PEACHAM, Henry, The Gentlemans Exercise. Or, An exquisite practise, as well for drawing all manner of Beasts in their true Portraitures : as also the making of all kinds of colours, to be used in Limning, Painting, Tricking, and Blazon of Coates, and Armes, with divers other most delightfull and pleasurable observations, for all young Gentlemen and others. As also Serving for the necessary use and generall benefit of divers Trades-men and Artificers, as namely Painters, Ioners, Free-Masons, Cutters and Carvers, &c. for the farther gracing, beautifying, and garnishing of all their absolute and worthy pieces, either for Borders, Architects, or Columnes, &c., London, J. Legat, 1634.1 quotations
Browne is called in high Dutch Braun of the Netherlands Bruyn, in Frence Coleur brune, in Italian Bruno, in Greeke ὄρφνινονἢαἰθοψ from colour of the Æthiopians, […] and indeed it is taken properly for that duskie rednesse that appeareth in the morning either before the Sun-rising, or after the same set.
BATE, John, The Mysteryes of Nature and Art : Conteined in foure severall Tretises, The first of water workes The second of Fyer workes. The third of Drawing, Colouring, Painting, and Engraving. The fourth of divers Experiments as wel serviceable as delightful: partly Collected, and partly of the Authors Peculiar Pratice, and Invention, London, Ralph Mab - Thomas Harper, 1634.2 quotations
Take good browne, and grinde it with Gumme water : his false colour is made with two parts browne, and a third part white lead, sad it with the same browne.
A russet or sad Browne.
This colour is made by compounding a little white, with a good quantity of red.
A browne Blew.
Take two parts of Indie Baudias, and a third of ceruse and temper them with gumme water.
Of Limning in Water-Colours
The True Order and Names of Colours, the means to prepare them for the Pensill and to clense them from their corrupt mixtures, wherewith they are Sophisticate.
We name them Seaven (though in truth the first and last White and Black are no Colours ; but Elements.) [...] Browns,
Terra lemnia or
PEACHAM, Henry, The Compleat Gentleman: Fashioning Him absolute in the most Necessary and Commendable Qualities, concerning Mind, or Body, that may be required in a Person of Honor. To which is added the Gentlemans Exercise or, An exquisite practise, as well for drawing all manner of Beasts, as for making Colours, to be used in Painting, Limning, &c. The Third Impression much inlarged, especially in the Art of Blazonry, by a very good Hand, London, E. Tyler, 1661.2 quotations
Of Colours there be seven Species, to wit, White, Red, Yellow, Green, Blew, Brown, and Black. White and Black are the extremities, and the parents of all other Colours ; for Red is an equal mixture of White and Black, and so is Green : Yellow is two parts of White, and one of Red, &c.
An Exposition of Colours.
Abram colour, i.e. brown
Auburne or Abborne, i.e. brown or brown-black.
Blanket colour, i. e. a light watchet.
Venice blew, i. e. a light blew.
A Prince blew.
Crimson, i. e. Scarlet.
Cumatical colour, i. e. blew.
Flesh colour, a certain mixture of red white.
Gangran colour, i. e. divers colours together, as in a Mallards, or Pigeons neck.
Sabell colour, i. e. flame colour.
Incardine, or flesh colour.
Peacocke colour, i. e. changeable blew, or red blew.
Patise, or a kinde of red or Arsenick colour.
Plumbet colour, i. e. like little Speks of gray clouds in a fair day.
Puke colour, i. e. between russet and black.
Purpurine, or Purple colour ; of which read Matth. 27.2. A colour much used heretofore, by the Tyrians ; but now it is not to be had.
Ried colour, or Diversified.
Scarlet, i. e. crimson, or stammel.
Shammy colour, a smoakie, or rain colour, which is a kind of yellow ; as you may see upon whited walls or in a Chymny.
Stammel, i. e. Scarlet, as before.
Turkie colour, i. e. Venice blew, or as others will have it, red.
Of the Names of Colours, read more in Aul. Gel. Noct. Attic.
SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.2 quotations
CHAP. XVII. Of the seven Colours in General. [...] VII. The chiefest BROWNS are Umber, Spanish-brown, Colens Earth. [...].
CHAP. II. Of the Colours in General.
I. The chief Whites for painting in oyl are, White lead, Ceruse, and Spodium. [...] VII. The chief Browns are, Spanish brown, Burnt Spruce, Umber.
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.2 quotations
The Colours to be used in Limning are termed thus,
Whites (Flake white / Serus)
Red (Carmine, / Indian Lake, / Red Lead, / Indian Red, / Burnt Ocur, &c.)
Yellow (Masticot, / Yellow ocur, / Eng. ocur, / Pinck.)
Greens (Sap Green, / Pinck and Bice, / Green Bice, / Terra Vert.)
Blews (Ultra Marine, / Dutch Bice, / Smalt, / Indigo.)
Browns (Gall Stone, / Mumme, / Cullins Earth, / Umber, / Rust.)
Blacks (Ivory black, / Sea-cole, / Lamp black, / Cherry Stone.)
The NAMES of the COLOURS Most useful and onely necessary for MINITURE.
Reds (Carmine / Indian Lake / Cynnabar Lake / Florence Lake / Cynnabar / Red Lead / Yellow Oker burnt)
Blews (Ultra Marine / Dutch Bice / Smalt / Indigo)
Yellows (Light Masticote / Deep Masticote /Yellow Oker / Roman Oker / Gall-stone / Light Pink / Dark Pink)
Greens (Green Pink / Green Bice / TerraVerte)
Browns (Collens Earth / Burnt Umber / Umber / Rust of Iron)
Blacks (Burnt Ivory / Sea Cole / Cherry-stone burnt / Verditer burnt)
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.4 quotations
SECT III. Of Colours.
There are simply six, viz. White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, and Blew ; to which we may add Browns, but they are compounded. […].
Chap. II, Of Colours used in Limning : their names, and how to order them.
SECT. I. Of the Names of Colours, and how every Colour is to be prepared ; whether Ground, Wash’d, or Steep’d.
BLACKS. / Cherry-stones burnt. / Ivory burnt. / Lamp black.
WHITES. / Ceruse. / White-Lead.
REDS. / Red-Lead. / Lake.
GREENS. / Bise. / Pink. / Sapgreen. / Cedar-green.
BLEWS. / Indico. / Ultramarine. / Bise. / Smalt.
YELLOWS. / English Oker. / Masticote.
BROWNS. / Umber. / Spanish Brown. / Colen’s Earth.
These are the principal Colours used in Limning ; I have omitted many others but they are such that are not fitting for this Work, which I shall speak of when I come to teach how to wash Maps and printed Pictures, for which use those Colours I have omitted are only useful.
Of the Colours here mentioned, useful in Limning, they are to be used three several ways, viz. either Washed, Grownd, or Steeped.
The Colours to be only Washed are these :
Bise. / Smalt.
Cedar. / Ultramarine.
Red-Lead. / Masticote.
To be Steeped, only Sap-green.
The Colours to be Washed and Grownd, are these :
Ceruse. / White-Lead. / Lake. / English Oker.
Pink. / Indico. / Umber. / Colens Earth.
Spanish Brown. / Ivory, / and Cherry-stone. ) black.
Chap. I. Of the Names of your Colours, and how to Grind and order them.
The Names of the Colours in Oyl.
BLACKS / Lamp-black. / Seacoal-black. / Ivory-black. / Charcoal-black. / Earth of Colen.
WHITES / White-Lead.
GREENS. / Verdigrease. / Terra vert. / Verditer.
BLEWS. / Bise. / Indico. / Smalt. / Ultamarine.
REDS. / Vermilion. / Red-Lead. / Lake. / India-Red. / Ornotto.
YELLOWS. / Pink. / Masticote. / English Oker. / Orpiment. / Spruse Oker.
Spanish Brown, Burnt Spruse, Umber.
These are the chief Colours that are used in Painting in Oyl, the most part of which are to be grownd very fine upon your Stone with a Muller, with Linseed-Oyl : some must be Burnt before they be Grownd ; others must be only temper’d upon the Pallat, and not grownd at all.
The Colours to be burnt are these :
Ivory, Spruse, Oker, and Umber.
The Colours that are not to be Grownd at all, but only tempered with Oyl upon your Pallat, are these :
Lamp-black, Verditer, Vermilion, Bise, Smalt, Masticote, Orpiment, Ultamarine.
All the rest are to be Grownd upon your Stone with Linseed-Oyl ; only White-Lead, when you are to use that for Linnen, you must grind it with Oyl of Walnuts, for Linseed-Oyl will make it turn yellow.
9. To make a Brown.
Take Ceruss, Red-Lead, English-Oker, and Pink.
10. Spanish Brown.
It’s a dirty colour, yet of great use if you burn it till it be red hot ; but if you would colour any hare, horse, or dog, or the like, you must not burn it, but to shadow Vermilion, or to lay upon any dark ground behind a Picture, or to shadow Berries in the darkest places, or to colour any wooden Poste, Wainscot, bodies of Trees, or any thing else of Wood, or any dark ground on a Picture.
What Colours sets off best together.
1. Whites are very useful in all Colours, and sets off Black and Blew very well ; but Blacks are not much used, but upon necessary occasions in some things, as you judgement shall direct you.
2. Reds sets off well with Yellows.
3. Yellows sets off well with Reds, sad Blews Greens, Browns, Purples.
4. Blews sets off well with Reds, Yellows, Whites, Browns, and Blacks ; but Blews set not off well with Greens and Purples.
5. But Greens sets off well with Purples and Reds.