COLOURS (OF THE LIMNING/WATERCOLOUR)

COLOURS (OF THE LIMNING/WATERCOLOUR) (n.)

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Quotation

Of Limning in Water-Colours
The True Order and Names of Colours, the means to prepare them for the Pensill and to clense them from their corrupt mixtures, wherewith they are Sophisticate.
We name them
Seaven (though in truth the first and last White and Black are no Colours ; but Elements.)
Whites,
Ceruse ;
White-Lead.

Reds,
India-Lake.
Read-Lead, or Mene.

Yellows,
Masticoate.
Oker of England.

Greens,
Sap-green.
Pinck.
Bise-green.
Cedar-green
.

Blews,
Indico.
Ultramanue.
Bise-blew.
Smalt


Browns,
Umber,
Spanish-brown
Terra lemnia or
Cullins earth

 
Blacks,                                   Ivory burnt.
Cherry-stones burnt.             Lamp-blacke.
 
{Colours not usefull.} In this account or number of Colours, I name not
Vermilion ; Verdigreece ; Veraiters blew and green ; and severall other Colours, frequent with Painter-stainers, but in our work unnecessary, useless, & dangerous ; both for their Minerall qualyties, coorse and gross bodies, not to be mixt with our Colours, of a more fine subtile, and transparent Quality.
We do not admit of divers others ; as
Saffrons, Litmus, Russet, Brasill, Log-woods ; nor of Colours, extracted from Flowers, juice of Herbs or Roots ; more proper, for washing, or Colouring, Prints, Cards, Maps.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

Of Whites.
First in order, the most excellent pure Virgin Colours, are
Ceruse and White leade : the latter is the better for use, and less subject to mixtures ; yet both have these Inconveniences, and thus to be prevented.
{Ceruse.}
Ceruse, after it is wrought will starve, lavish, and dye; and being laid on with a Pensill, a fair white wil, in a few months, become Russet, Reddish, or Yellowish.
{White-Lead.}
White-lead, If you grind it fine (as all our Colours must be) it will glister and shine, both in the Shell, and after it is wrought; and if not ground, it will not work, nor be serviceable.
[…].
{Note.} Be carefull of your
white, being the ground and foundation of all your other Colours, and if faulty, all the work is marred.
  […].
{How to grind it} Being thus prepared, grind it […].

{Note a generall rule.}
Observe (in each particular) what is directed in this Colour of washing, grinding, tempering. A Rule for all the other Colours, that are to be ground.
{Colours to be washt and ground.} Some
Colours are to be washt and ground, and they are these. […].
{To be washt only.} Other to be washt only, are these. […].
{But five perfect Colours.} There are but five perfect Colours (
white and black being none) like the five precious stones perfect and transparent severall Colours. 
The hard Topas for Yellow, the Amethyst orient for Murray, the Rubie for Red, Saphire for Blew, Emrauld for Green. All which Colours are perfect different from mixture of white […].
 
Colours, to be grinded.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

Colours to the Complexion
{Dead-Colour} And first to speak of
dead-Colours, the manner of working is sutable to the Name, to be done rough and boldest of all ; Having drawn the face with Lake and White (as before said) you may take to this Colour a little Red-lead tempering them to the Colour of the Cheeks, Lipps, &c. But very faintly : {Note.} for you must remember, that in this and all other Colours in Limning, you may adde when you please to make your Colour deeper or stronger : but be sure not to make it too deep or too strong, for you can hardly help it without defacing or spoyling the Picture. Because, (as I have told you before) you can never heighten in this Art, except the two bright lights of the eyes and touches of the Haires. Thus much in generall.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

CHAP. XVII. Of the seven Colours in General.
I. The chief WHITES are these, Spodium, Ceruse, White-lead, Spanish-white, Eg-shels burnt. [...].

II. The chief BLACKS are these, Hartshorn burnt, Ivory burnt, Cherry-stones burnt, Lamp-black, Charcoal. [...].
III. The chief REDS are these : Vermilion, Red-lead, Indian-lake, Red-oker. [...].
IV. The chief GREENS are these : Green Bice, Verdegriese, Verditure, Sapgreen. [...].
V. The chief YELLOWS are these : Orpiment, Masticot, Saffron, Pink yellow, Oker de luce. [...].
VI. The chief BLEWS are Ultramarine, Indico, Smalt, Blew bice. [...].
VII. The chiefest BROWNS are Umber, Spanish-brown, Colens Earth. [...].
 
CHAP. XVI.
Of Colours in Particular.
I.
Ceruse, Grind it with glair of Eggs and it will make a most perfect white.
II.
White-lead, [...], it makes a fair Carnation.
III.
Spanish-white, It is the best white of all, [...].
IV.
Lamp-black, ground with Gum-water, it makes a good black.
V.
Vermilion, [...].
VI.
Sinaper-lake, it makes a deep and beautiful red, or rather purple, almost like unto a Red-rose. [...].
VII.
Red Lead, [...].
VIII.
Turnsole, [...] : It is good to shadow Carnation, and all Yellows.     
IX.
Roset, Grind it with brazil water, and it will make a deep purple : put Ceruse to it, and it will be lighter : gring it with Litmose, and it will make a fair Violet.
X.
Spanish brown, [...] it makes a horse flesh Colour.
XI.
Bole Armoniack, It is a faint Colour ; its chief use is, in making size for burnishd gold.
XII.
Green bice, [&] ; when it moyst, and not through dry, you may diaper upon it with the water of deep green.
XIII.
Verdegreise, Grind it with juyce of Rue, and a little weak gum water, and you will have a most pure green : if you will diaper with it, grind it with Lye of Rue (or else the decoction thereof) and there will be a hoary green [...].
XIV.
Verditure, [...] it is the faintest green that is, but is good to lay upon black, in any kind of drapery.
XV.
Sap-green, lay it in sharp vinegar all night ; put it into a little Alome to raise the colour, and you will have a good green to diaper upon other greens.
XVI.
Orpiment, Arsenicum or Auripigmentum, grind it with a stiff water of gum Lake, because it is the best colour of it self ; it will lye upon no green, for all greens, white and red lead, and Ceruse stain it : wherefore you must deepen your colours so that the Orpiment may be highest, and so it may agree with all Colours.
XVII.
Masticot, [...].
XVIII.
Saffron, [...] : it may be ground with Vermilion.
XIX.
Pink-yellow, If you would have it sad coloured, grind it with Saffron : if light, with Ceruse, [...].
XX.
Oker de Luce, [...] : it makes a passing hair colour ; and is a natural shadow for gold.
XXI.
Umber, It is a more sad colour. [...].
XXII.
Ultramarine, If you would have it deep, grind it with Litmose water ; but if light with fine Cesure, and a weak gum Arabick water.
XXIII.
Indico, [...].
XXIV.
Blew bice, [...].
XXV.
Smalt, Grind it with a little fine Roset, and it will make a deep violet : and by putting in a quantity of Ceruse, it will make a light Violet.
XXVI.
Litmose blew, [...] it makes a deep blew : [...] a light blew ; [...]
XXVII.
Orchal, [...] it makes a pure Violet : [...] you may make the Violet light or deep as you please.
 
CHAP. XIX.
Of Mixt and Compound Colours
I.
Murry, It is a wonderful beautiful colour, composed of purple and white : [...]
II.
A glass Grey, Mingle Ceruse with a little Azure.
III.
A Bay colour, Mingle Vermilion with a little Spanish brown and black.
IV
. A deep Purple, It is made of Indico, Spanish brown and white.
[...].
V. An
Ash colour, or Grey, [...].
VI.
Light Green, [...]
VIII.
Flame colour, [...]
IX.
A Violet colour, [...]
X.
Lead colour, [...]
XI.
Scarlet colour, [...]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

CHAP. XVI. Of  Preparing the Colours.
I. Colours according to their natures, have each a particular way of preparation : to wit, by grinding, wahing, or steeping.
II. The chief
Colours to be ground are these ; White lead, Ceruse, Sinaper lake, Oker, Pink, Indico, Umber, Colens Earth, Spanish Brown, Ivory Black, Cherystone Black.
III. The chief
colours to be washd are, Red lead, Masticot, green Bice, Cedar green, Ultramarine, blew Bice, Smalt, Verditure.
IV. The chief
colours to be steept, are Sap-green, Saffron, Turnsole, Stone blew, Venice berries.
V.
To Grind Colours.
[...]
VI.
To wash Colours.
[...]     
VII.
To steep Colours.
[...]
VIII.
To temper Colours.
[...]
IX.
To help the defects.
[...]
XI.
To burn or calcine Colours.
[...]
XII.
To prepare shadows for Colours.
White is shaded with blacks, and contrariwise : yellow with Umber, and the Okers : Vermilion with Lake : blew Bice with Indie : Black coal with Roset, &c.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs