RICHARDSON, Jonathan, An Essay on the Theory of Painting. By Mr. Richardson. The Second Edition, Enlarg'd, and Corrected, London, A. C. - A. Bettesworth, 1725.

Getty Research Institute Los Angeles ND1130 .R5 1725er 295 quotations 173 terms
L’Essay on the Theory of Painting, publié en 1715, puis réédité en 1725, est le premier texte de théorie artistique écrit par Jonathan Richardson senior (1667-1745), portraitiste et collectionneur de dessins et de gravures. Il publie en parallèle deux autres ouvrages sur l’art : le premier en 1719, Two Discourses. I. An Essay on the whole art of criticism as it relates to painting […] II. An Argument in behalf of the science of a connoisseur, qui, comme l’indique le titre s’adresse aux individus s’intéressant à la peinture et désirant s’approprier les fondements de cet art ; le second en 1722, co-écrit avec son fils, Jonathan Richardson Junior (1694-1771), et intitulé An Account of Some of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy &c., rassemble des descriptions d’objets d’art situés principalement en Italie. L’ensemble de ses travaux est traduit en français en 1728 et publié sous le titre Traité de la peinture et de la sculpture.
Son Essay on the Theory of Painting se caractérise par une volonté de promouvoir une école britannique de peinture, très souvent dénigrée en raison de sa pratique presque exclusive des genres picturaux dits bas, et notamment du portrait, mais aussi à cause de la présence d’un grand nombre d’artistes étrangers sur son sol. À travers son Essay, Richardson tente de prouver l’utilité de l’art, et, s’adressant aux artistes britanniques, de les convaincre d’étudier et d’atteindre le meilleur d’eux-mêmes, afin qu’une école anglaise de peinture soit reconnue. Cette volonté nationaliste est d’autant plus intéressante que Richardson écrit peu après la fusion des parlements anglais et écossais (1707) qui crée alors le « Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne ». On note qu’à partir de 1711, Richardson fait partie de l’Académie de Great Queen Street, se caractérisant par une volonté de réunir des artistes et notamment des portraitistes, et de leur donner une certaine visibilité.
Par ailleurs, Richardson est à la recherche d’une certaine indépendance, ce qui est visible dans son refus de demander à un prince ou un aristocrate d’être à la tête de cette Académie. Un reflet de cette volonté apparaît dans l’absence de dédicataire de son Essay.
Comme le soulignent I. Baudino et F. Ogée, les écrits de Richardson « constituent le premier maillon d’un travail d’anglicisation du discours sur l’art […], qui offrait enfin aux artistes anglais et à leur public un langage et une méthode leur permettant d’affirmer une identité et une originalité nationales ». Le fait que Richardson utilise presque toujours des mots anglais lorsqu’il évoque des notions de théorie artistique semble indiquer ce souhait. En effet, Richardson se sert peu de mots français ou italiens, à l’exception de clair-obscur et tout-ensemble, ce dernier mot étant néanmoins traduit dans certains cas par whole together.
Même si Richardson peut s’inspirer des théoriciens français comme Roger de Piles, il développe néanmoins une vision différente. Il estime par exemple qu’il existe sept parties de la peinture (invention, expression, composition, dessin, coloris, maniement, grâce et grandeur) alors que Roger de Piles n’en distingue que trois (composition, dessin, coloris). Le chapitre sur le sublime, un peu remanié par rapport à la première édition, est également très développé, mais ne s’applique pas seulement à l’art (Richardson le commence en évoquant l’écriture).
Il est à noter qu’on ne retrouve aucune illustration insérée directement dans le texte, bien que de nombreux exemples d’œuvres soient donnés par Richardson (et en particulier les Cartons de Raphaël, qui étaient alors exposés à Hampton Court, lieu relativement accessible au public).

Élodie Cayuela
in-8 english
Structure
Préface at iii

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, An Essay on the Theory of Painting, London, W. Bowyer, 1715.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, The Works of Mr. Jonathan Richardson. Consisting of I. The Theory of Painting. II. Essay on the Art of Criticism, so far as it relates to Painting. III. The Science of a Connoisseur. All corrected and prepared for the Press By his Son Mr. J. Richardson, RICHARDSON, Jonathan Junior (éd.), London, T. Davies, 1773.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, The Works of Jonathan Richardson. Containing I. The Theory of Painting. II. Essay on the Art of Criticism, (So far as it relates to Painting). III. The Science of a Connoisseur. A New Edition, corrected, with the Additions of An Essay on the Knowledge of Prints, and Cautions to Collectors, Ornamented with Portraits by Worlidge, &c. of the most Eminent Painters mentioned. Dedicated, by Permission, to Sir Joshua Reynolds, London, T. et J. Egerton, 1792.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, The Works, Hildesheim, G. Olms, 1969.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la peinture et de la sculpture, trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine et TEN KATE, Lambert, Genève, Minkoff Reprint, 1972.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la peinture et de la sculpture, BAUDINO, Isabelle et OGÉE, Frédéric (éd.), Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2008.

SNELGROVE, Gordon William, The Work and Theories of Jonathan Richardson (1665-1745), Thesis, University of London, 1936.

PAKNADEL, Félix, Critique et peinture en Angleterre de 1660 à 1770, Thèse de doctorat, Université de Provence, 1978.

HABERLAND, Irene, Jonathan Richardson, 1666-1745 : die Begründung der Kunstkennerschaft, Münster, LIT, 1991.

GIBSON-WOOD, Carol, Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 2000.

GIBSON-WOOD, Carol, « “A Judiciously Disposed Collection”: Jonathan Richardson Senior's Cabinet of Drawings », dans BAKER, Christopher, ELAM, Caroline et WARWICK, Genevieve (éd.), Collecting Prints and Drawings in Europe (c. 1500-1750), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2003, p. 155-171.

GEEST, Simone von der, The Reasoning Eye: Jonathan Richardson's (1667-1745) Portrait Theory and Practice in the Context of the English Enlightenment, Thesis, University of London, 2005.

HAMLETT, Lydia et BONETT, Helena, « Sublime Portraiture: Jonathan Richardson’s Portrait of the Artist’s Son, "Jonathan Richardson Junior, in his Study" and Anthony Van Dyck’s "Portrait of Lary Hill, Lady Killigrew" », dans LLEWELLYN, Nigel et RIDING, Christine (éd.), The Art of the Sublime, 2013 [En ligne : https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/the-sublime/lydia-hamlett-and-helena-bonett-sublime-portraiture-jonathan-richardsons-portrait-of-the-r1138671 consulté le 09/05/2016].

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

QUOTATIONS

The great Business of Painting I have often said, and would fain inculcate, is to relate a History, or a Fable, as the best Historians, or Poets have done ; to make a Portrait so as to do Justice at least, and Sometimes not without a little Complaisance ; and that to the Mind, as well as to the Face, and Person ; To represent Nature, or rather the Best of Nature ; and where it can be done, to Raise and Improve it ; to give all the Grace and Dignity the Subject has, all that a well instructed Eye can discover in it, or which such a Judgment can find ‘tis Capable of in its most Advantagious Moments.

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Neatness, and high Finishing ; a Light, Bold Pencil ; Gay, and Vivid Colours, Warm, and Sombrous ; Force, and Tenderness, All these are Excellencies when judiciously employd, and in Subserviency to the Principal End of the Art ; But they are Beauties of an Inferior Kind even when So employd ; they are the Mechanick Parts of Painting, and require no more Genius, or Capacity, than is necessary to, and frequently seen in Ordinary Workmen ; […] ; These properties are in Painting, as Language, Rhime, and Numbers are in Poetry ; and as he that stops at These as at what Constitutes the Goodness of a Poem is a Bad Critick, He is an Ill Connoisseur who has the same Consideration for these Inferious Excellencies in a Picture.

How much more if for the sake of These, a Picture is esteemed where the Story is Ill Told, and Nature is Ill represented, or not well chosen : If it be imagin’d to be good, because a Piece of Lace, or Brocade, a Fly, a Flower, a Wrinkle, a Wart, is highly finish’d, and (if you please) Natural, and well in its Kind ; or because the Colours are Vivid, or the Lights and Shadows Strong, though the Essential Parts are without Grace or Dignity, or are even Ridiculous.

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

Neatness, and high Finishing ; a Light, Bold Pencil ; Gay, and Vivid Colours, Warm, and Sombrous ; Force, and Tenderness, All these are Excellencies when judiciously employd, and in Subserviency to the Principal End of the Art ; But they are Beauties of an Inferior Kind even when So employd ; they are the Mechanick Parts of Painting, and require no more Genius, or Capacity, than is necessary to, and frequently seen in Ordinary Workmen ; […] ; These properties are in Painting, as Language, Rhime, and Numbers are in Poetry ; and as he that stops at These as at what Constitutes the Goodness of a Poem is a Bad Critick, He is an Ill Connoisseur who has the same Consideration for these Inferious Excellencies in a Picture.

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → jugement

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → touche
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la composition

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

MANIÈRE ET STYLE → le faire et la main

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la composition
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
EFFET PICTURAL → touche

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

MANIÈRE ET STYLE → le faire et la main

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

MANIÈRE ET STYLE → le faire et la main
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

MANIÈRE ET STYLE → le faire et la main

Contrairement aux autres passages de l'Essay on the Theory of Painting, la préface n'est pas traduite dans l'édition française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → touche
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la composition

Painting is that Pleasant, Innocent Amusement. But ’tis More ; ’tis of great Use, as being one of the means whereby we convey our Ideas to each other, and which in some respects has the Advantage of all the rest. And thus it must be rank’d with These, and accordingly esteem’d not only as an Enjoyment, but as another Language, which completes the whole Art of communicating our Thoughts ; one of those particulars which raises the Dignity of Human Nature so much above the Brutes ; and which is the more considerable, as being a Gift bestowed but upon a Few even of our own Species.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Words paint to the Imagination, but every Man forms the thing to himself in his Own way : Language is very Imperfect : There are innumerable Colours, and Figures for which we have no name, […] ; whereas the Painter can convey his Ideas of these Things Clearly, and without Ambiguity ; and what he says every one understands in the Sense he intends it.
And this is a Language that is Universal ; Men of all Nations hear the Poet, Moralist, Historian, Divine, or whatever other Character the Painter assumes, speaking to them in their own Mother Tongue.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

The Pleasure that Painting, as a Dumb Art, gives us, is like what we have from Musick ; its beautiful Forms, Colours and Harmony, are to the Eye what Sounds, and the Harmony of that kind are to the Ear ; and in both we are delighted in observing the Skill of the Artist in proportion to It, and our own Judgment to discover it.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → comparaison entre les arts
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

By the help of this Art [ndr : la peinture] we have the Pleasure of seeing a vast Variety of Things and Actions, of travelling by Land or Water, of knowing the Humours of Low Life without mixing with it, of viewing Tempests, Battels, Inundations ; and, in short, of all Real or Imagin’d Appearances in Heaven, Earth, or Hell ;

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Nor do we barely see this Variety of Natural Objects, but in Good Pictures we always see Nature Improv’d, or at least the best Choice of it. We thus have nobler and finer Ideas of Men, Animals, Landscapes, &c. than we should perhaps have ever had ;

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

And if moreover what I write may hereafter happen to be of use of any body else, whether it be to put a Lover of Art in a Method to judge of a Picture, (and which in most things a Gentleman may do altogether as well as a Painter) or to awaken some useful Hints in some of my own Profession ; […] If these Consequences happen, it will be a Satisfaction to me over and above.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

So by conversing with the Works of the best Masters in Painting, one forms better Images whilst we are Reading, or Thinking. I see the Divine Airs of Rafaëlle when I read any History of our Saviour, or the Blessed Virgin ; and the Awful ones he gives an Apostle when I read of their Actions, and conceive of those Actions that He, and Other great Men describe in a Nobler manner than otherwise I should ever have done.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

To come to Portraits ; the Picture of an absent Relation, or Friend, helps to keep up those Sentiments which frequently languish by Absence and may be instrumental to maintain, and sometimes to augment Friendship, and Paternal, Filial, and Conjugal Love, and Duty.
Upon the sight of a Portrait, the Character, and Master-strokes of the History of the Person it represents are apt to flow in upon the Mind, and to be the Subject of Conversation : So that to sit for one’s Picture, is to have an Abstract of one’s Life written, and published, and ourselves thus consign’d over to Honour, or Infamy.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

But (by the way) ‘tis not every Picture-maker that ought to be called a Painter, as every Rhymer, or Grubstreet Tale-Writer is not a Poet, or Historian : a Painter ought to be a Title of Dignity, and understood to imply a Person endued with such Excellencies of Mind, and Body, as have ever been the Foundations of Honour amongst Men.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

He that Paints a History well, must be able to Write it ; he must be throughly inform’d of all things relating to it, and conceive it clearly, and nobly in his Mind, or he can never express it upon the Canvas : He must have a solid Judgment, with a lively Imagination, and know what Figures, and what Incidents ought to be brought in, and what every one should Say, and Think.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
L’ARTISTE → qualités

and Painting, as well as Poetry, requiring an Elevation of Genius beyond what pure Historical Narration does ; the Painter must imagine his Figures to Think, Speak, and Act, as a Poet should do in a Tragedy, or Epick Poem ; especially if his Subject be a Fable, or an Allegory. If a Poet has moreover the Care of the Diction, and Versification, the Painter has a Task perhaps at least Equivalent to That, after he has well conceived the thing (over and above what is merely Mechanical, and other particulars, which shall be spoken to presently) and that is the Knowledge of the Nature, and Effects of Colours, Lights, Shadows, Reflections, &c.

terms translations

Il est intéressant de noter que le traducteur a choisi de traduire l'expression "Elevation of Genius" par le terme français "Relevé".

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

To be a good Face-Painter, a degree of the Historical, and Poetical Genius is requisite, and a great Measure of the other Talents, and Advantages which a good History-Painter must possess : Nay some of them, particularly Colouring, he ought to have in greater Perfection than is absolutely necessary for a History-Painter.
‘Tis not enough to make a Tame, Insipid Resemblance of the Features, so that every body shall know who the Picture was intended for, nor even to make the Picture what is often said to be prodigious Like : (This is often done by the lowest of Face-Painters, but then ‘tis ever with the Air of a Fool, and an Unbred Person ;) A Portrait-Painter must understand Mankind, and enter into their Characters, and express their Minds as well as their Faces : And as his Business is chiefly with People of Condition, he must Think as a Gentleman, and a Man of Sense, or ‘twill be impossible to give Such their True, and Proper Resemblances.

But if a Painter of this kind is not oblig’d to take in such a compass of Knowledge as he that paints History, and that the Latter upon Some accounts is the nobler Employment, upon Others the Preference is due to Face-Painting ;

terms translations

portrait painter

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

L'expression Face Painting n'apparait pas dans la traduction française de 1728.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
terms translations

Le terme Portrait-Painter n'est pas directement traduit dans la version française de 1728, le traducteur ayant utlisé une forme impersonnelle. Il semble ne pas faire de différence en français entre "Face-Painter" et "Portrait-Painter", à la différence de l'anglais où les deux expressions sont employées en même temps.

face painter

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
L’ARTISTE → qualités

To be a good Face-Painter, a degree of the Historical, and Poetical Genius is requisite, and a great Measure of the other Talents, and Advantages which a good History-Painter must possess : Nay some of them, particularly Colouring, he ought to have in greater Perfection than is absolutely necessary for a History-Painter.
‘Tis not enough to make a Tame, Insipid Resemblance of the Features, so that every body shall know who the Picture was intended for, nor even to make the Picture what is often said to be prodigious Like : (This is often done by the lowest of Face-Painters, but then ‘tis ever with the Air of a Fool, and an Unbred Person ;) A Portrait-Painter must understand Mankind, and enter into their Characters, and express their Minds as well as their Faces : And as his Business is chiefly with People of Condition, he must Think as a Gentleman, and a Man of Sense, or ‘twill be impossible to give Such their True, and Proper Resemblances.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Add to all this, that the Works of the Face-Painter must be seen in all the Periods of Beginnings, and Progress, as well as when Finish’d, when they are Not, oftner than when they Are fit to be seen, and yet Judg’d of, and Criticis’d upon, as if the Artist had given his last Hand to ‘em, and by all sorts of People ; nor is he always at liberty to follow his Own Judgment.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → jugement
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

He [ndr : un peintre] must not only have a nice Judgment to distinguish betwixt things nearly Resembling one another, but not the same […], but he must moreover have the same Delicacy in his Eyes to judge of the Tincts of Colours which are of infinite Variety ;

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

He [ndr : un peintre] must not only have a nice Judgment to distinguish betwixt things nearly Resembling one another, but not the same […], but he must moreover have the same Delicacy in his Eyes to judge of the Tincts of Colours which are of infinite Variety ; and to distinguish whether a Line be streight, or curv’d a little ; whether This is exactly parallel to That, or oblique, and in what degree ; how This curv’d Line differs from That, if it differs at all, of which he must also judge ; whether what he has drawn is of the same Magnitude with what he pretends to imitate, and the like ;

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

He [ndr : un peintre] must not only have a nice Judgment to distinguish betwixt things nearly Resembling one another, but not the same […], but he must moreover have the same Delicacy in his Eyes to judge of the Tincts of Colours which are of infinite Variety ; and to distinguish whether a Line be streight, or curv’d a little ; whether This is exactly parallel to That, or oblique, and in what degree ; how This curv’d Line differs from That, if it differs at all, of which he must also judge ; whether what he has drawn is of the same Magnitude with what he pretends to imitate, and the like ; and must have a Hand exact enough to form these in his Work, answerable to the Ideas he has taken of them.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

‘Twas never thought unworthy of a Gentleman to be Master of the Theory of Painting. On the contrary, if such a one has but a superficial Skill that way, he values himself upon it, and is the more esteem’d by others, as one who has attain’d an Excellency of Mind beyond those that are Ignorant in that particular.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → connaissance
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

‘Tis true, the Word Painter does not generally carry with it an Idea equal to what we have of other Professions, or Employments not Superior to it ; the Reason of which is, That Term is appropriated to all sorts of Pretenders to the Art, which being Numerous, and for the most part very Deficient, (as it must needs happen, so few having Abilities and Opportunities equal to such an Undertaking) These consequently have fallen into Contempt ; […] ; and this being visible in a great Majority, it has diminish’d the Idea which ought to be apply’d to the Term I am speaking of ; which therefore is a very Ambiguous one, and should be consider’d as such, if it be extended beyond This, that it denotes one practising such an Art, for no body can tell what he ought to conceive farther of the Man, whether to rank him amongst some of the Meanest, or equal to the most Considerable amongst Men.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

THe whole Art of Painting consists of these Parts.
Invention, Expression, Composition, Drawing, Colouring, Handling, and Grace, and Greatness.
What is meant by these Terms, and that they are Qualities requisite to the Perfection of the Art, and really Distinct from each other, so that no one of ‘em can be fairly imply’d by any other, will appear when I treat of them in their Order ; and this will justify my giving so many Parts to Painting, which some others who have wrote on it have not done.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

The Art in its whole Extent being too great to be compass’d by any one Man in any tolerable Degree of Perfection, some have apply’d themselves to paint One thing, and some Another : Thus there are Painters of Faces, History, Landscapes, Battels, Drolls, Still-Life, Flowers, and Fruit, Ships, &c. but every one of these several Kinds of Pictures ought to have all the several Parts, or Qualities just now mentioned [ndr : invention, expression, composition, drawing, colouring, handling, grace, greatness].

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
GENRES PICTURAUX → scène de genre
GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
GENRES PICTURAUX → nature morte

The History-Painter is obliged oftentimes to paint all these kinds of Subjects [ndr : visages, histoires, paysages, batailles, sujets grotesques, natures mortes, fleurs, fruits, bateaux, etc.], and the Face-Painter Most of ‘em ; but besides that they in such Cases are allow’d the Assistance of other Hands, the Inferior Subjects are in Comparison of their Figures as the Figures in a Landscape, there is no great Exactness required, or pretended to.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
L’ARTISTE → qualités
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix
GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

but when Van-Dyck came Hither, he brought Face-Painting to Us ; ever since which time (that is, for above fourscore Years) England has excell’d all the World in that great Branch of the Art, […] This may justly be esteem’d as a Complete, and the Best School for Face-Painting Now in the World ; and would probably have been yet Better, had Van Dyck’s Model been follow’d : But some Painters possibly finding themselves incapable of succeeding in His Way, and having found their Account in introducing a False Taste, Others have follow’d their Example, and forsaking the Study of Nature, have prostituted a Noble Art, chusing to exchange the honourable Character of good Painters for that sordid one of profess’d, mercenary Flatterers ;

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Italy has unquestionably produc’d the best Modern Painting, especially of the best Kinds, and posses’d it in a manner alone, when no other Nation in the World had it in any tolerable Degree ; That was Then consequently the great School of Painting. About a hundred Years ago there were a great many Excellent Painters in Flanders ; but when Van-Dyck came Hither, he brought Face-Painting to Us ; ever since which time (that is, for above fourscore Years) England has excell’d all the World in that great Branch of the Art, […] This may justly be esteem’d as a Complete, and the Best School for Face-Painting Now in the World ; and would probably have been yet Better, had Van Dyck’s Model been follow’d : But some Painters possibly finding themselves incapable of succeeding in His Way, and having found their Account in introducing a False Taste, Others have follow’d their Example, and forsaking the Study of Nature, have prostituted a Noble Art, chusing to exchange the honourable Character of good Painters for that sordid one of profess’d, mercenary Flatterers ;

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

MANIÈRE ET STYLE → école

Of INVENTION
BEING determined as to the History that is to be painted, the first thing the Painter has do do, is
To make himself Master of it as delivered by Historians, or otherwise ; and then to consider how to Improve it, keeping within the Bounds of Probability. Thus the Ancien Sculptors imitated Nature ; and thus the best Historians have related their Stories.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix

The same Liberty of heightning a Story [ndr : que dans le carton de Raphaël représentant Jésus donnant les clés à saint Pierre] is very commonly taken in Pictures of the Crucifixion ; the Blessed Virgin is represented as Swooning away at the Sight, and S. John, and the Women with great propriety dividing their Concern between the two Objets of it, which makes a fine Scene, and a considerable Improvement ; and probably was the Truth, though the History says no such thing.
[…].
An Improvement much of the same Nature is the Angels that are frequently introduced in a Nativity, or on other Occasions, the noble, though not rich Habit of the Virgin, and the like, though perhaps not altogether in the same Degree of Probability.

terms translations

La traduction du terme Improvement n'est pas littérale dans l'édition française de 1728. Le traducteur choisit en effet le terme Grâce, puis celui d'Invention. Dans le premier cas, l'insistance est mise sur la dimension esthétique, ce qui apparaît moins évident dans le texte anglais.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix

Under the present Rule is comprehended all those Incidents which the Painter invents to inrich his Composition ; and here in many Cases he has a vast Latitude, as in a Battel, a Plague, a Fire, the Slaughter of the Innocent, &c. Rafaëlle has finely imagined some of these (for example) in his Picture call’d the Incendio di Borgo. The Story is of a Fire at Rome miraculously extinguish’d by S. Leo IV. Because a Fire is seldom very great but when there happens to be a high Wind, he has painted such a one, as is seen by the flying of the Hair, Draperies, &c. There you see a great many Instances of Distress, and Paternal, and Filial Love.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix

A Painter is allow’d sometimes to depart even from Natural, and Historical Truth.
Thus in the Carton of the Draught of Fishes
Rafaëlle has made a Boat too little to hold the Figures he has plac’d in it ; and this is so visible, that Some are apt to Triumph over that great Man, […] ; but the Truth is, had he made the Boat large enough for those Figures his Picture would have been all Boat, which would have had a Disagreeable Effect ; […].

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la composition
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

But these Liberties [ndr : prises envers la vérité historique et naturelle] must be taken with great Caution and Judgment ; for in the main, Historical, and Natural Truth must be observed, the Story may be embellish’d, or something of it par’d away, but still So as it may be immediately known ; nor must any thing be contrary to Nature but upon great Necessity, and apparent Reason. History must not be corrupted, and turn’d into Fable or Romance : Every Person, and Thing must be made to sustain its proper Character ; and not only the Story, but the Circumstances must be observ’d, the Scene of Action, the Countrey, or Place, the Habits, Arms, Manners, Proportions, and the like, must correspond. This is call’d the observing the Costûme.

terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance
terms translations

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance
terms translations

story

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
terms translations

history

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Every Historical Picture is a Representation of one single point of Time ; This then must be chosen ; and That in the Story which is the most Advantageous must be It. Suppose, for Instance, the Story to be painted is that of the Woman taken in Adultery, the Painter Seems to be at liberty to choose whether he will represent the Scribes and Pharisees accusing her to our Lord ; Or our Lord writing on the Ground ; Or pronouncing the last of the Words, Let him that is among you without Sin cast the first Stone at her ; Or lastly his Absolution, Go thy way, Sin no more.

terms translations