SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.

Getty Research Institute Los Angeles N7420 .S2 1672 Frontispice 113 quotations 76 terms
Connu pour ses écrits de médecine, William Salmon (1644-1713) est également l’auteur d’un traité sur les arts du dessin et de la peinture intitulé Polygraphice. Aux côtés de considérations diverses allant de l’iconographie à la chiromancie, cet ouvrage au contenu hétérogène traite du dessin, de la gravure, de l’aquarelle, du lavis, ainsi que de la peinture à l’huile. Ces arts sont principalement considérés sous l’angle de leur pratique et de leur technique. Salmon décrit brièvement les étapes à suivre, énumère les outils nécessaires, mentionne la manière de les fabriquer et de les utiliser, ainsi que leurs principales propriétés. Salmon précise dans la préface qu’il compile pour ce faire des passages pris chez divers auteurs et justifie le caractère synthétique des informations transmises par une volonté de les rendre plus facilement accessibles pour le lecteur [1].
De 1672 à 1701 se sont succédées huit éditions, dont certaines largement augmentées de nouveaux passages, voire chapitres [2]. Ces ajouts successifs contribuent à faire de la Polygraphice un ouvrage hétérogène, riche mais dénué de structure cohérente [3]. Le nombre considérable de rééditions en moins de trente ans atteste toutefois aussi de la grande popularité de cet ouvrage à la fin du XVIIe siècle et son prix modique a dû permettre à un public relativement large de l’acquérir [4]. L'ouvrage fut semble-t-il diffusé principalement dans le monde anglophone, des traductions n’en étant pas connues.
Contrairement aux rééditions ultérieures, la première édition ne contient pas de planches gravées. En dehors de leur rôle d’illustration, ces gravures à l’eau-forte s’apparentent à
des modèles pouvant être utilisés dans le cadre d’un apprentissage du dessin.

Flora Herbert

[1] Salmon, 1672, p. VIII.
[2] C. Hurley, 2009, p. 187-207.
[3] Ibid., p. 191.
[4] Ibid., p. 203.


in-8 english

Dedication
Peter Stanley of Alderly

Structure
Dédicace(s) at n.p.
Préface at n.p.

SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Arts of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Gilding, Colouring, Dying, Beautifying and Perfuming. In four Books. Exemplifyed in the Drawing of Men, Women, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of various forms. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisites and Ornaments. The Depicting of the most eminent Pieces of Antiquities ; The Paintings of the Antiens ; Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; The Dying of Cloth, Silk, Horns, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones, and Metals ; The Varnishing, Colouring and Gilding thereof, according to any purpose or intent ; The Painting, Colouring and Beautifying of the Face, Skin and Hair ; The whole Doctrine of Perfumes (never published till now) together with the Original, Advancement ant Perfection of the Art of Painting. The Second Edition, with many large Additions. Adorned with Sculptures : The like never yet extant, London, E.T. and R.H., 1673.

SALMON, William, Polygraphice : Or The Arts of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Gilding, Colouring, Dying, Beautifying and Perfuming. In four Books. Exemplified, in the Drawing of Men, Women, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of various forms ; The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisites and Ornaments ; The Depicting of the most eminent Pieces of Antiquities ; The Painting of the Antients ; Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; The Dying of Cloth, Silk, Horns, Bones, Wood, Glass Stones, and Metals ; The Varnishing, Colouring and Gilding thereof, according to any purpose or intent ; The Painting, Colouring and Beautifying of the Face, Skin and Hair ; The whole Doctrine of Perfumes (never published till now,) together with the Original, Advancement and Perfection of the Art of Painting. To which is added, A Discourse of Perspective and Chiromancy. The Third Edition, with many large Additions : Adorned with Sculptures : The like never yet extant, London, Andr. Clark, 1675.

SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Arts of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Gilding, Colouring, Dying, Beautifying and Perfuming. In four Books. Exemplifyed in the Drawing of Men, Women, Landskips, Countreys, and Figures of various forms ; The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisites and Ornaments ; The Depicting of the most eminent Pieces of Antiquities ; The Paintings of the Antiens ; Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; The Dying of Cloth, Silk, Horns, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones, and Metals ; The Varnishing, Colouring and Gilding thereof, according to any purpose or intent: The Painting, Colouring and Beautifying of the Face, Skin and Hair ; The whole Doctrine of Perfumes (never published till now,) together with the Original, Advancement and Perfection of the Art of Painting. To which is added A Discourse of Perspective and Chiromancy. The Fourth Edition, with many large Additions : Adorned with Sculptures : The like never yet extant, London, Robert White, 1678.

