BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.

BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.

Getty Research Institute Los Angeles N7430 .B7 1675 Images hors-texte Frontispice 307 quotations 176 terms
Alexander Browne (1659-1706), « Practitioner in the Art of Limning », est l’auteur d’un traité artistique, Ars pictoria, or, An Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning and Etching, publié en 1669 et réédité en 1675 [1]. Ce miniaturiste, dont la formation demeure méconnue, est aussi marchand d’art et l’un des premiers éditeurs de gravures en manière noire [2]. Browne a également enseigné le dessin à l’épouse de Samuel Pepys, comme le rapporte le journal de ce dernier en 1665-1666 [3].
La seconde édition d’Ars pictoria reprend le contenu de la première, tout en ajoutant une partie intitulée An Appendix treating of the Art of Painting in Miniture or Limning et présentée comme un véritable traité à part, possédant ainsi sa propre page de titre ainsi qu’une dédicace à Sir Peter Lely. 
Ars Pictoria comporte cinq chapitres mêlant théorie et pratique. Browne évoque tout d’abord les proportions, puis la peinture d’une manière assez générale – il définit cet art et aborde notamment la couleur et la lumière –, l’action et le mouvement des figures, la miniature et enfin la gravure. Dans l’Appendix, Browne s’intéresse plus particulièrement à l’art de la miniature. Il reprend ainsi quelques éléments déjà abordés dans la première partie de son texte, notamment les pigments à utiliser, et s’intéresse plus en détail au traitement des figures, aux draperies ou encore au genre du paysage en miniature. Il évoque en outre le pastel d’un point de vue plutôt pratique, en expliquant comment fabriquer les bâtonnets de couleur. Enfin, les dernières pages contiennent deux vies d’artistes. Le traité de Browne est ainsi composé de parties théoriques et d’instructions davantage pratiques à destination de l’amateur et du jeune peintre, graveur ou miniaturiste [4].
Ars pictoria comporte 31 gravures dont certaines sont issues d’un bref livre de dessin publié par Browne en 1660, The Whole Art of Drawing, Painting, Limning and Etching – le contenu de ce texte provient d’un traité d’Odoardo Fialetti, Il vero modo ed ordine di disegnare tutte le parti del corpo umano, Venise, 1608. La majorité des autres planches d’Ars pictoria a été gravée d’après Abraham Bloemaert. 
Ars pictoria demeure largement tributaire de la littérature artistique publiée précédemment. En effet, Browne se contente souvent de reprendre au mot près des parties entières de la traduction de Lomazzo publiée par Haydocke en 1598, A Tracte containing the Artes of curious Paintinge Carvinge & Buildinge. Il copie par exemple le chapitre sur l’expression « Of the Vertue and Efficacy of Motion » sans même changer le titre. Browne modifie toutefois l’ordre des parties d’Haydocke, en mettant par exemple le chapitre sur les proportions avant de définir la peinture, contrairement à Haydocke. Il ne reprend pas non plus l’ensemble du Tracte et supprime des passages liés à l’architecture, à la couleur, à la lumière ou encore à la perspective [5]. 
Ars pictoria s’inscrit dans la veine des textes artistiques anglais du XVIIe siècle, avec des ouvrages tels que The Gentleman’s Exercise de Peacham ou le Graphice de Sanderson, deux textes qui s’appuient eux-mêmes en partie sur la traduction de Lomazzo par Haydocke, et qui mélangent de même la théorie et la pratique de l’art.

Élodie Cayuela

[1] Browne est présenté ainsi sur la page de titre de ces deux textes.
[2] Pour plus de détails sur la carrière de Browne et particulièrement sur son activité d’éditeur, voir A. Griffiths, « Browne, Alexander (d. 1706) », Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford, Oxford University Press, édition en ligne, janvier 2008 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/3664, consulté le 14 février 2017]. Voir aussi A. Griffiths, 1990, p. 133-134.
[3] Ibid. Voir aussi F. Hard, 1940, p. 727. 
[4] Comme le précise également la page de titre de la première édition d’Ars pictoria, ce texte s’adresse aux « Ingenious Gentlemen and Artists ». Voir aussi C. A. Good, 2013, p. 134.
[5] Sur les emprunts de Browne à Haydocke, voir F. Hard, 1940. F. Hard met en rapport les passages copiés par Browne avec le texte d’Haydocke.
in-folio english

