FACE

FACE (n.)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTUREcouleur
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGUREfigure et corps · proportion
GENRES PICTURAUXportrait
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVREtechnique de la peinture · couleurs
AANGEZICHT (nld.) · ANGESICHT (deu.) · FACCIA (ita.) · FACE (fra.) · GESICHT (deu.) · TRONIE (nld.) · VISAGE (fra.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
AIR (fra.) · PORTRAIT (fra.) · TRONIE (nld.) · VISAGE (fra.)

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

7 sources
14 quotations

Quotation

Of Drawing the Face or countenance of a Man.
[…]
The visage or countenance is (for the most part) drawn but three manner of wayes, the first is full faced, […] {The full face.}
The second is three quarter faced, as our Flanders and ordinary pictures are, that is when one part of the face is hid by a quarter as thus : [ndr : insertion d’un dessin explicatif].
{Halfe face.} The third is onely halfe faced, […] as this
Cæsars head [ndr : présence d’un dessin accôlé au texte illustrant le propos de Peacham].

countenance

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

The first sitting to worke in particular.
{Particular directions of the Picture.} The comlinesse of the
face consists in three abilities, Beautifull, Colour or Complexion ; true Proportion and Favour ; and Grace in the Countenance ; The curious Artist must watch and catch the lovely graces, witty smilings, short and suddain, which pass like Lightning. […].
  The first
Colour to begin the face, are the Redds of the Cheeks and Lipps […]. I have seen Pictures of a good Master begun, and dead-coloured only, that neer at hand they seemed exceeded Rough, Uneven, and unpleasant ; yet being viewed at a distance from your Eye, they appear very smooth, neat and delicate : therefore I shall perswade you in this first worke, not to study or regard curiosity, or neatness of your Colours ; but a bold and judicious manner of expressing, what you see in the Life.
[…].


 
Second sitting.
[…].

Third Sitting.
{Third sitting.} The
third sitting will be only spent in giving the strong touches necessary for rounding the face, which now will appear better for observation, the apparrell, hair, and ground, being already finished.
{Likenesse, Resemblance, Countenance, Marks, Moles.} In this
sitting therefore observe, what ever may conduce to the likeness and resemblance, which above all is the principal aime : viz. skin-molds, smiling, or glanceing of the eye, descending or contracting the mouth ; narrowing the eyes, with smiling : to which purpose, find occasion of discourse, or cause the party to be in action, or to regard you with a Joviall merry and discoursive aspect. Wherein you must be ready and apprenhensive to steal observations, and to express them with a quick bold and constant hand, ever remembring not to make the deeper shadows too darke and obscure, as happily you may think they appear in the Life, which in Painting (as deep as the Life) is no good Rule to follow, and in Limning is a note of very necessary consequences ; conclude your face with these observations, that the eye gives the life ; the nose, the flavour ; the mouth, the likeness.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

To begin a Picture, first draw the Eye, the white thereof make of white Lead, with a little Charcoale black; having finished it, leave from the other Eye the distance of an Eye; then draw the proportion of the Nose, the compass of the Face ; after that make the Mouth, the Eare, the Haire, &c.
After you have made the white of the Eyes, and proportion of the Nose, &c. lay your Carnation or Flesh colour over the Face, casting in here and there some shadowes, which work in with the flesh colour by degrees. Your flesh-colour is commonly compounded of white lead, lake, and vermilion ; but you may heighthen or deepen it at your pleasure.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Quotation

CHAP. IV. Of Drawing the face of a Man.
 
I. In drawing of the face you are first to observe its motion whether upwards, downwards, forwards, or sideways ; whether it be long or round, fat or lean, great or little.
For if it be fat, the cheeks will seem to swell : if lean, the jaw bones will stick out, and the cheeks fall in ; but if neither too fat, nor too lean, it will be for the most part round.
II. Touch lightly the features where the eyes, mouth, nose, and chin should stand, (having first drawn the circle or oval of the face) then make a stroak down from that place of the forehead which is even with the chin, coming down where you should place the middle or tip of the nose, and middle of the mouth, which stroak must be made straight down in a full right face, but arched or oval (in an oblique face) leaning that way towards which the face doth turn : then cross the stroak about the middle of the eye ; [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

CHAP. XXV. Of the Practice of Limning in Miniature, or Drawing of a Face in Colours.
I.
To begin the work.
[...] the ground thus laid, begin the work, the party being set, which must be done at three sittings : at the first sitting the face is only dead coloured, which takes up about two hours time : at the second sitting, go over the work more curiously, adding its particular graces or deformities, sweetly couching the colours, which will take up about five hours time : at the third sitting finish the face, in which you must perfect all that is imperfect and rough, putting the deep shadows in the face, as in the eyes, eyes-brows, and ears, which are the last of the work, and not to be done till the hair curtain, or back side of the picture, and the drapery be wholly finished.
II.
The operation or work at first sitting.
The ground for the complexion being laid, draw the out-lines of the face, which do with Lake and white mingled; [...].

III.
The operation or work at second sitting.
[...]

IV.
The operation or work at third sitting.
[...]

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

CHAP. X. Of the Painting of the face.
 
I. Have your necessary pensils in readiness, as two pensils ducks quill fitched ; and two ducks quill pointed ; [...].
            V. Let the person to be drawn, sit before you in the posture he intends to be painted, [...].
            VI. Then with a piece of painted chalk draw the proportion of the face upon the cloth, with the place of the eyes, nose, mouth, ears, hair, and other postures.
            [...].

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

Of the Head in Prophile or side-wayes.
The manner to make this
Head by just and safe rules is thus, First forme a perfect equall Triangle in what position you will, turning the Triangle to make the Face upon one of the three sides ; be it which it will,  either upwards or downwards, higer or lower {According to Odoardo Fialetti.} ; […].


Of the Foreright Face.
Being then desireous to draw the Foreright
Face, it will be necessary to Forme a perfect Ovall, […].


Of the Head in Foreshortning.
Hitherto I have treated of the
Head, both Foreright and in other Positions, but that you might know all that is needfull for the perfect understanding of this profession, it is necessary that I specifie the manner how to draw the Face by an easy, absolute and fair way ; Treating thus I propound to you Methodical means therein, because my intent is to Facilitate the matter in that manner, but without writing thereupon it may be intelligible, for a draught well made hath that power, that it makes it self understood without any discourse of the Author thereon, but I alwayes observe both the one and the other also ; I say that the foreshortning which is made onely with Fretts, Grates, Squares, or with Geometrical Instruments, breed onely a confusion of lines, which is not the best principal of expert Ingenuity, the reason whereof is, that it can hardly be measured by any Rule, unless the whole Body be framed together. Therefore I will shew an easy Rule, very like to that of the foreright Face, that is, to make a Circular draught with the aspect upwards, or downwards, as in the foreright Head, where the Traverse lines are straight, but these go Circularly, for if the Heads flye upwards the Traced strokes and the Divisions must be raised, with caution that the Eares and Eyes fall not out of their due points, as is signified in the first Place.


Of the side face without any Measure.
Being desireous to make the side
face without any Triangle or Measure, which with a little care and practice, observing the distances and Measures which will serve for Direction, because the Head and other parts of the Body ought to be proportional, and made from Measures ; it will easily follow, Framing or Traceing many, you may not only Facilitate it by the Eye and Judgement, but also accommodate the Hand, to Trace and draw, all things right, for it is true that the Eye will have its place. I having drawn certain stroaks or draughts from the life of nature, and reduced it with the Pencil into Colours, have found it come off punctually right, of a correspondent bigness to that, which I have imitated, and have not found any thing disproportioned, but have alwayes found it fall out right as I would have it, therefore I say that this Rule, and Measure which I have set down, in the Porphile or other opositions of the Head, is not any hindrance to the excellency of the Art, nor will weaken your worth, but will serve for a general Rule being once possest therewith, and also become prevalent when occasion shall require, to make a Head Ten times as big as the Life ; […].

head

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Quotation

Several Observations, in drawing a Head after the Life


And because the greatest difficulty, and principal parts of this Art consist in some part in drawing the lively Resemblance of a
Face, therefore I thought it very necessary to add this as a further Direction to draw any Face after the life. Therefore if you will draw any Face after the life, that it may resemble the party you draw it after ; take notice in the First place of the Physiognomy or circumference of the Face, whiter it be round or long, Fat or Lean, Big or Little, […], then you must diligently and judiciously observe and discern all the Gentle Master Touches, which gives the Spirit and Life to a Face, and discovers the Grace or Disposition of the Mind, wherein lieth the whole Grace of the Work, and the Credit of the Artist, you may easily discern a smiling Countenance in the Corners of the Mouth, when they turn up a little ; […] ; there are also some touches about the Eyes and Mouth which you must diligently observe, which gives the Spirit and Life to a Face.

head

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Quotation

The Ground colour for a Face.


[…], you are to lay a
ground or primer of flesh colour before you begin your work, and that must be tempered according to the complexion of the Face to be drawn, if the complexion be fair, temper white, red lead, and lake, if an hard swarthy complexion, mingle with your white and red a little fine Masticot, or English Ocur, but Note that your ground ought alwayes to be fairer then the Face you take ; for it is a facile matter to darken a light colour, but a difficult to lighten a deep one ; for in Limning you must never heighten, but work them down to their just colour
[…].


The Order of Shadowes for the Face.
{
Shadows} In all your Shadowes, remember to mix some white, (exempli gratia) for the red in the Cheeks, Lips, &c. temper Lake, red Lead ; […] Note that black must not by any means be used in a Face, for other shadowes your own observation must direct you, for it is impossible to give a general Rule for the shadowes in all Faces, unless we could force nature to observe the same method in composing and modelling them, so that one in every punctilio should resemble the other. 

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

Concerning dead colouring.


The
dead colouring of a Face is to be done the roughest and boldest of all ; having drawn your Face with lake and white (as before) you must take to the said colour a little red lead, tempering it to the colour of the Cheeks, Lips, &c. but very faintly, […]. 
{
To begin to Limn.} The first colour to begin the Face with, is the red of the Cheeks and Lips, somewhat strongly the bottome of the Chin, if the party be beardless ; over under and about the Eyes you will perceive a delicate, and faint redness, and underneath the Eyes, inclining to purple colour, which in fair and beautiful Faces is usual, and must be observed ; the tip of the Ear, and the roots of the Hair are commonly of the same colour.
[…].
Note) Be not too curious in your first working, but regard a good bold following of nature, rather then smooth curiosity, the roughness of the colour, you may end at an other sitting.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Chap. V, Directions for Drawing the Body of Man or Woman.
SECT. I.
General Rules for Drawing the Face.
In Drawing the Face, observe its motion whether forward, upward, downward, or sideways, by your Eye ; touch lightly the features where the Eyes, Nose, Mouth, and Chin should stand, and then go over them more perfectly. The Circle, Squares, and Triangles that are used in a Face, serve to guide your judgment where to place the several features.
Observe dilligently the principal Muscles of a Face, these appear most in an aged man or womans face.
[…].
A smiling countenance is discerned by the Mouth, when the corners of the Mouth turn up a little.
A frowning countenance is discerned in the Fore-head, Eye-brows, bending and somewhat wrinkling about the top of the Nose,
&c.


SECT. II.
To draw a fore-right Face.
Make the form of a perfect Oval divided into three equal parts by two Lines ; […].


SECT. III.
To draw an Up-right Head.
Which is made with three Lines equal every way, either upwards, downwards, higher or lower ; and that must be divided as the former into three equal parts, as in the Example.


SECT. IV. Of the inclining and Fore-shortned Face.
This is plainly seen by the Lines, how they concord together, and you may with facility draw in their proper places, the Nose, Mouth, and other parts with a little practice, and observing diligently the Example following.
In these Forms you must be very perfect, it being a Rule that in most Faces you may have occasion to make use of : for of all the parts of Mans body the Face is the most difficult. But having got the Proportions with their Measures, you will be able (which way soever a Face turns) to form it out, whatever proportion your Face is, you are to imitate, so must your out-stroke be formed, whether long, round, fat, or lean.
Because presidents are most useful, I have here thought good to give you the forms of several Eyes more at large, by which you may with more ease know the truth of their Proportions.
As also Ears, which are exactly to be known ; and then the forms of several Noses and Mouths ; all which are taken from eminent Masters, as
Palma and others. [In the following Page.]

ANONYME, [Bouches, planche 4], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 27 - planche 4.
ANONYME, [Oreilles et yeux, planche 3], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 26 - planche 3.
ANONYME, [Visages, planche 1], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 24 - planche 1.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Quotation

Chap. IV, Of the Miniture or Limning of a Face in Water-Colours.
Having all things in a readiness, according to the directions before delivered, upon that part of your Card where you intend the Face of your Picture to be, lay that part of the Card over with your Colour that you have before prepared, answerable to the Complexion of the party ; it being well tempered, pretty thin, with a Pencil bigger than ordinary, spread your Colour very even and thin, free from hairs or other spots, in your Pencil, over the place where you are to make the Face of your Picture. The Ground being laid, you may begin the Draught, the party being ready to sit. Now to the finishing of a Face there will require three Operations or Sittings at the least.. At the first sitting you do only dead Colour the Face, and this takes about two hours time. At the second sitting you are to go over the Face more curiously, observing whatsoever may conduce to the graces or deformities of the party to be Drawn, together with a sweet dispose and couching of the Colours one within another, and this sitting will take up some four or five hours. At the third sitting you may finish the Face, this takes up some three hours time ; in which you perfect what was before imperfect and rough, in putting the deep and dark shadows in the Face, as in the Eyes, Eye-brows hair, and Ears, which things are the last of the Work, and not to be done till the Hair-curtain or the back-side of the Picture, as also the Drapery be wholly finished.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Chap. III, How to order your Colours upon your Pallat, and how to temper Shadows for all Complexions.
Dispose your single Colours upon your Pallat in this order, laying them at a convenient distance one from another, so that they be not apt to intermix. First lay on your Vermilion, then lake, then burnt Oker,
India Red, Pink, Umber, Blacks, and Smalt : lay the White next to your thumb, because it is oftenest used, for with it you lighten all your shadows ; next to your White lay a stiff sort of Lake : this done, your Pallat is furnished with the single Colours belonging to a Face ; then for the tempering of your Shadows to all Complexions, observe the following Directions.

1. For a Fair Complexion.
Take a little White, and twice as much Vermilion, and as much Lake temper these well together upon your Pallat with the flat blade of your knife ; lay aside by it self on your Pallat the greatest quantity of this to be used for the deepest Carnation of the Face […].
Your Carnations being thus tempered, and orderly laid upon your Pallat, prepare your faint Shadows. For which,
Take Smalt, and mix it with a little White, which may serve for the Eyes ; lay aside the greatest quantity, and to the rest add a little Pink, this well tempered and laid by it self, will serve for the faint greenish shadows in the Face.
Now prepare your deep Shadows : for which take Lake, Pink, […].

2.
For a more Brown or Swarthy Complexion.
Lay your single Colours on your Pallat as before, and in like manner temper them, only amongst your White Lake, and Vermilion, put a little quantity of burnt Oker, to make it look somewhat Tawny […].

3.
For a Tawny Complexion.
The general Colours must be the same as before, only the Shadows are different, for you are to prepare them of Umber, and burnt Oker, […].

4.
For an Absolute Black Complexion.
Your dark Shadows must be the same as before ; but for your heightnings, you must take White, burnt Oker, Lake, and Black, put but a little White in at first, […].
Here note, that the single Colours at first laid upon your Pallat being tempered together according to the former directions, serve for shadows for all Complexions.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Cap. XXIX, The way of Painting a Face.
For a Clear and Beautiful Complection, lay on your Pallat and Temper them by themselves (cleaning your Pallat well after each Colour) these following Colours. [...].
            As for Colour in
Draperys, though some have (absurdly) layd down Certain rules for all Colours, it is a thing impossible to do, by reason the same Colours from divers dispositions of Lights and Reflections, have various Tinktures : nor need the Practisioner be concern’d about it, for when he can once apprehend all the Colours in the Face, he may with great Facility mix all Colours for the more difficult Drapery, even from Nature it self.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur