SANDERSON, William, Graphice. The use of the Pen and Pensil. Or, the most Excellent Art of Painting: In Two Parts, London, Robert Crofts, 1658.

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Sir William Sanderson (1586-1676) est l’auteur de travaux historiques polémiques, traitant notamment de la vie et du règne du roi James ou encore de la reine Mary, respectivement publiés en 1650 et 1656 [1]. Son dernier ouvrage, Graphice. The Use of the Pen and Pensil, paru en 1658, traite quant à lui de la peinture, se démarquant ainsi de ses productions précédentes. 
Dans la préface de Graphice, Sanderson précise qu’il n’a jamais été un artiste professionnel, mais qu’il a déjà pratiqué la peinture de manière privée [2]. Il se qualifie lui-même de « Lover of Arts » [3]. Le public qu’il cherche avec cet ouvrage est davantage ces  mêmes lovers » que les masters ou peintres professionnels, comme il le précise [4]. Le but de Sanderson est de donner quelques principes théoriques plutôt généraux touchant la peinture, de même que des conseils pour une pratique d’amateur. Sanderson ambitionne aussi de montrer l’intérêt et l’importance de la peinture et d’en valoriser l’éducation.
Graphice devait ordinairement contenir de nombreuses gravures. L’auteur explique néanmoins qu’elles ont été perdues en mer suite à une attaque de pirates. Sanderson conseille toutefois au lecteur et practitioner de se fournir en gravures notamment dans la boutique londonienne de William Faithorne, afin de faciliter sa pratique. Pour combler ce manque dans son texte, l’amateur propose quelques ekphrasis, permettant de donner au lecteur une image plus précise de certaines œuvres évoquées [5]. 
Graphice se compose de deux parties, la première théorique, la seconde pratique. Dans la première partie, Sanderson s’intéresse à des questions qui se retrouvent fréquemment dans les textes de théorie d’art de l’époque moderne comme la confrontation entre la peinture et la poésie. Il définit également les parties de la peinture – invention, proportion, coloris, action et expression des passions, disposition. L’amateur fournit en outre quelques règles et exemples à suivre. Sanderson s’intéresse également à des questions qui concernent plus particulièrement les amateurs et les collections d’art : comment accrocher des œuvres d’art dans les maisons, comment juger une peinture, différencier un original d’une copie, etc. Graphice peut ainsi être perçu comme un « guidebook to the aspiring seventeenth-century art lover » [6]. Dans la seconde partie de son texte, Sanderson évoque des aspects plus pratiques concernant les instruments pour dessiner ou peindre et les pigments, en particulier dans le cas de la miniature.
D’une manière générale, l’enchaînement des chapitres n’est pas toujours cohérent. Sanderson explique par exemple comment accrocher les peintures, définit ensuite les grotesques et la fresque, avant de revenir sur « To place the Pictures within Doors », puis sur le dessin. 
Pour écrire Graphice, Sanderson a récupéré un certain nombre de passages théoriques provenant de diverses lectures comme il l’explique dans sa préface [7]. Il ajoute également avoir discuté avec certains peintres, ce qui lui a permis de se familiariser avec les problématiques abordées [8]. Sanderson a ainsi repris des passages, parfois au mot près, de Junius, Lomazzo, Peacham, Wotton, Bacon ou encore Norgate [9]. Par exemple, la deuxième partie de Graphice provient d’un manuscrit intitulé « An exact and Compendious Discours concerning the Art of Miniatura or Limning » qui est en réalité un brouillon du miniaturiste Norgate [10]. Sanderson fait aussi des emprunts à Sir Francis Bacon dont il reprend des passages à propos de la beauté, de même que la description de deux peintures dans son chapitre sur l’action et la passion [11]. Enfin, sa terminologie est assez proche de celle de Lomazzo ou de Junius comme le souligne L. Lipking [12].