Dedication
Anne, Dutchess of Monmouth and Bucclugh and Peter Lely

Structure
Table des matières at n.p.
Table des matières at n.p.
Dédicace(s) at n.p.
Avis au lecteur at n.p.
Épître(s) at n.p.
Épître(s) at n.p.
Dédicace(s) at n.p.
Catalogue de gravures at n.p.

BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning and Etching. To which are added Thirty Copper Plates expressing the choicest, nearest and most exact Grounds and Rules of Symetry ; Collected our of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Nederlands Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner of the Art of Limning, and Published for all Ingenious Gentlemen and Artists, London, J. Redmayne, 1669.

HARD, Frederick, « Richard Haydocke and Alexander Browne: Two Half-Forgotten Writers on the Art of Painting », PMLA, 55/3, 1940, p. 727-741 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/458735 consulté le 24/11/2015].

OGDEN, Henry et OGDEN, Margaret, « A Bibliography of Seventeenth-Century Writings on the Pictorial Arts in English », The Art Bulletin, 29/3, 1947, p. 196-201.

SALERNO, Luigi, « Seventeenth-Century English Literature on Painting », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 14/3-4, 1951, p. 234-258 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/750341 consulté le 30/03/2018].

GRIFFITHS, Antony, « Early Mezzotint Publishing in England - II Peter Lely, Tompson and Browne », Print Quarterly, 7/2, 1990, p. 131-145 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/41824560 consulté le 30/03/2018].

GRIFFITHS, Antony et GERARD, Robert A. (éd.), The Print in Stuart Britain, 1603-1689, cat. exp., London, British Museum, 1998, British Museum, 1998.

JEFFARES, Neil, [Dictionary of pastellists before 1800], Pastels & pastellists, 2008 [En ligne : http://www.pastellists.com/ consulté le 03/01/2017].

HURLEY, Cecilia, « William Salmon et la “Polygraphice” : la théorie de l’art en Angleterre avant Jonathan Richardson », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), L’histoire de l’histoire de l’art septentrional au XVIIe siècle, Actes des journées d'étude de Lille et de Bruxelles, Turnhout, Brepols, 2010, p. 187-207.

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QUOTATIONS

The Grecians had this Art in so high esteem, that they made an Edict, that no Slave should be admitted to learn this Art ; and good reason, because this Art should onely be permitted to those that were of a Free, Ingenious, Noble Mind, and such as excelled others in their sharp Ingenuity ; and this Noble Mind is soon espied in him who hath a delight to such a Liberal Art.
The Ancient Romans ordered their Children so, that among other Liberal Sciences The Art of Limning was enjoyned to them to learn. Which Commendable thing long before this was in practice among the Grecians, so that their Youth of a good Descent added to their Liberal Learnings of Geometrie, Musick, and other Mathematical Sciences, The Art of Painting also ; for this Art hath been so highly esteemed, that amongst the Feminine Sex it was held a great Honour if they had affected and delighted themselves in such an Honourable Exercise ; as the Faithful Histories bear witness of the most Potent Roman VARRO’s Daughter, called MARTIA, that she had good skill in The Art of Limning.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Such is the Importance and Vertue of Proportion, that nothing can any way satisfie the Eye without the help thereof : So that whatsoever worketh any Pleasure or Delight in us, doth therefore content us ; because the Grace of Proportion consisting in the measure of the Parts, appeareth therein ; Wherefore all the Inventions of Men carry with them so much the more Grace and Beautie, by how much the more Ingeniously they are proportioned, whence Vitruvius saith, That whosoever will proceed in his Works with Judgment, must needs be acquainted with the Nature and Force of Proportion ; which being well and kindly understood, will make him not only an excellent Judge of ancient and late Workmen, but also an Inventor and Performer of Rare and Excellent Matters himself.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Now the Effects proceeding from Proportion are unspeakable, the Principal whereof, is that Majestie and Beautie which is found in Bodies, called by Vitruvius, EURITHMIA. And hence it is, that when behold a well-proportioned thing, we call it Beautiful, as if we should say, Indued with that exact and comely Grace, whereby all the Perfection of sweet Delights belonging to the Sight, are communicated to the Eye, and so conveyed to the Understanding.
But if we shall enter into a farther Consideration of this
Beauty, it will appear most evidently in things appertaining to Civil Discipline ; for it is strange to consider what effects of Piety, Reverence and Religion, are stirred up in mens Minds, by means of this suitable comeliness of apt proportion. A pregnant example whereof we have in the Jupiter carved by Phidias at Elis, which wrought an extraordinary sense of Religion in the People, whereupon the antient and renowned Zeuxis well knowing the excellency and dignity thereof, perswaded Greece in her most flourishing Estate, that the Pictures wherein this Majesty appeared were dedicated to great Princes, and consecrated to the Temples of the Immortal gods, so that they held them in exceeding great estimation ; partly because they were the Works of those famous Masters, who were reputed as gods amongt men ; and partly because they not only represented the Works of God, but also supplyed the defects of Nature : ever making choice of the Flower and Quintessence of Eye-pleasing delights.
Neither yet is this Proportion proper unto painting alone, but extendeth it self even unto all other Arts […] ; because it was the first pattern of all Artificial things : So that there is no Art, but is someway beholding to Proportion : yet notwithstanding the Painter as (Loo Baptista Albertus affirmeth) insomuch as he considereth mans Body more especially, is justly preferred before all other Artizans, which imitate the same, because antiquity meaning to grace Painting above all the rest, Handicrafts men exempting onely Painters out of that number.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Now the Effects proceeding from Proportion are unspeakable, the Principal whereof, is that Majestie and Beautie which is found in Bodies, called by Vitruvius, EURITHMIA. And hence it is, that when behold a well-proportioned thing, we call it Beautiful, as if we should say, Indued with that exact and comely Grace, whereby all the Perfection of sweet Delights belonging to the Sight, are communicated to the Eye, and so conveyed to the Understanding.
But if we shall enter into a farther Consideration of this
Beauty, it will appear most evidently in things appertaining to Civil Discipline ; for it is strange to consider what effects of Piety, Reverence and Religion, are stirred up in mens Minds, by means of this suitable comeliness of apt proportion. A pregnant example whereof we have in the Jupiter carved by Phidias at Elis, which wrought an extraordinary sense of Religion in the People, whereupon the antient and renowned Zeuxis well knowing the excellency and dignity thereof, perswaded Greece in her most flourishing Estate, that the Pictures wherein this Majesty appeared were dedicated to great Princes, and consecrated to the Temples of the Immortal gods, so that they held them in exceeding great estimation ; partly because they were the Works of those famous Masters, who were reputed as gods amongt men ; and partly because they not only represented the Works of God, but also supplyed the defects of Nature : ever making choice of the Flower and Quintessence of Eye-pleasing delights.

comeliness

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

beauty

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → grandeur et noblesse

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → jugement

Neither yet is this Proportion proper unto painting alone, but extendeth it self even unto all other Arts […] ; because it was the first pattern of all Artificial things : So that there is no Art, but is someway beholding to Proportion : yet notwithstanding the Painter as (Loo Baptista Albertus affirmeth) insomuch as he considereth mans Body more especially, is justly preferred before all other Artizans, which imitate the same, because antiquity meaning to grace Painting above all the rest, Handicrafts men exempting onely Painters out of that number.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → comparaison entre les arts

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → comparaison entre les arts

Of the Necessity and Definition of Proportion.


