ETCHING (n.)

EAU-FORTE (fra.) · ETS (nld.) · ETSKUNST (nld.)
CASTEX, Jean-Gérald, « Réduire la gravure en art et en principes. Lecture et réception du "Traité des manières de graver" d’Abraham Bosse », dans VÉRIN, Hélène et DUBOURG GLATIGNY, Pascal (éd.), Réduire en art : la technologie de la Renaissance aux Lumières, Paris, Éd. de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2008, p. 235-248.
GRAMACCINI, Norberto, Theorie der französischen Druckgraphik im 18. Jahrhundert. Eine Quellenanthologie, Berne, Lang, 1997.
GRIFFITHS, Antony, « John Evelyn and the Print », dans HARRIS, Frances et HUNTER, Michael (éd.), John Evelyn and his Milieu, London, The British Library, 2003, p. 95-113.
HERBERT, Flora, « GRAVURE / ESTAMPE », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 240-245.
RAUX, Sophie, SURLAPIERRE, Nicolas et TONNEAU-RYCKELYNCK, Dominique (éd.), L’estampe, un art multiple à la portée de tous ?, Actes de colloque de Lille, Villeneuve-d’Ascq, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 2008.
RÜMELIN, Christian, « Stichtheorie und Graphikverständnis im 18. Jahrhundert », Artibus et Historiae, 22/44, 2001, p. 187-200 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/1483719?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents consulté le 26/10/2015].

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4 sources
4 quotations

Quotation

Of Etching.
Etching is an imitation of engraving, but more speedily performed. Things may be expressed to the life thereby, but not so sweetly as by the Graver. It is thus performed : the Plate you are to etch upon, must first exactly be pollished, afterwards overlaid but very lightly with a ground made for the purpose, (of which anon) and thereupon must be pounced, drawne, or traced, the thing that you are to etch : then the said ground is to be pierced with divers stiles of severall bignesse according as the shadowes of the picture doe require : afterwards the edges of the Plate are to be raised with soft waxe and strong water, (for so they terme it:) (It is to be had at the signe of the Legge in
Foster Lane a Distiller) is to be put upon it, which in those places were the strokes, are required to be lightly performed, is to be abated or alayed with faire water, which having dured a while upon the plate, will eate into it, as it were engraven, then out it into cold water, and wash it about, and it will leave eating further, and then take off the ground and it is done.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la gravure

Quotation

Liber Secundus.
Of Engraving, Etching and Limning.
Shewing the Instruments belonging to the work ; the matter of the work, and the way and manner of performing the same ; together with all other requisites and ornaments.
[...] CHAP. VII. Of Etching, and the Materials thereof.
I
. ETCHING is an Artificial Engraving of Brass or Copper Plates with Aqua fortis.
            II. The Instruments of Etching (besides the Plate) are these nine. I.
Hard Varnish. 2. Soft Varnish. 3. Prepared Oyl. 4. Aqua fortis. 5. Needles. 6. Oyl stone. 7. Brush-pensil. 8. Burnisher. 9. The Frame and Trough.
            [...].
[...] CHAP. IX. The way and manner of Etching.
I. In making lines or hatches, some bigger, some lesser, straight or crooked, you must use several sorts of needles, bigger or lesser as the work requires.
            II. The great lines are made by leaning hard on the needle ; [...].

engraving

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la gravure
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la gravure
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Quotation

The Art of Etching.
The Grounds and Rules of Etching.


Before that you begin to
Etch upon copper, it is very necessary to practise the Art of Drawing, till you be able if need require to draw any head after the life, or to draw a design, for it you intend to practice the Art of Etching, you will find it very profitable to draw after good prints, which are well designed, and graved, and when you have practised so long that you are able to coppy any print, or drawing very exactly ; then draw after good Heads of plaister or figures, according to your own fancy, which will learn you to shadow according to Art, if well observed, therefore be sure when you draw after plaister, to observe very exactly to take the true outlines or circumferences, and then take notice how the shadow falls, then shadow it very faint and soft, where need requires. The prints which I recommend unto you as absolutely the best to learn to Etch or Grave after, be the prints of Henry Goldshis and Hermon Muller, therefore it is very convenient to leaan to hatch with the Pen exactly after  either of the aforesaid prints of Goldshis or Muller, and when you have brought it to that perfection ; and can draw very well after plaister, you may practise to draw after the life ; but before you draw after the life, you must be very exact and true in your outlines or circumferences.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la gravure

Quotation

Chap. I, Of Etching with Aqua fortis.
There are several ways for
Etching, and several Grounds of divers colours, used by several men. I shall deliver here onely one, and that so familiar, easie, and true, that I believe there is not a better Ground, nor a more accurate way performing the work intended, than that which shall be here taught ; it being the only way, so many years practised, and to this day continued by that unparallel’d designer and incomparable Etcher in Aqua fortis, Mr. Hollar ; the manner of performing the whole work is as followeth.


SECT. I.
To make Mr. Hollar’s Ground, and how to Etch in Copper, and what Instruments ought to be used in the practice thereof.
Take three parts of
Virgins Wax, one part of Asphaltum, one part of the best Mastick […] ; so is your Ground prepared.


SECT. II.
How to prepare your Copper.
Your Copper must be well planisht, that it may lie level ; and before you lay on the Ground, take your Plate, and with a Charcoal well burnt, coal it over with very clean water ; then wash it off with clean Water never used before, and set it sloping to run off ; when it is dry, then scrape some Chalk fine all over it, and with a very clean fine rag rub it over ; but let not your fingers touch upon the Plate, till you have put the Ground on, which you must lay on thus.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la gravure