Élodie Cayuela

[1] Sur la vie de Sanderson et ses travaux historiques, voir C. A. Good, 2013, p. 26-27 et D. R. Woof, « Sanderson, Sir William (1586–1676) », Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [en ligne : http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/24630, consulté le 17 janvier 2017].
[2] Sanderson, « Preface », 1658, n.p.
[3] Sanderson, 1658, p. 21. 
[4] Sanderson, « Preface », 1658, n.p.
[5] Voir par exemple Sanderson, 1658, p. 39 où il décrit un portrait de Van Dyck. Sur l’image et l’ekphrasis chez Sanderson, voir L. Cottegnies, 1995, p. 11-16.
[6] C. A. Good, 2013, p. 52. 
[7] Sanderson, « Preface », 1658, n.p.
[8] L. Cottegnies, 1995, p. 8. 
[9] Sur ce point, voir L. I. Lipking, 2015, p. 111 ; C. A. Good, 2013, p. 25 ; L. Cottegnies, 1995, p. 9 ; Salerno, 1951, p. 244 ; F. Hard, 1939, p. 227.
[10] Le manuscrit en question est conservé à la British Library (Harleian MS 6000). Le texte de Norgate, Miniatura or the Art of Limning, n’est pas publié avant 1919. Voir F. Hard, 1939, p. 227 et C. A. Good, 2013, p. 25.
[11] Sanderson copie ici un extrait d’une lettre datant de 1622, écrite par Sir Francis Bacon au Marquis de Birmingham pour lequel il venait d’acheter un tableau de Titien et un de Palma. Pour plus de détails sur les emprunts de Sanderson à Sir Francis Bacon et Sir Henry Wotton, voir F. Hard, 1939, notamment p. 228-230.
[12] L. I. Lipking, 2015, p. 111.
in-folio english
Structure
Préface at n.p.
Avis au lecteur at n.p.
Épître(s) at n.p.

HARD, Frederick, « Ideas from Bacon and Wotton in William Sanderson's "Graphice" », Studies in Philology, 36/2, 1939, p. 227-234 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/4172440 consulté le 30/03/2018].

SALERNO, Luigi, « Seventeenth-Century English Literature on Painting », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 14/3-4, 1951, p. 234-258 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/750341 consulté le 30/03/2018].

COTTEGNIES, Line, « “Speechless Discourse” : image et discours dans un traité d'art du milieu du XVIIe siècle », Bulletin de la société d'études anglo-américaines des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, 40, 1995, p. 7-25 [En ligne : http://www.persee.fr/doc/xvii_0291-3798_1995_num_40_1_1950 consulté le 04/04/2018].

HURLEY, Cecilia, « William Salmon et la “Polygraphice” : la théorie de l’art en Angleterre avant Jonathan Richardson », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), L’histoire de l’histoire de l’art septentrional au XVIIe siècle, Actes des journées d'étude de Lille et de Bruxelles, Turnhout, Brepols, 2010, p. 187-207.

GOOD, Caroline Anne, “Lovers of Art”. Early English Literature on the Connoisseurship of Pictures, Thesis, University of York, 2013 [En ligne : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/5694/1/Caroline%20Good%20'Lovers%20of%20Art'%20PhD%20Thesis.pdf consulté le 11/07/2016].

LIPKING, Lawrence, The Ordering of the Arts in Eighteenth-Century England, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2015.

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

QUOTATIONS

{Pen and Pensill described.} The most excellent use of the Penn, and Pensil, is illustrated by the admirable Art of Drawing, and Painting ; and perfectly defined, to be the Imitation of the Surface of Nature, in Proportion and Colour.
By
Mathematicall Demonstration of Globes, Spheres, Charts, […].
Or, by particular description of
Plotts, Fortifications, […].
Or, by shapes of Creatures ;
Men, and Beasts ; Birds, and Fishes.
Or, by
Vegetables ; Fruits, Flowers, Hearbs.
In all, it preferrs likenesse to the
Life, and conserves it, after Death ; and altogether by the Sense of Seeing.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Of Painting and Poetry compared
{Harmony of Poetry and Painting.} Thus have I adventured the
challenge, in the name of Apollo, to the Art of Apelles ; by comparing Wit, and Words, by the Poem, with Draught and Colour by the Pensil [ndr : voir les pages précédentes] ; […].
For
Poesie is a speaking Picture, and Picture is a silent, Poesie ; the first, as if alwayes a doing ; the other, as if done already. In both, an astonishment of wonder ; by Painting to stare upon Imitation of Nature, leading and guiding our Passions, by that beguiling power, which we see exprest ; and to ravish the mind most, when they are drunke in by the eyes.
{Painting before Poetry} Yet
Painting was before Poetry ; for Pictures were made before Letters were read. […].

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → comparaison entre les arts

{To distinguish Principall from Copies.} Generally, in Originalls, the Colours become often vaded, and, in many, much changed ; the Piece in time grown crusty, and often peeles by ill usage. Yet you shall find the Lightnings bold strong, and high ; the shadowes deep and gracefull.
Their
Copies ; if well counterfeit, the workeman must alter the manner of his Colours by a mixt tempering ; otherwayes then the Modern Naturall way of Painting admits. To do this well, he may be lesse excellent in the Precepts of Painting, and yet in this way of working, out Master, a better Artizan ; […].
{How to judge of them} To judge of them with facility ;
Originalls have a Natural force of Grace Rising ; Copies seems to have, only an imperfect, and borrowed comlinesse ; and if you stay to judge of them, thought they seem so, to the sight of Imitation, yet it proceeds not out of a Naturall Genius in the Workeman.
{By distinction} An Imitator, does never come neer the first Author, (unless by excellent modern Masters own working) a
similitude ever more, comes short of that truth, which is in the Things themselves : The Copier being forced to accomodate himself, to another mans intent.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

After the first view of a Picture you may limit the understanding (without more difficulty) in few observations ; as first.
1. The
Artizans care and paines must be visible,
2. It must appeare that he had knowledge and understanding in the
Art, and followed it in every particular throughout ; Not as if done by severall hands, good and indifferent.
3. Then observe if he have expressed his Naturall
Genius, with delight, upon some special fancy, as more proper to himself, than any other.
 
For Example, some.
In
Historie and Figure.
Others in
Prospective.
Some in
Shipwrack and Seas.
In
designe.
In
likenesse to th’ Life.
In
Landskips, not many.
In
Flowers.
In
Huntings and Beasts.
Cattle and Neat-heards.
 
[…].
 
And in each of these severall
Artists have been (properly) more rare.

artist

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

artisan

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
GENRES PICTURAUX → genres (généralités)

Of Abilities in Painters,
You may desire many
Abilities of an Artist in his Piece, but the Italians observe each single prayse to deserve merit, in any some Master.
Some, are noted for one of these,
viz.
Diligence and Proportion, with a free hand.
Fancie, and conceiving of Passions.
Invention.
Grace.
Of all these, we shall discourse hereafter.
{Confined.} But in a word, there may not be wanting these two,
First, to be well drawn, or (as Artizans term it) well designed ; and herein without exceptions, let there be truth and Grace.
Secondly, well Coloured, with Force, and Affection.

Italiens (les)

painter

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

Well Designed.
           
[…] ; there must be truth in every part, and
Proportion of the figure, just and Naturall with the Life. Some artizans, strain Limbs into extreams. Albert Durar, Golties, Spranger, did so, in that which was ; and Michael Angelo, in that which should be ; and thereby in truth, loose the gracefulness.
{Of Factions.} But then, if an Artizan adventure on a
Fiction, it will appeare lesse pleasing, unless it be done boldly ; not only to exceed the worke, (but also the possibility) of Nature ; […].
{Difference of Naturall and feigned Figures.} The
Naturall figures indeed, shew property and decencie to delight common Judgement ; and the forced figures, may be the sign of the Novelty in expression, and pleasing the Excitation of the mind ; for Novelty causeth admiration, and admiration enforces curiosity, the delightfull appetite of the mind.
And certainely from an Artizan’s excellencies, proceed those extravagant varieties, or admirable Novelties, which are not the issues of an idle brain, or to be found within the compass of a narrow conception ; but please the Eyes, like new straines of Musick to the Eares, when common ayres become insipid.
{And with Grace.}
Grace, is the bold and free disposing of the hand in the whole draught of the designe. […].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin

Well Coloured.
 
{Well Coloured.} […], for well Colouring, you may observe, that in all darkness there is deepness ; but then the sight must be sweetly deceived, by degrees, in breaking the Colours, by insensible passage, from higher Colours, to more dimme, better expressed in the sight of the
Rain-bow ; where severall Colours intermixt with soft and gentle distinction, as if two Colours where blended together.
{With Force, what it is}
Force, is the rounding, and rising of the work, in truth of Nature, as the Limbs require it ; without sharpnesse in out lines, or flatnesse within the body of the Piece ; and both these are visible errors.
{And Affection, what ?} Affection, is to express Passion in the figure ; Gladnesse, Grief, Fear, Anger, with motion and gesture of any Action. And this is a ticklish skill of the hand, for Passions of contrary Nature, with a touch of the Pensil, alter the Countenance, from Mirth to Mourning, as a coincident extream.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

{And Affection, what ?} Affection, is to express Passion in the figure ; Gladnesse, Grief, Fear, Anger, with motion and gesture of any Action. And this is a ticklish skill of the hand, for Passions of contrary Nature, with a touch of the Pensil, alter the Countenance, from Mirth to Mourning, as a coincident extream.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Of Grotesco.
{Grotesco work, what it is.} As for
Grotesco or (as we say) Antique-worke ; It takes my fancy, though in forms of different Natures, or Sexes, Sirenes, Centaures, and such like, as the outward walls of White-Hall, observes this kind ; […].
And if
Poets devise these double Natur’d Creatures, why, not the Painters ; who can do what the other but bespeake ? But in true Judgment I would confine Grotesco, only to Borders and Freezes ; then it may become the Wall, within or, without doores.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → ornement

Of Fresco.
{Of Fresco what it is.} There is a Painting upon Walls called
Fresco : It was the ancient Græcians Noble way of Painting, and since much used by the Romans. […]..
[…].
{Whole Towns of this worke.} There have been
PAINTINGS of this worke, in severall Towns of GERMANY, rarely done ; but now ruined by Warre.
{Three Chambers in
Rome.} At Rome ; there are three Chambers, in the Popes Pallace, of Frescoe ; done by Raphael Urbin, and Julio Romano, (his disciple,) who finished his Master’s worke, and are yet called, Raphaells designes […].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

{Five sorts of Paintings.} And thus much of Pictures their Choyce and Use, there being five kinds of Paintings. Distemper or Sise-colour ; Frescoe ; Oyle-Colours ; Miniture or Water-Colours ; Croyons, or dry Colours.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Of Drawing, and Designing in generall
{Drawing and Designing, their excellent use.} I Have marvailed, at the negligence of Parents in generall ; they not to enforce a Necessity, in the Education of their youth, to this Art of
Drawing and Designing, being so proper for any course of Life whatsoever. Since the use thereof for expressing the Conceptions of the Mind, seems little inferiour, to that of Writing ; which in no man, ought to be deficient. And in many Cases, Drawing and Designing performs, what by words are impossible ; and (to boot) perfects the hand, for all manner of writing.
[…]. For almost, nay in any
Arts, we must respect Rule, and Proportion, which this makes perfect. […].
But to our particular purpose of
Painting, it is the only Consequence. And therefore to draw well with the Pen, after a Copy, or the Life, is the most difficult to begin, and the only pains, for the present ; but when mastered, the whole worke of Designing (which leads you into Painting) will become the greatest pleasure ; and of more variety, then any Manuall Profession what ever.

drawing

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Of Drawing, and Designing in generall
{Drawing and Designing, their excellent use.} I Have marvailed, at the negligence of Parents in generall ; they not to enforce a Necessity, in the Education of their youth, to this Art of
Drawing and Designing, being so proper for any course of Life whatsoever. Since the use thereof for expressing the Conceptions of the Mind, seems little inferiour, to that of Writing ; which in no man, ought to be deficient. And in many Cases, Drawing and Designing performs, what by words are impossible ; and (to boot) perfects the hand, for all manner of writing.

designing

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

The Practice of Drawing or Designing.
{The practice of Drawing and Designing.} I Would prepare you with Rule and Compasse, and other Instruments, necessary for you to lye by you at hand ; but advise you to practise without them ; It is your eye must judge, without artificiall Measuring. And when you have past my first directions, and are perfect to draw by the Life, you may afterwards, in large Proportions and dimensions, use your Instruments, both for perfection, ease, and speed.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

drawing

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → qualités

designing

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

The foundation of Proportion consists in severall particular figures, by which I would have you enter your Drawings ; as the Circle, Ovall, Square, Trangle, Cilinder : Each of these have their effects. […].
{How to draw by Copyes.} Begin your Example, by a Copie
or Print, of those severall forms of figures ; as the Sun, full-Moon, […].
{Of severall members of the body.} Then, practise by severall members of the body ; in some
Print ; as the Eare, Eye, […].
{Head and shoulders.} The next is by a
Print, or Copy of a Head and shoulders of a Man or Woman, […].

print

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

copy

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

{Pensils.} Black Chalke Pensils draws handsomely (without the Cole) upon Blew-paper, and shadowed neatly ; being heightned with White-lead Pastils, you may practice upon several coloured papers, as the ground and shadow ; and heighten it with other Colour Pastils, as your fancy affects.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

{Drapery what ?} Drapery-garments ; of severall Stuffs, coorse or fine, Silke, Wollen, or Linnen, have their different and naturall folds ; So as in the Lines, of greater, or softer shadows, (well done by an Artist) you may (though in black and white) easily discerne the meaning of the draught ; to be of such a Stuffe, or Cloathing.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → vêtements et plis

{Of hatching.} In shadowing, with hatches, or small strokes (as in your print) use the pen of a Ravens-quill ; and be sure not to cross any stroake, before the former be dry ; left they runne into each other.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

hatch

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

After some practice with the Pen (which follows the use of the Cole) proceed to shadow, with black and white Chalks, in stroakes, or sweetning (as in Painting).
For better directions herein, get some Designes or draughts, done in
Chalke, Red-oaker, dry Colours, Croyons, or Pastills, for your patterns.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

draught

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

design

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

{Most Pictures are Copied by Gravings.} Now, though we name these, as other Artizans, for draughts, and to be met with in Prints ; you must know that they were Painters, and for the most part, wrought their Pieces first, by designe, and draught, with blacke and white Chalkes in little ; […].
So shall you have, two or three, or more, severall Names oft-times, set to the
Print ; the Designer, the Painter, the Graver, and sometime the Printer. Our excelllent Artists in Graving are, Father Lambert, Hollar, Vaughan, Trevethen, Gay-wood, Crosse.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...
L’ARTISTE → qualités

{Not to Paint ere you can Draw well.} By this time, and Practice, you expect that I should put you into Painting, the usuall longing desire of the Practitioner ; but, forbear, by any means, untill you be excellent in Copying of draughts, according to the foresaid Rules ; nay, untill you can boldly and truly, adventure upon your own fancie, and designe a Pattern for others. And believe it for truth, hastly Colouring, undoes the Painter. He shall never be excellent, that is not ready, in his own Draughts ; Nor be able to paint (and be esteemed) till he understand a Picture as it should be made.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Of the powers of a Painter and Painting
{In reference to Philosophy and Poetry And Painting.}
Philosophers, divide the universe (which is their subject) into three Regions ; Cælestiall, Aeriall, Terrestriall.
So the
POETS, (who imitate humain Life, in measured lines,) have lodged themselves, in three Regions of Mankind ; Court, Citty, and Country.
So the
PAINTERS, (whose Art is to imitate Nature) performe it in three severall Qualities ; Design, Proportion, and Colour.
{Into three sorts.} And these, into three sorts of
Painting ; Prospective, (or Landskip), Historicall, and Life.
Prospective ; a wonderfull freedome, and liberty, to draw, even, what you list, so various is Nature in that.
Historicall ; respects due Proportions and figures.
Life ; only the Colour.
In each of these ; you must have dependency upon all the
other, but necessarily, on each in particular.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire

prospective

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
GENRES PICTURAUX → genres (généralités)

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
GENRES PICTURAUX → genres (généralités)

landscape

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

{Of Imitation.} The powers of a Painter, is expresses, by Imitation of Naturall things, whereof the most excellent, are ever, the most difficult ; easie to paint deformity.
{In severall graces and abilities.} In your Imitations of Art or Copying, observe to hit the virtues of the Piece, and to refuse the vices ; for all
Masters have somewhat, of them both. For, Paintings, may be puft-up, but not stately ; starved in Colour, nor delicate ; rash, not Confident ; Negligent, not Plain. […].
{Of Fancie.} Proficiency of
Painting, is purchased, not (altogether) by Imitation, (the common drole-way of ordinary Painters) if you neglect the amendment, by your own generous fancie ; (Est autem proprie Imago rerum animo insidentium). For, he that only follows another’s steps, must (needs) be the last in the race : Lazy Painters study not, the brain : Nature can do much with Doctrine ; but not Doctrine, without Nature : Nature, is of greater Moment : Every Artificer hath a peculiar Grace, in his own worke, agreeing to his Nature ; though many (of the other sort,) owe most to Doctrine.
{Surpassing Imitation.} The force, of Imitation of
Nature, is in the Fancie ; which worketh with the more Wisdome. It being an imaginative faculty, or wit, and is set on worke to imagine, what we have seen (or at least made up with some other Sense) being the Print or foot-steps of Sense. It is the treasury of the mind, The darkness of night awakes our Speculations of the day ; when sleep failes, the Mind does, then, digest the conceived things into Order ; that so, the whole invention wants nothing, but the hand of the Artificer, to effect the worke ; and, without Art, to do, Imagination is uselesse ; Fancie supplyes Imitation’s weakness : the property and Office whereof, is to retain those images, and figures, which the Common Sense receives : First, from the exterior sense ; and then transmits it to the judgemnt ; from thence, to the fancie ; and there locked up, and covered in the memory ; and we may alter and move with the re-presentation of things, although it have them not present, which the common Sense cannot have, unlesse present.
[…].

imagination

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

fancy

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

We may paint a conceived, or intelligible thing, Perfect, by the Idea of Fancie : but, by Imitation, we may faile of Perfection. Hence it was, that the Antients intending to excell in the forms and figures of their Jupiters, would not imitate, or take a pattern, generated, but rather, by a conceived description of Him, out of Homer, or other Poets.
There is in the
form and shape of things, a certain perfection and excellencie ; unto whose conceived figures, such things by Imitation, are referred, that cannot be seen.
{To encrease fancie.} To amend
fancie, we must lodge up such rarities, as are administred to fight, to encrease the meditation of fancie ; as in your dayly view of forms and shadows, made by lights and darknesses ; […].
{And order it in a Picture.} In a
draught of designe, the Artist must fancie every circumstance of his matter in hand ; as usually Rubens would (with his Arms a cross) fit musing upon his work for some time ; […]. The Commotions of the mind, are not to be cooled by flow performance : discreet diligence, brings forth Excellence : Care, and Exercise, are the chiefest precepts of Art. But, diligence is not to stagger, and stay at unnecessary Experiments ; and therefore I have observed in excellent Pieces a willing neglect, which hath added singular grace unto it.

Anciens (les)

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Anciens (les)

excellency

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Of the Parts of a Piece
{Five Principa parts in a Picture.} In a
PICTURE from Nature, there are five Principall parts..
 
1.
Invention or Historicall Argument.
2.
Proportion, Symmetry.
3.
Colour, with Light or Darknesse.
4.
Motion, or Life, and their Action and Passion.
5.
Disposition, or œconomicall placing, or disposing, or ordering the work.
The
four first, are observed in all sorts of Pieces.
 
Disposition only in those Pictures, that have many figures ; not to appear mingle-mangle ; but, in all and every part of the Piece, to observe a decent comlinesse, or grace, in a mutuall accord, of all five.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition

motion

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

life

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

{1. Invention} Of Invention.
It must flow easily ; to force and strain it, marrs the Life and Spirit of the work ; perfect
Invention flowes from generall knowledge ; Antiquity must be familiar to the workman ; most of all, multitude of Historicall and Poeticall Narrations ; Geometry ; Obticks ; and so to order your Piece, as to be valued neer or farther off.
Observe to expresse, proper and fit things, agreeing in Circumstance to the Time, Place, and Person :
Habits, according to the fashion of such a people or Nation, ancient or Moderne. [...] And so have we done with an Example of all in One : For
 
                       Invention
allures the mind.
                       Proportion, attracts the Eyes.
                       Colour ;
delights the Fancie.
                      
Lively Motion, stirs up our Soul.
                      
Orderly Disposition, charmes our Senses.
 
{Conclude a rare Picture.} These produce gracefull
Comliness, which makes one fairer then fair ; […].
This Grace is the close of all, effected by a familiar facility in a free and quick spirit of a bold and resolute Artificer ; not to be done by too much double
diligence, or over doing ; a careless shew, hath much of Art.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

{2. Proportion.} Of Proportion.
It’s called
Symmetry, Analogie, Harmony.
Proportion is of any part ; a Hand fitted to the bigness of a body.
Symmetry is the proportion of each finger to that bigness ; Analogie or Harmonie. All together in one ; a Concinnity of Harmony ; A congruence, or equality of parts and members ; or due connexion, in reference of all parts, one to the other, and all to the whole, which produceth a perfect Nature, or beauty.
{Of true beauty.} Whatsoever is made, after a conceived or Intelligible thing is Fair.
Whatsoever is made, after a thing generated, is not faire.
Beauty, may be perfectly conceived.
{Naturall and conceived.} True
beauty in any Creature, is not to be found ; being full of deformed disproportions, far remote from truth ; for sinne is the cause of deformity.
Beauty in truth, is, where Joynts and severally every part with the whole, hath its due proportion and measure ; and therefore hard to describe.
Beauty should consist but of One at the most ; and deformity contrariwise, measured by many : for the eeven Lineaments and due proportion of fair and goodly Persons, seem to be created and framed, by the judgement and sight of one form alone, which cannot be in deformed persons ; as with blub cheeks, bigg eyes, little nose, flat mouth, out chin, and brown skin, as it were moulded from many ill faces ; and yet some one part considered about, to be handsome, but altogether become ugly ; not for any other cause, but that they may be Lineaments of many fair women, and not of One. The Painter, did well, to procure all the fair maides naked, to judge of each severall and single perfection ; and so from the Idea of fancie, to shape a Venus. {By the Idea.}
{His brave and unpattern’d and unparallel’d Piece of
Artimesia.} And thus, by often exercise from severall beauties, you shall fixe a conceived Idea is your mind of accomplished Pulchritude grace or comlinesse, according to the true rule of Symmetry. […].
A
Beauty may be expressed by a comely body, though not of delicate features ; rather dignity of presence, than beauty of aspect. It is seen at the first sight. Favour more than Colour ; and yet that of decent and gratious motion, more than that of favour.
There is no excellent
beauty without some strangeness in the proportion, and both Apelles and Albert Durer, doe but trifles out the time and trouble us ; The One to compose a Personage by Geometricall proportion ; and Apelles by collecting the best parts from severall faces, to make one excellent. Indeed a Painter may make a better personage than ever was seen since the first Creation ; which he does by a kind of felicity, not by Rule, as a Musician doth his French Aires, not by true Method of setting.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Sanderson s'inspire ici de Sir Francis Bacon (voir F. Hard, 1939, p. 228-229).

pulchritude · comeliness · grace

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

beauty · pulchritude · grace

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

pulchritude · comeliness · beauty

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition

grace · beauty · comeliness

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

{Likenesse, not to be compared} But the worke of Art, is not singly in the Similitude or likenesse to the Life, (as common judgement will have it) but in the Symmetry  ; which in truth, proceeds from someskill in the Artizan’s surpassing Art.
{To Symmetry} It was distinguished by that excellent
Painter. A Boy holding a cluster of Grapes so like, that deceived the Birds, and yet not deterred by the shape of the Lad ; which therefore being an exception to the excellencie of the Piece, the Painter put out the Grapes, (though most like,) but reserved the Boy (for his Symmetry,) as the better esteem of the Art ; not understood by ordinary capacities.
{And therefore Naked Bodies hard to Paint.} You shall hardly find an
Artist, very excellent in a naked body, where true Symmetry is expected ; and therefore the ancient skill of the Græcians, sildome apparelled any. A timorous Painter, excuses his weaknesse, by covering the body, with a muffled Mantle.
{Defining Lines, what ?} The
Artizans call this proportion, the designing lines, Scatches, the first draught, and so a second and third, before you Paint them ; {A Cut.} which stroaks, by those that have insight in Art, are esteemed of high value ; for by these first draughts, the true force and undisguised Lineaments of Nature, do ravish the contemplation ; wherein the thought of a studious Artificer is perfectly evidenced.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

similitude

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

likeness

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Of Colouring
{Colouring. what ?} Corruption composition or mixing of
Colours, we call Painting ; which is, to express shadows in Colours ; thereby, to resemble, what we do desire to imitate, by a moderate confusion, or tempering, discordant Colours ; as white, black, red, blew, green, &c.
[…].
{With Light and shadows.} Observe herein
Light and Shadows, Obscurity and Brightnesse.
Contrary things are more apparant, being placed neer their Contraries ;
Light and Shadows forward, set out any Painting outwards ; as if you might take hold of any part.
Obscurity or Darknesse, is the duskishness of a deeper shadow ; as brightness is the Intension of Light.
White appears sooner, or neerer to the Eye ; and the black seems farther off, any thing that should seem hollow (as in a Well, or Cave,) must be coloured blackish ; more deep, more black.
On the contrary, to lighten or rise forward, with
white.
{Tonus, what?}
Tonus or brightnesse ; as it is of necessary use, so of excellent ornament in a Picture, it is which is above light ; {A Brightness.} sparkling as in the glory of Angels, twinckling of precious stones ; […] : the variety of these Ornaments, must be expressed excellently ; but avoid satiety, not cloy your Picture with it.
{Harmogia what ?}
Harmoge in Colours, is an unperceivable way of Arts ; stealing to pass from one Colour to another, as in the sea and skie meeting in one thin mistly Horizontall stroake, both are lost and confounded in sight ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

tonus

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

obscurity

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

darkness

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

brightness

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

So also in Art ; to paint the line or meeting of a Centaur in his two Natures, which must seem to unite and joyn insensibly, as not to distinguish where they meet ; deceiving the Eye with a stealth of change ; a pleasant confusion of differing Colours. It is hard to be expressed, and difficult to be done, the very excellencie of an Artist ; when the extream or utmost lines, the unrestrained extent of the figure, lightly and smoothly coosin the Eye, as if something were behind the figure, more to be then the Eye sees, when the Lineaments, that do circumscribe, or include the figure, are so thin, as to varnish by little and little ; {Of Spirits and Souls Painted} the highest subtility of a piece, like spirits and souls painted.
{A Geometricall Line.} You may call it a
Geomettricall Line ; which is, without breadth : Observe the parting of the Sun-shadow, upon the Wall, the line parting the light, and that is thus

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Of Action and Passion.
{4. Action and Passion.} The next observation, is out of which,
Life and Motion doth result : It shews no Action or Passion in a Piece, barely upright, looking forward ; the Armes hanging down, the feet close together, and so seems unmoveable, and stiff.
{How to be expressed} In lineall
Pieces, there may be a deceitfull similitude of Life and Motion, and statues may seem to live and breathe but coloured Pictures shew a lively force in the severall effects, and properties of Life and Spirit.
{And to be improved} To be well acquainted with
Nature, Manner, guize and behaviour ; as to paint a Man, angry or sad ; joyfull earnest ; or idle ; all passions to be proper to the figure : […]. Indeed the severall postures of the head, describe the Numbers of passions ; […]. In a word, each severall member or part of the body, either of themselves, or in reference of some other part, expresses the passions of the mind, as you may easily observe in the Life.
[…].
{By example of Titian’ Pieces.} I have seen a piece of
Tytian’s : A Child in the Mothers Lap playing with a Bird ; so round and pleasing, it seem’s a doubt whether a Sculpture or Painting ; whether Nature or Art, made it ; the mother smiles and speaks to : the child starts, and answers.
{And of
Palma’s Piece.} Another of Palma’s ; a speaking Piece indeed. The young Damsell brought for Old Davids Bedfellow ; all the company in Passion and Action : some in admiration of her beauty, others in examining her features, which so please the good Old Man, that in some Extasie of passion, he imbraces her which her humility admits, yet with a silent modesty as best became her, only to be dumb and so suffer.
[…].
[...] And so have we done with an Example of all in One : For
 
                       Invention
allures the mind.
                       Proportion, attracts the Eyes.
                       Colour ;
delights the Fancie.
                      
Lively Motion, stirs up our Soul.
                      
Orderly Disposition, charmes our Senses.
 
{Conclude a rare Picture.} These produce gracefull
Comliness, which makes one fairer then fair ; […].
This Grace is the close of all, effected by a familiar facility in a free and quick spirit of a bold and resolute Artificer ; not to be done by too much double
diligence, or over doing ; a careless shew, hath much of Art.

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Of the disposition of the Parts.
{5. Of Disposition.} A Picture of many
figures, must needs express some Historicall part in it ; Every figure ought to represent therein, by a speechless discourse, the connexion in them. Assigne therefore the principall place, to the principall figures, next to hand ; Other figures, farther off. Finish the Principal figures, whilst your Spirits are fresh. {In order to perfection,} Frame not your Historicall Piece, rude, loose, and scattered, but rather, in an equitable roundness of composition ; to be perceived by each observer ; to be liked of the most, but to be judged, only, by the learned. Neglects in disposition, are soon discovered.
{Soon discovered.} Pourtray in your excellent
Pieces, not only the dainty Lineaments of Beauty, but shadow round about, rude thickers, rocks ; and so it yields more grace to the Picture, and sets it out : this discord (as in musicke) makes a comely concordance ; a disorderly order of counterfeit rudeness, pleaseth : so much grace, doe mean and ordinary things, receive from a good and orderly connexion.
{But altogether excellent.} All these together, make that perspicuous
disposiiton in a Piece of History ; and is the effectuall expression in Posture and Action ; the very Passion of each Figure ; the Soul of the PICTURE ; the Grace and Ayr of the Piece ; or the sweet Consent of all manner of perfections heaped together, in one Picture.
{By example in brief}
And so have we done with an Example of all in One : For
 
                       Invention
allures the mind.
                       Proportion, attracts the Eyes.
                       Colour ;
delights the Fancie.
                      
Lively Motion, stirs up our Soul.
                      
Orderly Disposition, charmes our Senses.
 
{Conclude a rare Picture.} These produce gracefull
Comliness, which makes one fairer then fair ; […].
This Grace is the close of all, effected by a familiar facility in a free and quick spirit of a bold and resolute Artificer ; not to be done by too much double
diligence, or over doing ; a careless shew, hath much of Art.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition

comeliness

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection