Infinite Number of these in the Empire of God, Immensity ; and Worlds which our Eyes assisted by the best Glasses can never reach, and so far removed from the most distant of what we see (which yet are so far removed from us that when we consider it our Minds are fill’d with Astonishment) that These Visible ones are as it were our Neighbours, as the Continent of France is to Great Britain ; When one considers farther, That as there Inhabitants on this Continent tho’ we see them not when we see That, ‘tis altogether unreasonable to Imagine that those Innumerable Words are Uninhabited, and Desart ; there must be Beings There, Some perhaps More, Others Less Noble, and Excellent than Men : When one Thus views this Vast Prospect, the Mind is Otherwise affected than Before, and feels a Delight which Common Notions never can administer. So those who at Present cannot comprehend there can be such Pleasure in a good Picture, or Drawing as Connoisseurs pretend to find, may Learn to see the same thing in Themselves, their Eyes being once open’d ‘tis like a New Sense, and New Pleasures flow in as often as the Objects of that Superinduc’d Sight present themselves, which (to People of Condition Especially) very frequently happens, or may be procur’d, whether Here at Home, or in their Travels Abroad. When a Gentleman has learn’d to see the Beauties and Excellencies that are really in good Pictures, and Drawings, and which may be learnt by conversing with Such, and applying himself to the consideration of them, he will look upon That with Joy which he Now passes over with very little Pleasure, if not with Indifference : Nay a Sketch, a Scrabble of the Hand of a Great Master will be capable of administering to him a Greater Degree of Pleasure than those who know it not by Experience will easily believe. Besides the Graceful, and Noble Attitudes, the Beauty of Colours, and forms, and the fine Effects of Light, and Shadow, which none sees as a Connoisseur does, Such a one enters farther than any other Can into the Beauties of the Invention, Expression, and other Parts of the Work he is considering : He sees Strokes of Art, Contrivances, Expedients, a Delicacy, and Spirit that others see not, or very Imperfectly.
He sees what a Force of Mind the great Masters had to Conceive Ideas ; what Judgment to see things Beautifully, or to Imagine Beauty from what they saw ; and what a power their Hands were endued withal in a few Strokes, and with Ease to shew to Another what themselves Conceiv’d.

excellencies

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 204-207.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Many Painters have taken a Fancy to make Caricaturaes of People’s Faces, that is, Exaggerating the Defects, and Concealing the Beauties, however preserving the Resemblance ; the Reverse of That is to be done in the Present Case, but the Character must be seen throughout, or it ceases to be a Compliment ; ’Tis the Picture of Somebody else, or of Nobody, and only tells the Person how different He, or She is from what the Painter conceives to be Beauty.

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 62-63.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

The Contours must be Large, Square, and Boldly pronounc’d to produce Greatness ; and Delicate, and finely Waved, and Contrasted to be Gracious. There is a Beauty in a Line. in the Shape of a Finger, or Toe, even in that of a Reed, or Leaf, or the most inconsiderable things in Nature : I have Drawings of Guilio Romano of something of this Kind ; his Insects, and Vegetables are Natural, but as much above those of other Painters as his Men are : There is that in these things which Common Eyes see not, but which the Great Masters know how to give, and They Only.

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 154-155.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin

Quotation

And here I take the Sublime to be the Greatest, and most Beautiful Ideas, whether Corporeal, or not, convey’d to us the most Advantageously.
By Beauty I do not mean that of Form, or Colour, Copy’d from what the Painter sees ; These being never so well Imitated, I take not to be Sublime, because These require little more than an Eye, and Hand, and Practice. An Exalted Idea of Colour in a Humane Face, or Figure might be judg’d to be Sublime, could That be had, and convey’d to Us, as I think it cannot, since even Nature has not yet been Equall’d by the best Colourists ; Here she keeps Art at a Distance whetever Courtship it has made to her.
In Forms ‘tis Otherwise as we find in the Antique Statues, which therefore I allow to have a Sublimity in them : And should do the same in regard to the same Kind, and Degree of Beauty if it were to be found in any Picture, as I believe it is not. Tho’ in Pictures is seen a Grace, and Greatness, whether from the Attitude, or Air of the Whole, or the Head only, that may justly be Esteem’d Sublime.

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 200-202.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → merveilleux et sublime

Quotation

He that would rise to the Sublime must form an Idea of Something beyond all we have yet seen ; or which Art, or Nature has yet produc’d ; Painting, Such as when all the Excellencies of the several Masters are United, and their several Defects avoided.
The greatest Designers among the Moderns want much of that exquisite Beauty, in all the Several Characters, that is to be seen in the Antique ; the Airs of the Heads, even of
Rafaëlle himself, are Inferiour to what the Ancients have done ; and for Grace to some of Guido : the Colouring of Rubens and Van Dyck falls short of That of Titian, and Coreggio ; and the best Masters have Rarely Thought like Rafaëlle, or Compos’d like Rembrandt. Let us then imagine a Picture Design’d as the Laocoon, the Hercules, the Apollo, the Venus, or any of these Miraculous remains of Antiquity : The Airs of Heads like what is to be found in the Statues, Busts, Bas-releifs, or Medals, or like some of those of Guido ; and Colour’d like the most Celebrated Colourists ; with the Lightest Pencil, and the most Proper to the Subject ; and all this Suitably Invented, and Compos’d ; Here would be a Picture ! Such a one a Painter should Imagine, and So set before him for Imitation.
Nor must he stop Here, but Create an Original Idea of Perfection. The Utmost that the Best Masters have done, is not to be suppos’d the Utmost ‘tis possible for Humane Nature to arrive at ;

Dans cet extrait, Richardson mentionne plusieurs œuvres antiques. Outre le Laocoon, il évoque un Hercule, un Apollon et une Vénus. Néanmoins, il ne donne pas assez d'indication pour les identifier précisément.

term translated by BEAUTÉ in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 210-212.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → merveilleux et sublime

Quotation

Apelles himself was so ingenuous to own so great a Proficiency therein, as might seem to add Confirmation, while in the Disposition, or Ordinance, he modestly yielded to Amphion ; in the Measures, or Proportions, he subscribed to Aschepiodorus ; and of Protogenes was wont to say, in all Points he was equal to him, if not above him ; but after all, there was yet one Thing wanting in them all, which was instar omnium, or, however, the Beauty and Life of all, which he only ascribed, and was proud in being the sole Master of himself, viz. his Venus by the Greeks, named ΧΑΡΙΣ a certain peculiar Grace, sometimes called the Air of the Picture, resulting from a due Observation and Concurrence of all the essential Points and Rules requisite in a compleat Picture, accompany’d with an unconstrained and unaffected Facility and Freedom of the Pencil, which together produced such a ravishing Harmony, that made their Works seem to be performed by some divine and unspeakable Way of ART ; and which (as Fr. Junius expresseth it) is not a Perfection of ART, proceeding meerly from ART, but rather a Perfection proceeding from a consummate ART.
HENCE it was that
Apelles admiring the wonderful Pains and Curiosity in each Point in a Picture of Protogenes’s Painting, yet took Occasion from thence to reprehend him for it as a Fault quod nescivit manum tollere de tabula, implying, that a heavy and painful Diligence and Affectation, are destructive of that Comeliness, Beauty and admired Grace, which only a prompt and prosperous Facility proceeding from a found Judgment of ART, can offord unto us.

comeliness · grace

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai