JUDGEMENT (n.)

BEURTEILUNG (deu.) · GIUDIZIO (ita.) · JUGEMENT (fra.) · OORDEEL (nld.) · OORDEELSKRACHT (nld.) · URTEIL (deu.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
ESPRIT (fra.) · JUGEMENT (fra.) · KENNIS (nld.) · OORDEEL (nld.) · VERSTANDIG (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
DISCERNEMENT (fra.) · JUGEMENT (fra.)
FERRAN, Florence, « Les décisions de l'ignorant en débat dans la critique d'art au XVIIIe siècle », dans MICHEL, Christian et MAGNUSSON, Carl (éd.), Penser l’art dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle : théorie, critique, philosophie, histoire, Actes du colloque de Lausanne, Paris et Rome, Paris, Somogy, 2013, p. 129-143.
FREYSSINET, Marianne et GRIMAUD, Pierrick, « JUGEMENT », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 305-313.
FRIPP, Jessica L., GORSE, Amandine, MANCEAU, Nathalie et STRUCKMEYER, Nina (éd.), Artistes, savants et amateurs : art et sociabilité au XVIIIe siècle (1715-1815), Actes du colloque de Paris, Paris, Paris Mare & Martin Editions, 2016.
GRIENER, Pascal, La République de l'œil. L'Expérience de l'art au siècle des Lumières, Paris, Odile Jacob, 2010.
JOLLET, Étienne, « Entre exemplarité et singularité : biographie de l'artiste, préceptes théoriques et jugement de l'œuvre d'art des Vies de Vasari aux Vies anciennes de Watteau », dans LUCAS FIORATO, Corinne et DUBUS, Pascale (éd.), La Réception des Vite de Giorgio Vasari dans l'Europe des XVIe-XVIIIe siècles, Actes du colloque de Paris, Genève, Droz, 2017, p. 299-311.
KLUGE, Dorit, « La Font de Saint-Yenne (1688-1771), un penseur des Lumières », dans MICHEL, Christian et MAGNUSSON, Carl (éd.), Penser l’art dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle : théorie, critique, philosophie, histoire, Actes du colloque de Lausanne, Paris, Somogy, 2013, p. 205-219.
LAFONT, Anne, « Comment peut-on être critique ? Jugement de goût et relativisme culturel », dans MICHEL, Christian et MAGNUSSON, Carl (éd.), Penser l’art dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle : théorie, critique, philosophie, histoire, Actes du colloque de Lausanne, Paris, Somogy, 2013, p. 143-155.
LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline, « L’argument de l’ignorant : de la théorie de l’art à l’esthétique », dans MICHEL, Christian et MAGNUSSON, Carl (éd.), Penser l’art dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle : théorie, critique, philosophie, histoire, Actes du colloque de Lausanne, Paris, Somogy, 2013, p. 81-90.
MANCEAU, Nathalie, « Baillet de Saint-Julien, la théorie d'une peinture pour un spectateur exigeant », dans MICHEL, Christian et MAGNUSSON, Carl (éd.), Penser l’art dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle : théorie, critique, philosophie, histoire, Actes du colloque de Lausanne, Paris, Somogy, 2013, p. 221-234.
ROESLER-FRIEDENTHAL, Antoinette et NATHAN, Johannes (éd.), The Enduring Instant: Time and Spectator in the Visual Arts. Der bleibende Augenblick : Betrachterzeit in den Bildkünsten, Actes du congrès international de Londres, Berlin, G. Mann, 2003.
SCONZA, Anna, « Polysémie et vicissitudes du terme "giudizio/jugement" : de Vasari aux théoriciens français », dans LUCAS FIORATO, Corinne et DUBUS, Pascale (éd.), La Réception des Vite de Giorgio Vasari dans l'Europe des XVIe-XVIIIe siècles, Actes du colloque de Paris, Genève, Droz, 2017, p. 283-297.

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10 quotations

Quotation

Of the Graces of Landtskip.
Though invention and imitation in this kinde are infinite, you must have a care to worke with a found judgement, that your worke become not ridiculous to the beholders eye, as well for true observation of the distance as absurditie of accident : that is, though your Landtship be good and true in generall, yet some particular error overslips your judgment either in mistaking or not observing the time and season of the yeere, the true shadow of your worke with the light of the Sunne, the bending of trees in winds and tempests, the naturall course of river and such like.
To settle therefore your judgement in these and the like, I whis you first to imitate the abstract or labour of every moneth. […].
  If you draw your Landtskip according to your invention, you shall please very well, if you shew in the same, the faire side of some goodly Citie, haven, forrest, stately house with gardens, I ever tooke delight in those peeces that shewed to the like a country village, faire or market,
Bergamascas cookerie, Morrice dancing, peasants together by the eares, and the like.
For your
Parergas or needlesse graces, you may set forth the same with farme houses, water-milles, pilgrimes travelling through the woods, the ruines of Churches, Castles, &c. but you shall finde your conceipt seconded with a thousand inventions.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Having made your hand fit and ready in generall proportion, learn to give all bodies their true shadows according to their eminence and concavity, and to heighthen or deepen, as your body appeareth nearer or farther from the light ; which is a matter of great judgment, and indeed the soul (as I may say) of a picture.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

{Of Painting in Oyle.} Painting in Oyle is done, I confess, with greater judgment, and is generally of more esteem, then working in water colours; but then it is more Mechanique, and will rob you of overmuch time from your more excellent studies, it being sometime a fortnight, or a month ere you can finish an ordinary piece. I have known Michael Janss of Delf in Holland, the most excellent Painter of all the Low-Countries, to have been (at times), a whole half year about a picture, yet in the end to have blurred it out (as it is his manner) for some small disresemblance, either in the eye or mouth ; so curious is the workmanship to do it well : beside, oyle, nor oyle colours, if they drop upon apparel, will not out ; when water colours will with the least washing.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

X. In mixed and uncertain forms, where Circle and Square will do no good (but onely the Idea thereof in your own fansie) as in Lions, Horses, and the like ; you must work by reason in your own judgment, and so obtain the true proportion by daily practice. Thus,
Having the shape of the thing in your mind, first draw it rudely with your coal, then more exactly with your lead or pensil ; then peruse it well, and consider where you have erred, and mend it, according to that Idea, which you carry in your mind ; this done, view it again, correcting by degrees the other parts, even to the least Jota, so far as your judgement will inform you ; and this you may do with twenty, thirty, fourty or more papers of several things at once : having done what you can, confer it with some excellent pattern or print of like kind, using no rule or compass at all, but your own reason, in mending every fault, giving every thing its due place, and just proportion ; by this means you may rectifie all your errours, and step and Incredible way on to perfection.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

Such is the Importance and Vertue of Proportion, that nothing can any way satisfie the Eye without the help thereof : So that whatsoever worketh any Pleasure or Delight in us, doth therefore content us ; because the Grace of Proportion consisting in the measure of the Parts, appeareth therein ; Wherefore all the Inventions of Men carry with them so much the more Grace and Beautie, by how much the more Ingeniously they are proportioned, whence Vitruvius saith, That whosoever will proceed in his Works with Judgment, must needs be acquainted with the Nature and Force of Proportion ; which being well and kindly understood, will make him not only an excellent Judge of ancient and late Workmen, but also an Inventor and Performer of Rare and Excellent Matters himself.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Of the side face without any Measure.
Being desireous to make the side
face without any Triangle or Measure, which with a little care and practice, observing the distances and Measures which will serve for Direction, because the Head and other parts of the Body ought to be proportional, and made from Measures ; it will easily follow, Framing or Traceing many, you may not only Facilitate it by the Eye and Judgement, but also accommodate the Hand, to Trace and draw, all things right, for it is true that the Eye will have its place. I having drawn certain stroaks or draughts from the life of nature, and reduced it with the Pencil into Colours, have found it come off punctually right, of a correspondent bigness to that, which I have imitated, and have not found any thing disproportioned, but have alwayes found it fall out right as I would have it, therefore I say that this Rule, and Measure which I have set down, in the Porphile or other opositions of the Head, is not any hindrance to the excellency of the Art, nor will weaken your worth, but will serve for a general Rule being once possest therewith, and also become prevalent when occasion shall require, to make a Head Ten times as big as the Life ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Traveller,
           
Design is the Expressing with a Pen, or Pencil, or other Instrument, the Likeness of any Object by its out Lines, or Contours ; and he that Understands and Mannages well these first Lines, working after Nature still, and using extream Diligence, and skill may with Practice and Judgment, arrive to an Excellency in the Art.
                        Friend,
            Me thinks that should be no difficult Matter, for we see many whose Inclination carys them to Draw any thing they see, and they perform it with ease.
                       
Traveller,
            I grant you, Inclination goes a great way in disposing the Hand, but a strong Imagination only, will not carry a Painter through ; For when he compares his Work to
Nature, he will soon find, that great Judgment is requisite, as well as a Lively Fancy ; and particularly when he comes to place many Objects together in one Piece or Story, which are all to have a just relation to one another. There he will find that not only the habit of the Hand but the strength of the Mind is requisite ; therefore all the Eminent Painters that ever were, spent more time in Designing after the Life, and after the Statues of the Antients, then ever did in learning how to colour their Works ; that so they might be Masters of Design, and be able to place readily every Object in its true situation.

mind

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination

Quotation

Traveller,
           
You must know, that the Italians have a Way of Painting their Pallaces, both within and without, upon the bear Walls, and before Oyl Painting came up, most Masters wrought that Way ; and it is the most Masterly of all the ways of Painting, because it is done upon a Wall newly Plaistered, and you must Plaister no more, than what you can do in a Day ; the Colours being to Incorporate with the Mortar, and dry with it, and it cannot be Touched over again, as all other Ways of Painting may : This is that they call Painting in Fresco.
                        Friend,
            This must require a very Dexterous and quick Hand.
                        Traveller.
            Yes, and a good Judgment too ; f
or the Colours will show otherwise when they are Dry, than they did when they were Wet : Therefore there is great Practice required in Mannaging them, but then this Way makes amends for its Difficulties ; for the longer it stands, it acquires still more Beauty and Union, it resisting both Wind and Rain. 

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Never was a Calm Becoming Sorrow better Express’d than in this Face [ndr : il s’agit du portrait de la Comtesse Dowager d’Exeter, par Van Dyck] chiefly there where ‘tis always most conspicuous that is in the Eyes : Not Guido Reni, no, nor Raffaelle himself could have Conceiv’d a Passion with more Delicacy, or more Strongly Express’d it ! To which also the Whole Attitude of the Figure contributes not a little, her Right Hand drops easily from the Elbow of the Chair which her Wrist lightly rests upon, the other lies in her Lap towards her Left Knees, all which together appears so Easy, and Careless, that what is Lost in the Composition by the Regularity I have taken notice of, is Gain’d in the Expression ; which being of greater Consequence justifies V. Dyck in the main, and shows his great Judgment, for tho’ as it Is, there is (as I said) something amiss, I cannot conceive any way of Avoiding That Inconvenience without a Greater.

term translated by JUGEMENT in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 25.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

He [ndr : un peintre] must not only have a nice Judgment to distinguish betwixt things nearly Resembling one another, but not the same […], but he must moreover have the same Delicacy in his Eyes to judge of the Tincts of Colours which are of infinite Variety ; and to distinguish whether a Line be streight, or curv’d a little ; whether This is exactly parallel to That, or oblique, and in what degree ; how This curv’d Line differs from That, if it differs at all, of which he must also judge ; whether what he has drawn is of the same Magnitude with what he pretends to imitate, and the like ; and must have a Hand exact enough to form these in his Work, answerable to the Ideas he has taken of them.

term translated by DISCERNEMENT in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 19-20.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités