EYE

EYE (n.)

AUGE (deu.) · OCCHIO (ita.) · ŒIL (fra.) · OOG (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
ŒIL (fra.) · OOG (nld.) · VUE (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
ŒIL (fra.) · VUE (fra.)
BAXANDALL, Michael, Formes de l'intention, trad. par FRAIXE, Catherine, Nîmes, Jacqueline Chambon, 1991.
BAXANDALL, Michael, L’œil du Quattrocento : l’usage de la peinture dans l’Italie de la Renaissance, Paris, Gallimard, 1994.
BAXANDALL, Michael, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1972.
BRYSON, Norman, HOLLY, Michael Ann et MOXEY, Keith (éd.), Visual Culture: Images and Interpretations, Actes du colloque de Rochester, Hanovre et Londres, Hanover - London, University Press of New England - Wesleyan University Press, 1994.
COMBRONDE, Caroline, De la lumière en peinture. Le débat latent du Grand Siècle, Louvain-la-Neuve, Éd. de l'Institut supérieur de philosophie, 2010.
GRIENER, Pascal, La République de l'œil. L'Expérience de l'art au siècle des Lumières, Paris, Odile Jacob, 2010.
HAMOU, Philippe, La vision perspective (1435-1740). L’art et la science du regard, de la Renaissance à l’âge classique, Paris, Payot & Rivages, 2007.
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « ŒIL », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 349-358.
HOCHMANN, Michel et JACQUART, Danielle (éd.), Lumière et vision dans les sciences et les arts de l’Antiquité au XVIIe siècle, Actes du colloque de Paris, Genève, Droz, 2010.
LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline, La couleur éloquente  : rhétorique et peinture à l’âge classique, Paris, Flammarion, 1999.
LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline, La tâche aveugle. Essai sur les relations de la peinture et de la sculpture à l'âge moderne, Paris, Gallimard, 2003.
OECHSLIN, Werner, « Au-delà de la théorie de l'art et de la philosophie : l'œil et le cœur », Revue d'esthétique, 31/32, 1997, p. 51-59.
PUTTFARKEN, Thomas, Roger de Piles’ Theory of Art, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 1985.

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

7 sources
26 quotations

Quotation

CHAP. III. Of the precepts of Drawing in General.
 
I. Be sure to have all the necessaries aforesaid in readiness, but it will be good to practise as much as may be without the help of your Rule and Compasses ; it is your eye and fansie must judge without artificial measurings.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Such is the Importance and Vertue of Proportion, that nothing can any way satisfie the Eye without the help thereof : So that whatsoever worketh any Pleasure or Delight in us, doth therefore content us ; because the Grace of Proportion consisting in the measure of the Parts, appeareth therein ; Wherefore all the Inventions of Men carry with them so much the more Grace and Beautie, by how much the more Ingeniously they are proportioned, whence Vitruvius saith, That whosoever will proceed in his Works with Judgment, must needs be acquainted with the Nature and Force of Proportion ; which being well and kindly understood, will make him not only an excellent Judge of ancient and late Workmen, but also an Inventor and Performer of Rare and Excellent Matters himself.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Now the Effects proceeding from Proportion are unspeakable, the Principal whereof, is that Majestie and Beautie which is found in Bodies, called by Vitruvius, EURITHMIA. And hence it is, that when behold a well-proportioned thing, we call it Beautiful, as if we should say, Indued with that exact and comely Grace, whereby all the Perfection of sweet Delights belonging to the Sight, are communicated to the Eye, and so conveyed to the Understanding.
But if we shall enter into a farther Consideration of this
Beauty, it will appear most evidently in things appertaining to Civil Discipline ; for it is strange to consider what effects of Piety, Reverence and Religion, are stirred up in mens Minds, by means of this suitable comeliness of apt proportion. A pregnant example whereof we have in the Jupiter carved by Phidias at Elis, which wrought an extraordinary sense of Religion in the People, whereupon the antient and renowned Zeuxis well knowing the excellency and dignity thereof, perswaded Greece in her most flourishing Estate, that the Pictures wherein this Majesty appeared were dedicated to great Princes, and consecrated to the Temples of the Immortal gods, so that they held them in exceeding great estimation ; partly because they were the Works of those famous Masters, who were reputed as gods amongt men ; and partly because they not only represented the Works of God, but also supplyed the defects of Nature : ever making choice of the Flower and Quintessence of Eye-pleasing delights.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Of the side face without any Measure.
Being desireous to make the side
face without any Triangle or Measure, which with a little care and practice, observing the distances and Measures which will serve for Direction, because the Head and other parts of the Body ought to be proportional, and made from Measures ; it will easily follow, Framing or Traceing many, you may not only Facilitate it by the Eye and Judgement, but also accommodate the Hand, to Trace and draw, all things right, for it is true that the Eye will have its place. I having drawn certain stroaks or draughts from the life of nature, and reduced it with the Pencil into Colours, have found it come off punctually right, of a correspondent bigness to that, which I have imitated, and have not found any thing disproportioned, but have alwayes found it fall out right as I would have it, therefore I say that this Rule, and Measure which I have set down, in the Porphile or other opositions of the Head, is not any hindrance to the excellency of the Art, nor will weaken your worth, but will serve for a general Rule being once possest therewith, and also become prevalent when occasion shall require, to make a Head Ten times as big as the Life ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Moreover it is said, that it [ndr : la peinture] representeth the Figure upon a Plaine, and hereby it is distinguished from Carving (though not Essentially, but onely Accidentally (as it is said in the Proem) by reason of the diversity of the matter, wherein both of them represent natural things which imitateth Nature likewise, though it express the perfect roundness of the Bodies as they are created of God, whereas the Painter representeth them upon a Flat Superficies : Which is one of the chiefest reasons, why Painting hath ever been preferred before Carving.
Because by meer
Art upon a Flat, where it findeth only length, and breadth, it representeth to the Eye the Third Dimension, which is roundness and thickness ; and so maketh the Body to appear upon a Flat ; where naturally it is not.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Now the Painter expresseth two things with his colour : First the colour of the thing, whether it be artificial or natural, which he doth with the like colour, as the colour of a blew garment with artificial blew, or the green colour of a Tree with the like green : Secondly he expresseth the light of the Sun, or any other bright Body apt to lighten or manifest the colours, and because colour cannot be seen without light, being nothing else (as the Philosophers teach) but the extream Superficies of a dark untransparent Body lightned, I hold it expedient for him that will prove exquisite in the use thereof, to be most diligent in searching out the effects of light, when it enlightneth colour, which who so doth seriously consider, shall express all those effects with an admirable Grace ; […].
Now when the
Painter would imitate this blew thus lightned, he shall take his artificial blew colour, counterfeiting therewith the blew of the garment, but when he would express the light, wherewith the blew seems clearer, he must mix so much white with his blew, as he findeth light in that part of the garment, where the light striketh with greater force, considering afterwards the other part of the garment, where there is not so much light, and shall mingle less white with his blew proportionably, and so shall he proceed with the like discretion in all the other parts : and where the light falleth not so vehemently, but only by reflexion there he shall mix so much shadow with his blew, as shall seem sufficient to represent that light, loosing it self as it were by degrees, provided alwayes, that where the light is less darkned, there he place his shadow,
In which judicious expressing of the effects of light together with the
colours, Raphael Urbine, Leonard Vincent, Antonius de Coreggio and Titian were most admirable, handling them with so great discretion and judgement, that their Pictures seemed rather natural, then artificial ; the reason whereof the vulgar Eye cannot conceive, notwithstanding these excellent Masters expressed their chiefest art therein, considering with themselves that the light falling upon the flesh caused these and such like effects, in which kind Titan excelled the rest, who as well to shew his great Skill therein, as to merit commendation, used to cozen and deceive Mens Eyes, […].

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Again Titian to make known his art his lights and shadows, when he would express the lightest part of the Body used to add a little too much white, making it much lighter then his pattern, and in the obscure parts, where the light fell by reflexion, a little too much shadow, in resemblance of the decay of the light in that part of the Body, and so his work seemeth to be much raised, and deceive the sight, for the light which cometh to the Eye, in a Pyramidal forme (as shall be shewed in the ensuing discourse) cometh with a blunter and bigger Angle, and so is seen more evidently, whence ariseth a wonderfull eminency, the especial cause whereof is, because there is much more shadow then needeth in that part, where the light decayeth most, so that the vusual lines failing, that part cometh to the Eye in an accuter and sharper angle, and therefore cannot be seen so perfectly, insomuch that that part seemeth to fly inwards, and stand farther off. Thus when the Four parts of a Body are much raised, and the hinder fly sufficiently inwards, there appeareth a very great heightning, which giveth a wonderfrll Spirit, and after this sort Titian beguiled the Eyes of such as beheld his most admirable works.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Of Landskip.


{
Landskip.} In drawing Landskip with water colours ever begin with the Skie, and if there be any Sunbeams, do them first. 
{
Purple Clouds.} For the Purple Clouds, only mingle Lake and white.
{
Yellow.} The Sun-beams, Masticot and white.
{
Note 1.} Work your blew Skie with smalt only, or Ultramarine.
{
Note 2.} At your first working dead colour all the piece over, leave nothing uncovered, lay the colour smooth and even.
{
Note 3.} Work the Skie down in the Horizon fainter as you draw near the Earth, except in tempestuous skies, work your further Mountains so that they should seem to be lost in the Air.
{
Note 4.} Your first ground must be of the colour of the Earth and dark ; yellowish, brown, green, the next successively as they loose in their distance must also faint and abate in their colours
{
Note 5.} Beware of perfection at a distance.
{
Note 6.} Ever place light against dark, and dark against light (that is) the only way to extend the prospect far off, is by opposing light to shadows, yet so as ever they must loose their force and vigor in proportion as they remove from the Eye, and the strongest shadow ever nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Of Foreshortening.


The fourth Excellency in Good Drawing is
Foreshortening, which is to take a thing as it appears to our Eye, and not to draw to the full length and proportion of every Part, but to make it shorter, by reason that the full length and bigness is hid from our sight. As if I were to design a Ship standing foreright, there can appear but onely her Fore-part, the rest is hid from our sight, and therefore must not be expressed. […]. Wherefore observe this Rule, that you must always rather imitate the Visible Proportion of things, then the Proper and Natural Proportions before mentioned by Measure ; for the Eye and the Understanding together being  directed by the Prospective Art, ought to be the Guide and Measure to judge of Drawing and Painting. Observe therefore that in all Foreshortenings there must be a Proportion observed according to the judgment of the Eye, that what Limbs do appear may agree in Proportion as well as in Foreshortening.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Friend,
            When a Painter has acquired any Excellency in
Desinging, readily and strongly ; What has he to do next ?
                        Traveller,
            That is not half his Work, for then he must begin to mannage his
Colours, it being particularly by them, that he is to express the greatness of his Art. ’Tis they that give, as it were, Life and Soul to all that he does ; without them, his Lines will be but Lines that are flat, and without a Body, but the addition of Colours makes that appear round ; and as it were out of the Picture, which else would be plain and dull. ’Tis they that must deceive the Eye, to the degree, to make Flesh appear warm and soft, and to give an Air of Life, so as his Picture may seem almost to Breath and Move.
                        Friend,
            Did ever any Painter arrive to that Perfection you mention ?
                        Traveller,
            Yes, several, both of the
Antient and Modern Painters. Zeuxis Painted Grapes, so that the Birds flew at them to eat them. Apelles drew Horses to such a likeness, that upon setting them before live Horses, the Live ones Neighed, and began to kick at them, as being of their own kind. And amongst the Modern Painters, Hannibal Carache, relates to himself, That going to see Bassano at Venice, he went to take a Book off a Shelf, and found it to be the Picture of one, so lively done, that he who was a Great Painter, was deceived by it. The Flesh of Raphael’s Pictures are so Natural, that this seems to be Alive. And so do Titians Pictures, who was the Greatest Master for Colouring that ever was, having attained to imitate Humane Bodies in all the softness of Flesh, and beauty of Skin and Complexion.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

Traveller.
           
There is a thing which the Italians call Morbidezza ; The meaning of which word, is to Express the Softness, and tender Liveliness of Flesh and Blood, so as the Eye may almost invite the Hand to touch and feel it, as if it were Alive ; and this is the hardest thing to Compass in the whole Art of Painting. And ‘tis in this particular, that Titian, Corregio, and amongst the more Modern, Rubens, and Vandike, do Excel.
                       
Friend.
            I have heard, that in some Pictures of Raphael, the very Gloss of Damask, and the Softness of Velvet, with the Lustre of Gold, are so Expressed, that you would take them to be Real, and not Painted : Is not that as hard to do, as to imitate Flesh ?
                        Traveller.
            No : Because those things are but the stil Life, whereas there is a Spirit in Flesh and Blood, which is hard to Represent. But a good Painter must know how to do those Things you mention, and many more : As for Example, He must know how to Imitate the Darkness of Night, the Brightness of Day, the Shining and Glittering of Armour ; the Greenness of Trees, the Dryness of Rocks. In a word, All Fruits, Flowers, Animals, Buildings, so as that they all appear
Natural and Pleasing to the Eye.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard
EFFET PICTURAL → trompe-l’œil

Quotation

Friend.
 
            What is properly the Colouring of a Piece of Painting ?
 
                        Traveller.
 
           
It is the Art of employing the Colours proper to the Subject, with a regard to the Lights and Shadows that are incident to the Story, either according to the Truth of it, or to the Painter’s Invention : and out of the Management of these comes all the Strength, Relievo, and Roundness that the Figures have : ’tis hard to give Positive Rules here, it depending much on Practice ; but the most General is, so to manage your Colours, Lights, and Shadows, that the Bodies enlightned may appear by the Opposition of your Shadows ;

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Quotation

Be sure in Landskip that you lessen your bodies proportionably according to their distances, so that the farther the Landskip goeth from your eye, the fainter you must express any thing seen at distance, till at last the Sky and the Earth seem to meet, as the Colours in a Rain-bow do.
There are many excellent pieces of Landskip to be procured very easily ; as also of Landskip and Perspective intermixed, which pieces to me were ever the most delightful of any other ; and such I would advise you to practice by ; they, if they be good, being the only helps to teach you proportion of bodies in any position, either near or a-far off.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Chap. VI, Of LANDKSIP.
The bounds and limits of
Landskip are inexpressible, they being as various as fancy is copious ; I will give you only some general Rules for Painting of Landskip, and so conclude this third Book.
In painting of any Landskip always begin with the Sky, the Sun-beams, or lightest parts first ; next the Yellow beams, which compose of Masticote and White ; next your Blew Skies, with Smalt only. At your first colouring leave no part of your ground uncovered ; but lay Your Colours smooth and even all over. Work your Sky downwards towards your Horizon fainter and fainter, as it draws nearer and nearer to the Earth ; you must work your tops of Mountains and objects far remote, so faint that they may appear as lost in the Air : Your lowest and nearest Ground must be of the colour of the earth, of a dark yellowish brown Green, the next lighter Green, and so successively as they lose in their distance, they must abate in their colour. Make nothing that you see at a distance perfect ; as if discerning a Building to be fourteen or fifteen miles off, I know not Church, Castle, House, or the like ; so that in drawing of it you must express no particular sign, as Bell, Portcullis, or the like ; but express it in colours as weakly and faintly as your eye judgeth of it. Ever in your Landskip place light against dark, and dark against light, which is the only way to extend the prospect far off, occasioned by opposing light to shadow ; yet so as the shadows must lose their force in proportion as they remove from the eye, and the strongest shadow must always be nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Quotation

Proportion is of two sorts either Proper, Expressing the exact Proportion of the Thing to be Represented, or else in Perspective, in Respect of the Eye, differing very much from the other, for according to the Distance of the Thing from the Eye is Judgeth what Proportion the Head hath with the Body.
            For should a
Carver make a Statue according to true Proportion and place it on high, he that below beholds it will judge it Disproportionable, by Reason the upper Parts will come to the Eye in a Sharp Angle, and the lower Parts in a Blunt.
[...].
            So great is the Vertue of
Proportion, that nothing delighteth the Eye without it, since the Grace of all Beautifull Forms consists in a Proportionable Measure of Parts, and as Vitruvious saith, that none can proceed with Judgment without Acquaintance with the Force thereof, it giving the Majesty and Beauty to Bodys, whence he calleth it Eurithmia.
            It hath been of great Force in exciting Mens Minds to Reverence and Devotion, witness the
Statue of Jupiter Carv’d by Phidias ; [...].
           
Proportion is a Correspondency and Agreement of the Measures of the Parts between themselves, and with the whole in every Work
.            This
Correspondency Vitruvius cals Commodulation, because a Modell is a Measure, which being taken at first, measures both the Parts and the Whole.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

Perspective (being a Species of Geometry) is a Science treating of Visible Lines, and may be divided into three parts, Optica, Sciographica and Specularia.
           
Optica is of two kindes, either Physiological or Grammical.
The
Physiological part scearcheth the Universal Principles, Causes and Elements of the appearences of things [...].
The
Grammical is the Art of Delineation, and is more Necessary to Painting then the other. [...].
            Another
Species is call’d Sciographica ; It handleth the Causes, Principles, Elements and Properties of Shaddows ; giving the Reason of the Variety of the Apparitions of the Shapes and Images of Things, [...].
            The last
Species is Specularia, and considereth the Reflections and Refractions of Beams, giving Directions for making Glasses, [...].
            The
Eye is the Foundation of Perspective, because thence the Natural and the Rational Sight is Formed : Natuaral wherein the shapes of Things seen do come to it simply, by the Beams of light ; Rational, wherein there is farther Consider’d the Reason and Effect of the Sight, even where the Eye cannot be otherwise plac’d then by supposition, as at an infinite distance, &c.
            The
Eye is call’d by some Italian Authours, the Term ; because by it all Things in a Picture are Limited, and any Thing made without the disposition of this Term, cannot be true, as not being dispos’d for the Sight, nor order’d according to the Visuall Beames, coming to the Eye from the whole.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

In great works we mnst lay the Colours on Full, that we may Empast and Incorporate them sweetly, and that will make them to hold Firm and be lasting.
[...].
Colours must be so laid together, that they may be all sweetly united under the Briskness of a principall one, that it may participate of the Light which is chief over all the rest in the Picture ; and that all the Colours be Connected together by an agreeable Union, and likewise so dispos’d as they may partake of each other, by the Communication of the Light and help of Reflection.
We must not only avoid all
Garrish and Gaudy Colouring (the Effect of a poor Judgment) but likewise a Briskness in the Meaner Parts which may any way hurt the Eye of the Picture.
We must observe to lay the Colours very strong at first, because it is easy to weaken what we would put back ; but more difficult to give a strength, where it is weakly put in.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

However I will here make him [ndr : au lecteur] an Offer of an Abstract of what I take to be those by which a Painter, or Connoisseur, may safely conduct himself, [...] III. There must be One Principal Light, and This, and all the subordinate ones with the Shaddows, and Reposes, must make One, Intire, Harmonious Mass ; The several Parts must be well Connected, and Contrasted, so as that Tout-ensemble must be Grateful to the Eye ; as a good piece of Musick is to the Ear. By this Means the Picture is not only more Delightful, but better Seen, and Comprehended. [...] V. The Colouring whether Gay, or Solid, must be Natural, Beautiful, and Clean, and what the Eye is delighted with, in Shaddows as well as Lights, and Middle Tints.

term translated by ŒIL in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 12-13.
term translated by VUE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 12-13.