SALMON, William, Polygraphice : Or The Arts of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Gilding, Colouring, Dying, Beautifying and Perfuming. In four Books. Exemplified, in the Drawing of Men, Women, Landskips, Countreys, and Figures of various forms; The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisites and Ornaments; The Depicting of the most eminent Pieces of Antiquities ; The Paintings of the Antients ; Washing of Maps, Globes or Pictures ; The Dying of Cloth, Silk, Horns, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones, and Metals ; The Varnishing, Colouring and Gilding thereof, according to any purpose or intent: The Painting, Colouring and Beautifying of the Face, Skin and Hair ; The whole Doctrine of Perfumes (never published till now,) together with the Original, Advancement and Perfection of the Art of Painting. To which is added, A Discourse of Perspective and Chiromancy, London, M. White, 1681.

SALMON, William, Polygraphice : Or The Arts of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Gilding, Colouring, Dying, Beautifying and Perfuming. In seven Books. Exemplified, in the Drawing of Men, Women, Landskips, Countreys, and Figures of various Forms ; The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisites and Ornaments ; The Depicting of the most eminent Pieces of Antiquities ; The Paintings of the Antients ; Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; The Dying of Cloth, Silk, Horns, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones, and Metals; The Vernishing, Colouring and Gilding thereof, according to any purpose or intent : The Painting, Colouring and Beautifying of the Face, Skin and Hair ; The whole Doctrine of Perfumes (never published till now,) together with the Original, Advancement and Perfection of the Art of Painting : And a Discourse of Perspective, Chiromancy and Alchymy. To which also is added, I. The one hundred and twelve Chymical Arcanums of Petrus Johannes Faber, a most learned and eminent Physician, Translated out of Latin into English. II. An Abstract of Choice Chymical Preparations, fitted for Vulgar Use, for curing most Diseases incident to Humane Bodies. The fifth Edition : Enlarged with above a thousand considerable Additions. Adorned with XXV. Copper Sculptures ; The like never yet extant, London, Thomas Passinger - Thomas Sawbridge, 1685.

SALMON, William, Polygraphice : Or, The Arts of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Vernishing, Japaning, Gilding, &c. In Two Volumns. Containing, I. The Arts of Drawing Men, Women, Landskips, &c. II. Of Engraving, Etching, and Limning. III. Of Painting, Washing, Coloring, Gilding. IV. Of the Original, Advancement and Perfection of Painting, with the Various Painting of the Ancients. V. Of the Arts of Beautifying and Perfuming. VI. Of the Arts of Dying and Staining. VII. Of Alchymie, and the Grand Elixir of Philosophers. VIII. Of the 112 Chymical Arcana of Peter Faber. IX. Of Chiromantical Signatures. X. Of Staining and Painting Glass, Enamel and Gems. XI. Of Vernishing, Japaning, and Gilding. The Eighth Edition. Enlarged, with above Five Hundred considerable Additions thro' the whole Work ; and the Addition of almost five whole Books, not in any of the former Impressions ; Adorned with XXV Copper Sculptures, the like never yet Extant, London, A. and J. Churchill - J. Nicholson, 1701.

HURLEY, Cecilia, « William Salmon et la “Polygraphice” : la théorie de l’art en Angleterre avant Jonathan Richardson », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), L’histoire de l’histoire de l’art septentrional au XVIIe siècle, Actes des journées d'étude de Lille et de Bruxelles, Turnhout, Brepols, 2010, p. 187-207.

GOOD, Caroline Anne, “Lovers of Art”. Early English Literature on the Connoisseurship of Pictures, Thesis, University of York, 2013 [En ligne : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/5694/1/Caroline%20Good%20'Lovers%20of%20Art'%20PhD%20Thesis.pdf consulté le 11/07/2016].

HEILMANN, Maria, NANOBASHVILI, Nino et PFISTERER, Ulrich (éd.), Punkt, Punkt, Komma, Strich. Zeichenbücher in Europa ca. 1525-1925, cat. exp., München, Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte - Hildesheim, Universitätsbibliothek, 2014-2016, Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2014.

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

QUOTATIONS

The Subject of the ensuing Work is the Art of Painting : a name not only too singular, but also too short or narrow, to express what is here intended thereby : For we do not only express that Art, (as it is generally received) but also Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Washing, Colouring and Dying ; all which being considered in their proper extent, infinitely exceeds that curtaild name of Painting ; which that we might joyn all in one proper and comprehensive word, we made choice of that Greek Compound POLYGRAPHICE.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

I. POLYGRAPHICE is an Art, so much imitating Nature, as that by proportional lines with answerable Colours, it teacheth to represent to the life (and that in plano) the forms of all  corporeal things, with their respective passions.
II. It is called in general in Greek
Χρωματινη, in Latine Pictura, and in English the Art of Painting.
III. It is sevenfold (to wit) in
Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing and Colouring.

Χρωματινη · pictura · art of painting

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

I. POLYGRAPHICE is an Art, so much imitating Nature, as that by proportional lines with answerable Colours, it teacheth to represent to the life (and that in plano) the forms of all  corporeal things, with their respective passions.
II. It is called in general in Greek
Χρωματινη, in Latine Pictura, and in English the Art of Painting.
III. It is sevenfold (to wit) in
Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing and Colouring.
IV. Drawing is, that whereby we represent the shape and form of any corporeal substance in rude lines onely.
V. It consists in proportion and passion, as it hath relation to motion and situation, in respect of Light and Vision.
VI.
Sanderson saith, This Admirable Art is the Imitation of the surface of Nature in Colour and proportion, 1. By Mathematical demonstration, 2. By Chorographical description, 3. By shapes of Living creatures, 4. And by the forms of Vegetables, in all which it prefers Likeness to the life, conserves it after death, and this altogether by the sense of seeing.
VII. The
proportion shews the true lengh, breadth or bigness of any part (in Known measures) in respect of the whole, and how they bear one to another : The passion represents the visual Quality, in respect of love or hatred, sorrow or joy, magnanimity or cowardise, majesty or humility, of all which things we shall speak in order.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

I. POLYGRAPHICE is an Art, so much imitating Nature, as that by proportional lines with answerable Colours, it teacheth to represent to the life (and that in plano) the forms of all  corporeal things, with their respective passions.
II. It is called in general in Greek
Χρωματινη, in Latine Pictura, and in English the Art of Painting.
III. It is sevenfold (to wit) in
Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing and Colouring.
IV. Drawing is, that whereby we represent the shape and form of any corporeal substance in rude lines onely.
V. It consists in proportion and passion, as it hath relation to motion and situation, in respect of Light and Vision.
VI.
Sanderson saith, This Admirable Art is the Imitation of the surface of Nature in Colour and proportion, 1. By Mathematical demonstration, 2. By Chorographical description, 3. By shapes of Living creatures, 4. And by the forms of Vegetables, in all which it prefers Likeness to the life, conserves it after death, and this altogether by the sense of seeing.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

IV. Drawing is, that whereby we represent the shape and form of any corporeal substance in rude lines onely.
V. It consists in proportion and passion, as it hath relation to motion and situation, in respect of Light and Vision.
VI.
Sanderson saith, This Admirable Art is the Imitation of the surface of Nature in Colour and proportion, 1. By Mathematical demonstration, 2. By Chorographical description, 3. By shapes of Living creatures, 4. And by the forms of Vegetables, in all which it prefers Likeness to the life, conserves it after death, and this altogether by the sense of seeing.
VII. The
proportion shews the true lengh, breadth or bigness of any part (in Known measures) in respect of the whole, and how they bear one to another : The passion represents the visual Quality, in respect of love or hatred, sorrow or joy, magnanimity or cowardise, majesty or humility, of all which things we shall speak in order.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

CHAP. II. Of the Instrument of Drawing.
 
I. The
Instruments of Drawing are sevenfold, viz. Charcoals, feathers of a Ducks-wing, black and red Lead pensils, pens made of Ravens quils, Rulers, Compasses, and Pastils.
II.
Charcoals are to be chosen of Sallow-wood split into the form of pensils, and sharpned to a point, being chiefly known by their pith in the middle.
Their use is to draw lightly the draught over at first, that if any thing de drawn amiss it may be wiped out and amended.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

CHAP. II. Of the Instrument of Drawing.
 
I. The
Instruments of Drawing are sevenfold, viz. Charcoals, feathers of a Ducks-wing, black and red Lead pensils, pens made of Ravens quils, Rulers, Compasses, and Pastils. [...] V. Pens made of Ravens quils (but others may serve) are to finish the work : but herein you must be very careful and exact, for what is now done amiss there is no altering to.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

IX. To the former add good Copies, Patterns, and Examples of good Pictures, and other draughts, without which it is almost impossible, that the young Artist should ever attain to any perfection in this Art.
We have wholly pretermitted these for brevity sake, but those that desire to be furnished with any excellent Patterns, Copies or Prints, may have of all sorts, whether of humane shape, perspective design, Landskip, Fowls, Beasts, Fishes, Insects, Plants, Countries, or any other Artificial figures, exquisitely drawn, at very reasonable rates, [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

CHAP. III. Of the precepts of Drawing in General.
 
I. Be sure to have all the necessaries aforesaid in readiness, but it will be good to practise as much as may be without the help of your Rule and Compasses ; it is your eye and fansie must judge without artificial measurings.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

CHAP. III. Of the precepts of Drawing in General.
 
I. Be sure to have all the necessaries aforesaid in readiness, but it will be good to practise as much as may be without the help of your Rule and Compasses ; it is your eye and fansie must judge without artificial measurings.

II.
Then first begin with plain Geometrical figures, [...]. For these are the foundations of all other proportions.
[...]
IV. Having made your hand fit and ready in General proportions, then learn to give every object its due shade according to its convexity or concavity, and to elevate or depress the same, as the object appears either nearer or farther off the light, the which is indeed the life of the work.
V.
The second practice of drawing consists in forming fruits, as Apples, Peares, Cherries, [...] with their leaves : the imitation of flowers, as Roses, Tulips, Carnations, &c. Herbs, as Rosemary, Time, Hysop, &c. Trees, as the Oak, Fir, Ash, Wallnut, &c.
VI.
The third practice of drawing imitates, 1. Beats, as the Lamb, Elephant, [...]. 2. Fowls, as the Eagle, Swan, [...]. 3. Fishes, as the Whale, Herring, [...] of which variety of Prints may be bought at reasonables rates.
VII. The fourth praxis imitates the body of man with all its Lineaments, the Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Cheeks, Hands, Arms, and shaddows all exactly proportional both to the whole and one to another, as well to situation as magnitude.
VIII. The fifth praxis is in Drapery, imitating Cloathing, and Artificially setting off the outward Coverings, Habit & Ornaments of the Body, as Cloath, Stuff, Silk and Linnen, their natural and proper folds ; which although it may seem something hard to do, yet by much exercise and imitation of the choisest Prints will become facile and easie.
IX. In drawing of all the aforegoing forms, or what ever else, you must be perfect, first in the exact proportions : secondly in the general or outward lines before you fall to shadowing or trimming of your work within.
X. In mixed and uncertain forms, where Circle and Square will do no good (but onely the Idea thereof in your own fansie) as in Lions, Horses, and the like ; you must work by reason in your own judgment, and so obtain the true proportion by daily practice. Thus,
Having the shape of the thing in your mind, first draw it rudely with your coal, then more exactly with your lead or pensil ; then peruse it well, and consider where you have erred, and mend it, according to that Idea, which you carry in your mind ; this done, view it again, correcting by degrees the other parts, even to the least Jota, so far as your judgement will inform you ; and this you may do with twenty, thirty, fourty or more papers of several things at once : having done what you can, confer it with some excellent pattern or print of like kind, using no rule or compass at all, but your own reason, in mending every fault, giving every thing its due place, and just proportion ; by this means you may rectifie all your errours, and step and Incredible way on to perfection.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

praxis

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

practice

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

IV. Having made your hand fit and ready in General proportions, then learn to give every object its due shade according to its convexity or concavity, and to elevate or depress the same, as the object appears either nearer or farther off the light, the which is indeed the life of the work.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

VII. The fourth praxis imitates the body of man with all its Lineaments, the Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Cheeks, Hands, Arms, and shaddows all exactly proportional both to the whole and one to another, as well to situation as magnitude.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

VIII. The fifth praxis is in Drapery, imitating Cloathing, and Artificially setting off the outward Coverings, Habit & Ornaments of the Body, as Cloath, Stuff, Silk and Linnen, their natural and proper folds ; which although it may seem something hard to do, yet by much exercise and imitation of the choisest Prints will become facile and easie.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → vêtements et plis
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

X. In mixed and uncertain forms, where Circle and Square will do no good (but onely the Idea thereof in your own fansie) as in Lions, Horses, and the like ; you must work by reason in your own judgment, and so obtain the true proportion by daily practice. Thus,
Having the shape of the thing in your mind, first draw it rudely with your coal, then more exactly with your lead or pensil ; then peruse it well, and consider where you have erred, and mend it, according to that Idea, which you carry in your mind ; this done, view it again, correcting by degrees the other parts, even to the least Jota, so far as your judgement will inform you ; and this you may do with twenty, thirty, fourty or more papers of several things at once : having done what you can, confer it with some excellent pattern or print of like kind, using no rule or compass at all, but your own reason, in mending every fault, giving every thing its due place, and just proportion ; by this means you may rectifie all your errours, and step and Incredible way on to perfection.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

CHAP. IV. Of Drawing the face of a Man.
 
I. In drawing of the face you are first to observe its motion whether upwards, downwards, forwards, or sideways ; whether it be long or round, fat or lean, great or little.
For if it be fat, the cheeks will seem to swell : if lean, the jaw bones will stick out, and the cheeks fall in ; but if neither too fat, nor too lean, it will be for the most part round.
II. Touch lightly the features where the eyes, mouth, nose, and chin should stand, (having first drawn the circle or oval of the face) then make a stroak down from that place of the forehead which is even with the chin, coming down where you should place the middle or tip of the nose, and middle of the mouth, which stroak must be made straight down in a full right face, but arched or oval (in an oblique face) leaning that way towards which the face doth turn : then cross the stroak about the middle of the eye ; [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

CHAP. V. Of the extreme parts.
I. In drawing the hands, draw not all the joynts, veins or other things to appear plainly, but onely lightly and faintly, and strike out the bigness of the hand, and the manner of its turning with faint touches, and not with hard stroaks ; then that being done right, part the fingers according to the pattern with like faint stroakes ; [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

CHAP. VI. Of the Drawing of the whole Body.
I. First begin with the head, and be sure to give it its just proportion, answearable to what you intend the whole body shall be ; [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

CHAP. VII. Of Shadowing a naked body.
I. The shadows of the neck, in a child or young woman, are very fine, rare, and hard to be seen : In a man, the finews and veins are expressed by shadowing of the rest of the neck, and leaving them white : the shoulder is shadowed underneath : the brawn of the arm must appear full and white, shadowed on one side.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

CHAP. VII. Of Shadowing a naked body.
I. The shadows of the neck, in a child or young woman, are very fine, rare, and hard to be seen : In a man, the finews and veins are expressed by shadowing of the rest of the neck, and leaving them white : the shoulder is shadowed underneath : the brawn of the arm must appear full and white, shadowed on one side.
[...].

 
CHAP. VIII.
The way and manner of Shadowing.
I. If it be a surface only it is best shadowed by drawing lines (either straight or oblique, according as the superficies is) through the better half thereof.
            2. If it be in a body, it is a double shadow, and is used when a superficies begins to forsake your sight, as in Colums and Pillars, where it is double darkned, and representeth to the eye, as it were the backside, leaving that unshadowed to the light.
            III. The treble shadow, is made by crossing over again the double shadow ; and is used for the inward parts of things, as in clefts of the earth, wells, caves, the insides of pots, cups and dishes.
            [...].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

CHAP. IX. Of Expressing passions in the Countenance.
I. Love is expressed by a clear, fair and pleasant Countenance, without clouds, wrinkles, or unpleasant bendings : giving the forehead an ample height and breadth with majestick grace ; a full eye with a fine shadow at the bottom of the eye-lid, and a little at the corner : a proportionable nose ; nostrils not too wide : a clear cheek made by shadowing of it on one side : and a smiling mouth, made by a thin upper lip, and shadowing the mouth line at the corners.
            II. FEAR is expressed by making the eyes look hollow, heavy and downward, [...].
            III. ENVY is best decyphred by the only hanging of the cheeks, and a pale countenance, [...].
            IV. Let every passion be represented according to the outward appearance thereof, as it is in those persons in whom it reigns ; [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

CHAP. X. Of Humane Proportion.
I. The length of an upright body is equal to Eight times the length of the face or head ; The arm hanging straight down, reacheth within a span of the Knee : [...].
            II. Those parts of the body near to the Eye must be made greater and longer than those farther off, (because the eye judgeth so of them,) and according to the distance from the eye, so must you vary from that which is otherwise the real true proportion of those parts.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

CHAP. XI. Of Drapery.
I. Draw the out-lines of the Garment lightly, and herein be careful, for the whole grace of the picture lyes there ; then draw the greatest folds first, and stroak those into lesser, and be sure they cross one another.
            II. Suit your garments to the body, and make them bend with the body, according as it stands in or out, streight or crooked, or turns one way or another : the closer the garment fits to the body, the narrower and smaller must the folds be.
            III. All your folds must consist of two lines and no more, which you may turn with the garment at pleasure, shadowing the innermost deeper, the outermost more light ; and if the folds be never so curiously contrived, spare not to shadow them (if they fall inward from the light) with a double or treble shadow, as the occasion requires.
[…]. 

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → vêtements et plis

CHAP. XII. Of Mixed and Uncertain Forms.
I. For the drawing the form of any beast, begin with your lead or coal at the forehead, drawing downward the nose, mouth, upper and nether chop, ending your line at the throat ; then viewing it again where you begun, from the forehead, over the head, ears and neck, continuing till you have given the full compass of the buttock, then mark out the legs and feet : [...].
            II. In drawing beasts you must be well acquainted with their shape and action, [...].
            III. In birds begin also the draught at the head, (and beware of making it too big) [...].
            IV. Insects, as flies, bees, [&], are easie to be drawn and not hard to be laid in Colours ; [...].
            V. To draw a flower, begin from the boss, tufft or wart in the middle ; as in a Rose or Marigold, [...].
            VI. To take the natural and lively shape of the leaf of any herb or tree,
            First, take the leaf that you would have, and gently bruise the ribs and veins on the back-side of it ; [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

CHAP. XIII. Of Landskip.
I. Landskip is that which expresseth in lines the perfect vision of the earth, and all things thereupon, placed above the horizon, as towns, villages, castles, promontaries, mountains, rocks, valleys, ruines, rivers, woods, forests, chases, trees, houses and all other buildings, both beautiful and ruinous.
II. First, Always express a fair horizon, shewing the heavens, cloudy or clear, more or less according to the occasion ; [...].
III. Secondly, If you express the Sun, make his light to reflect upon all the trees, hills, mountains, rocks, or buildings ; shading the contrary sides ; [...].
IV. Thirdly, be very careful to augment or lessen every thing proportionably to their distance from the eye, making them either bigger or lesser.
[...]
VI. If Landskips be laid in Colours, the farther you go, the more you must lighten it, with a thin and airy blew, to make it seem as it were afar off, beginning at first with a dark green, so driving it by degrees into a blew, according to the distance.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

I. Diapering, is a tracing or running over your work again when you have (as it were) quite done, with damask branches, and such like.
It is used to counterfeit cloath of gold, silver, damask, velvet, chamlet and the like with what branch and in what fashion you please : it is derived from the Greek word [...] transeo, to pass over and onely signifies a light passing over the same again.
[...]

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → vêtements et plis
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → ornement

CHAP. XV. To take the perfect draught of any Picture.

I. Take a sheet of fine
Venice paper, wet all over with linseed oyl on one side thereof, which then wipe off as clean as you can ; let the paper dry, and lay it on any printed or painted picture ; [...].
            II.
Or thus, The picture being drawn as before in the oyled paper, put it upon a sheet of white paper, and prick over the drawing with a pen : [...].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

CHAP. XVI. To extend or contract a Picture keeping in the proportion.
I. Encompass your picture with one great square, which divide into as many little ones as you please : this done, according as you would have your picture either greater or less, make another square greater or less, which divide into as many equal squares, which be drawn with a black lead plummet.
            II. Take your black lead pen, and draw the picture by little and little, passing from square into square, (by the example of the pattern) until you have gone all over with it : observing, that in what part of the square the picture lies, you draw the like part in the square answerable thereto, till you have finished the whole.
            III. Then draw it over with a pen, in which second drawing of it you may easily mend any fault, and shadow it at pleasure.
            IV.
Lastly, when it is throughly dry, rub it over with the crum of white-bread, and it will take off all the black lead stroaks, so will your draught remain fair upon the paper.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

CHAP. XXIV. Of Perspective in General.
[...], the
Art of seeing in English, is that by which we behold, contemplate, and draw the likeness of all magnitudes, just in form and manner as they appear to the Eye.
II. The manner to be seen or speculated is a magnitude : the manner of the speculation, is by radiations of Light, either direct, reflected, or broken.
[...].
IV. A line is a complication of points ; that is (according to EUCLID) a length only without either breadth or thickness.
V. A superficies is a complication of lines ; that is, a length having breadth without thickness.
[...]
VI. A solid is a complication of superficies ; that is, a length and breadth, having depth or thickness.
[...]
 
CHAP. XXV.
Of the Active part of Perspective.

I. The Active part of Perspective is either
Ichnographical, Orthographical, or Scenographical.
            [...].

CHAP. XXVII.
The General Practice of Perspective.
[...]
XII. If in Landskip, there be any standing waters, as rivers, ponds, and the like ; place the horizontal line level with the farthest sight or appearance of it.
[...]

art of seeing

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

XII. If in Landskip, there be any standing waters, as rivers, ponds, and the like ; place the horizontal line level with the farthest sight or appearance of it.
[...]

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

XV. In colouring and shadowing of every thing ; you must do the same in your picture which you observe with your Eye, especially in objects lying near ; but according as the distance grows greater and greater, so the Colours must be fainter and fainter, till at last they loose themselves in a darkish sky colour.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Liber Secundus.
Of Engraving, Etching and Limning.
Shewing the Instruments belonging to the work ; the matter of the work, and the way and manner of performing the same ; together with all other requisites and ornaments.

CHAP. I. Of Graving, and the Instruments thereof.
I. GRAVING is an Art which teacheth how to transfer any design upon Copper, Brass, or Wood, by help of sharp pointed and cutting Instruments.
            II. The chief Instruments are four, 1. Gravers, 2. An Oyl stone, 3. A Cushion, 4. A burnisher.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la gravure
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Liber Secundus.
Of Engraving, Etching and Limning.
Shewing the Instruments belonging to the work ; the matter of the work, and the way and manner of performing the same ; together with all other requisites and ornaments.

CHAP. I. Of Graving, and the Instruments thereof.
I. GRAVING is an Art which teacheth how to transfer any design upon Copper, Brass, or Wood, by help of sharp pointed and cutting Instruments.
            II. The chief Instruments are four, 1. Gravers, 2. An Oyl stone, 3. A Cushion, 4. A burnisher.

engraving

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la gravure

Liber Secundus.
Of Engraving, Etching and Limning.
Shewing the Instruments belonging to the work ; the matter of the work, and the way and manner of performing the same ; together with all other requisites and ornaments.
[...] CHAP. VII. Of Etching, and the Materials thereof.
I
. ETCHING is an Artificial Engraving of Brass or Copper Plates with Aqua fortis.
            II. The Instruments of Etching (besides the Plate) are these nine. I.
Hard Varnish. 2. Soft Varnish. 3. Prepared Oyl. 4. Aqua fortis. 5. Needles. 6. Oyl stone. 7. Brush-pensil. 8. Burnisher. 9. The Frame and Trough.
            [...].
[...] CHAP. IX. The way and manner of Etching.
I. In making lines or hatches, some bigger, some lesser, straight or crooked, you must use several sorts of needles, bigger or lesser as the work requires.
            II. The great lines are made by leaning hard on the needle ; [...].

graving

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la gravure

engraving

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la gravure
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la gravure
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

CHAP. I. Of Graving, and the Instruments thereof.
I. GRAVING is an Art which teacheth how to transfer any design upon Copper, Brass, or Wood, by help of sharp pointed and cutting Instruments.
            II. The chief Instruments are four, 1. Gravers, 2. An Oyl stone, 3. A Cushion, 4. A burnisher.

            III. Gravers are of three sorts, round pointed, square pointed, and Lozeng pointed.
The round is best to scratch with all : the square graver is to make the largest strokes : the Lozeng is to make strokes more fine and delicate : But a graver of a middle size betwixt the square and Lozeng pointed, will make the strokes or hatches show with more life and vigour, according as you manage it in working.