It was not without just Cause, that the antient
Græcians (at which time the Art of Painting had fully attained to his Perfection, by the Industry of Timantes, Eusenidas, Aristides, Eupompus, Sicyonias and Pamphilus, the famous Macedonian Painter, and Master of Apelles, who also was the first learned Painter directing his Workes by the Rules of Art, above any of his Predecessors, and well considering that whatsoever was made without measure and proportion, could never carry with it any such congruity as might represent either Beauty or Grace to the judicious beholder) were wont to say, that it was impossible to make any tolerable, much less any Commendable Picture, without the help of Geometry and Arithmetick, wherefore they required the Knowledge thereof, as a thing most necessary, which saying was also approved by Philip Macedo. And surely it is impossible (to omitt the meere Artizans) that he who is ignorant of these two Sciences, should understand the exact measure and proprotion of any probable or true Body, the necessity of which proportions shall be shewed hereafter.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Il ne semble pas qu'un peintre du nom de Sicyonias ait existé. Browne évoque peut-être plus globablement un ou des artistes originaires de la ville de Sicyon.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Il ne semble pas qu'un peintre du nom de Sicyonias ait existé. Browne évoque peut-être plus globablement un ou des artistes originaires de la ville de Sicyon.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Il ne semble pas qu'un peintre du nom de Sicyonias ait existé. Browne évoque peut-être plus globablement un ou des artistes originaires de la ville de Sicyon.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Proportion is a correspondency and agreement of the Measure of the parts between themselves and with the whole, in every Work, this correspondency is by Vitruvius called Commodulation, because a Modell is a Measure which being taken at the first measureth both the parts and the whole. […] and without this a Painter (besides that he is not worthy the name of a Painter) is like one which perswadeth himself he swimmeth above Water, when indeed he sinketh, to conclude then it is impossible to make any decent or well proportioned thing, without this Symetrical measure of the parts orderly united.
Wherefore my greatest endeavour shall be, to lay open the worthiness of this part of painting unto all such as are naturally inclined thereunto, by reason of a good temperature joyned with an apt Disposition of the parts thereof, for such men will be much affected therewith, to the end they may the better perceive the force of
Nature : who by industry and help of a good conceipt, will easily attain to so deep a reach, that they will be able upon the sudden to discern any Disproportion, as a thing repugnant to their Nature : unto which perfection on the contrary Side they can never attain, whose Judgements are corrupted through the Distemperature of their Organical parts, I speak of such who not knowing the virtue of proportion, affect nothing else, but the vain surface of garish colours, wrought after their own humour, who prove only Dawbers of Images and Walls throughout the whole World ; moving the beholders partly to smile at their Follies, and partly to greive that the Art should be thus disgraced by such absurde Idiot’s : who as they have no judgement herein ; so do they run into divers other most shamefull errors, into which I never heard that any ever fell, who were acquainted with the Beauty of proportion, but have rather prooved men of rare Spirits and found Judgements, […].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Of the Head in Prophile or side-wayes.
The manner to make this
Head by just and safe rules is thus, First forme a perfect equall Triangle in what position you will, turning the Triangle to make the Face upon one of the three sides ; be it which it will,  either upwards or downwards, higer or lower {According to Odoardo Fialetti.} ; […].


Of the Foreright Face.
Being then desireous to draw the Foreright
Face, it will be necessary to Forme a perfect Ovall, […].


Of the Head in Foreshortning.
Hitherto I have treated of the
Head, both Foreright and in other Positions, but that you might know all that is needfull for the perfect understanding of this profession, it is necessary that I specifie the manner how to draw the Face by an easy, absolute and fair way ; Treating thus I propound to you Methodical means therein, because my intent is to Facilitate the matter in that manner, but without writing thereupon it may be intelligible, for a draught well made hath that power, that it makes it self understood without any discourse of the Author thereon, but I alwayes observe both the one and the other also ; I say that the foreshortning which is made onely with Fretts, Grates, Squares, or with Geometrical Instruments, breed onely a confusion of lines, which is not the best principal of expert Ingenuity, the reason whereof is, that it can hardly be measured by any Rule, unless the whole Body be framed together. Therefore I will shew an easy Rule, very like to that of the foreright Face, that is, to make a Circular draught with the aspect upwards, or downwards, as in the foreright Head, where the Traverse lines are straight, but these go Circularly, for if the Heads flye upwards the Traced strokes and the Divisions must be raised, with caution that the Eares and Eyes fall not out of their due points, as is signified in the first Place.


Of the side face without any Measure.
Being desireous to make the side
face without any Triangle or Measure, which with a little care and practice, observing the distances and Measures which will serve for Direction, because the Head and other parts of the Body ought to be proportional, and made from Measures ; it will easily follow, Framing or Traceing many, you may not only Facilitate it by the Eye and Judgement, but also accommodate the Hand, to Trace and draw, all things right, for it is true that the Eye will have its place. I having drawn certain stroaks or draughts from the life of nature, and reduced it with the Pencil into Colours, have found it come off punctually right, of a correspondent bigness to that, which I have imitated, and have not found any thing disproportioned, but have alwayes found it fall out right as I would have it, therefore I say that this Rule, and Measure which I have set down, in the Porphile or other opositions of the Head, is not any hindrance to the excellency of the Art, nor will weaken your worth, but will serve for a general Rule being once possest therewith, and also become prevalent when occasion shall require, to make a Head Ten times as big as the Life ; […].

head

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

face

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Of the Head in Foreshortning.
Hitherto I have treated of the
Head, both Foreright and in other Positions, but that you might know all that is needfull for the perfect understanding of this profession, it is necessary that I specifie the manner how to draw the Face by an easy, absolute and fair way ; Treating thus I propound to you Methodical means therein, because my intent is to Facilitate the matter in that manner, but without writing thereupon it may be intelligible, for a draught well made hath that power, that it makes it self understood without any discourse of the Author thereon, but I alwayes observe both the one and the other also ; I say that the foreshortning which is made onely with Fretts, Grates, Squares, or with Geometrical Instruments, breed onely a confusion of lines, which is not the best principal of expert Ingenuity, the reason whereof is, that it can hardly be measured by any Rule, unless the whole Body be framed together. Therefore I will shew an easy Rule, very like to that of the foreright Face, that is, to make a Circular draught with the aspect upwards, or downwards, as in the foreright Head, where the Traverse lines are straight, but these go Circularly, for if the Heads flye upwards the Traced strokes and the Divisions must be raised, with caution that the Eares and Eyes fall not out of their due points, as is signified in the first Place.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Of the side face without any Measure.
Being desireous to make the side
face without any Triangle or Measure, which with a little care and practice, observing the distances and Measures which will serve for Direction, because the Head and other parts of the Body ought to be proportional, and made from Measures ; it will easily follow, Framing or Traceing many, you may not only Facilitate it by the Eye and Judgement, but also accommodate the Hand, to Trace and draw, all things right, for it is true that the Eye will have its place. I having drawn certain stroaks or draughts from the life of nature, and reduced it with the Pencil into Colours, have found it come off punctually right, of a correspondent bigness to that, which I have imitated, and have not found any thing disproportioned, but have alwayes found it fall out right as I would have it, therefore I say that this Rule, and Measure which I have set down, in the Porphile or other opositions of the Head, is not any hindrance to the excellency of the Art, nor will weaken your worth, but will serve for a general Rule being once possest therewith, and also become prevalent when occasion shall require, to make a Head Ten times as big as the Life ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Several Observations, in drawing a Head after the Life


And because the greatest difficulty, and principal parts of this Art consist in some part in drawing the lively Resemblance of a
Face, therefore I thought it very necessary to add this as a further Direction to draw any Face after the life. Therefore if you will draw any Face after the life, that it may resemble the party you draw it after ; take notice in the First place of the Physiognomy or circumference of the Face, whiter it be round or long, Fat or Lean, Big or Little, […], then you must diligently and judiciously observe and discern all the Gentle Master Touches, which gives the Spirit and Life to a Face, and discovers the Grace or Disposition of the Mind, wherein lieth the whole Grace of the Work, and the Credit of the Artist, you may easily discern a smiling Countenance in the Corners of the Mouth, when they turn up a little ; […] ; there are also some touches about the Eyes and Mouth which you must diligently observe, which gives the Spirit and Life to a Face.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

head

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → touche
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

face

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps