COPY (n.)

AFTEKENING (nld.) · COPIA (ita.) · COPIE (fra.) · KOPIE (deu.) · KOPIE (nld.) · NACHÄFFUNG (deu.) · NACHFOLGUNG (deu.) · NACHZEICHNUNG (deu.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
COPIE (fra.) · KOPIE (nld.) · KOPIËREN (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
COPIE (fra.) · ESTAMPE (fra.)
BLANC, Jan, Peindre et penser la peinture au XVIIe siècle : la théorie de l'art de Samuel van Hoogstraten, Berne, Peter Lang, 2008.
COSTA LIMA, Luis et FONTIUS, Martin, « Mimesis / Nachahmung », dans BARCK, Karlheinz et FONTIUS, Martin (éd.), Ästhetischen Grunsbegriffe. Historisches Wörterbuch in sieben Bänden, Stuttgart, JB Metzler, 2002, 7 vol. , vol. IV, p. 84-121.
DEKONINCK, Ralph, KREMER, Nathalie et GUIDERDONI-BRUSLÉ, Agnès (éd.), Aux limites de l'imitation. L'Ut pictura poésis à l'épreuve de la matière (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Amsterdam - New York, Rodopi, 2009.
DÉMORIS, René, « De la vérité en peinture chez Félibien et Roger de Piles : imitation, représentation, illusion », Revue d’esthétique : La naissance de la théorie de l’art en France 1640-1720, 31/32, 1997, p. 36-50.
DÉMORIS, René, « À propos d'une délectation perdue : les avatars de l'imitation à l'âge classique », dans DÉMORIS, René (éd.), Les fins de la peinture, Actes du colloque de Paris, Paris, Éd. Desjonquères, 1990, p. 173-196.
GIBSON-WOOD, Carol, Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 2000.
GRENIER, Jean, L'imitation et les principes de l'esthétique classique, Paris, Centre de documentation universitaire, 1963.
GUICHARD, Charlotte (éd.), De l’authenticité : une histoire des valeurs de l’art (XVIe-XXe siècle), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2014.
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « IMITATION », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 289-298.
HERBERT, Flora, « COPIE / ORIGINAL », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 144-152.
HURLEY, Cecilia, « William Salmon et la “Polygraphice” : la théorie de l’art en Angleterre avant Jonathan Richardson », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), L’histoire de l’histoire de l’art septentrional au XVIIe siècle, Actes des journées d'étude de Lille et de Bruxelles, Turnhout, Brepols, 2010, p. 187-207.
KREMER, Nathalie, Vraisemblance et représentation au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Champion, 2011.
MICHEL, Christian et LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline (éd.), Conférences de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Les conférences au temps de Guillet de Saint-Georges, 1682-1699, Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2008, 6 tomes, tome II, 2 vol.
MICHEL, Christian, LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline et CASTEX, Jean-Gérald (éd.), Conférences de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Les conférences, 1712-1746, Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2010, 6 tomes, tome IV, 2 vol.
MICHEL, Christian, LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline, CASTEX, Jean-Gérald, CASTOR, Markus A. et GADY, Bénédicte (éd.), Conférences de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Les conférences au temps de Jules Hardouin-Mansart, 1699-1711, Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2009, 6 tomes, tome III.
MICHEL, Christian, LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline, CASTOR, Markus A., MARTIN, Marie-Pauline, PERRIN KHELISSA, Anne et LAZ, Laurens (éd.), Conférences de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Les conférences, 1752-1792, Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2015, 6 tomes, tome VI, 3 vol.
MICHEL, Christian, LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline, COUSSEAU, Henry-Claude et GAEHTGENS, Thomas W. (éd.), Conférences de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Les conférences au temps d’Henry Testelin, 1648-1681, Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2006, 6 tomes, tome I, 2 vol.
MICHEL, Christian, LICHTENSTEIN, Jacqueline, HAOUADEG, Karim, MARTIN, Marie-Pauline et PERRIN KHELISSA, Anne (éd.), Conférences de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture. Les conférences au temps de Charles-Antoine Coypel, 1747-1752, Paris, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2012, 6 tomes, tome V, 2 vol.
MORTIER, Roland, L'originalité : une nouvelle catégorie esthétique au siècle des Lumières, Genève, Droz, 1982.
MULLER, Jeffrey M., « Measures of Authenticity: the Detection of Copies in the Early Literature on Connoisseurship », dans PRECIADO, Kathleen (éd.), Retaining the Original. Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, Actes du colloque de Washington, Hanover, University Press of New England, 1989, p. 141-148.
NATIVEL, Colette, « La théorie de l'imitation au XVIIe siècle en rhétorique et en peinture », XVIIe siècle, 175, 1992, p. 157-167.
PERES, Constanze, « Nachahmung der Natur: Herkunft und Implikationen eines Topos », dans KÖRNER, Hans (éd.), Die Trauben des Zeuxis. Formen und künstlerischen Wircklichkeitsaneigung, Hildesheim - New York - Zürich, Georg Olms Verlag, 1990, p. 2-39.

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LINKED QUOTATIONS

4 sources
9 quotations

Quotation

The foundation of Proportion consists in severall particular figures, by which I would have you enter your Drawings ; as the Circle, Ovall, Square, Trangle, Cilinder : Each of these have their effects. […].
{How to draw by Copyes.} Begin your Example, by a Copie
or Print, of those severall forms of figures ; as the Sun, full-Moon, […].
{Of severall members of the body.} Then, practise by severall members of the body ; in some
Print ; as the Eare, Eye, […].
{Head and shoulders.} The next is by a
Print, or Copy of a Head and shoulders of a Man or Woman, […].

print

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

IX. To the former add good Copies, Patterns, and Examples of good Pictures, and other draughts, without which it is almost impossible, that the young Artist should ever attain to any perfection in this Art.
We have wholly pretermitted these for brevity sake, but those that desire to be furnished with any excellent Patterns, Copies or Prints, may have of all sorts, whether of humane shape, perspective design, Landskip, Fowls, Beasts, Fishes, Insects, Plants, Countries, or any other Artificial figures, exquisitely drawn, at very reasonable rates, [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

And as the Description of a Picture is a part of the History of the Master, a Copy, or a Print after such a one may be consider’d as a more Exact, and Perfect Description of it than can be given by Words ; These are of great Advantage, in giving us an Idea of the Manner of Think-of that Master, and this in proportion as such a Print, or Copy happens to be. And there is One Advantage which these have in This matter, which even the Works themselves have not ; And that is, In Those commonly their Other Qualities divert, and divide our Attention, and perhaps Sometimes Byass us in their favour throughout ;

term translated by COPIE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 65.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

A Copy is the Repetition of a Work already done when the Artist endeavours to follow That ; As he that Works by Invention, or the Life endeavouring to Coppy Nature, seen, or Conceived makes an Original.
Thus not only That is an Original Painting that is done by Invention, or the Life Imediatly ; but That is so too which is done by a Drawing, or Sketch so done ; That Drawing, or Sketch not being Ultimately intended to be followed, but used only as a help towards the better imitation of Nature, whether Present, or Absent.
And tho’ this Drawing, or Sketch is Thus used by Another hand than that by which ‘tis made, what is so done cannot be said to be a Copy ; the Thought indeed is partly borrowed, but the Work is Original.
For the same reason if a Picture be made after Another, and afterwards gone over by Invention, or the Life, not following That, but endeavouring to improve upon it, it Thus become an Original.
But if a Picture, or Drawing be Coppy’d, and the Manner of Handling be imitated, tho’ with some liberty so as not to follow every Stroak, and Touch it ceases not to be a Coppy ; as that is truly a Translation where the Sence is kept tho’ it be not exactly Literal.

Original

term translated by COPIE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 91-92.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

If a Larger Picture be Coppied tho’ in Little, and what was done in Oyl is imitated with Water-colours, or Crayons, that first Picture being Only endeavour’d to be follow’d as close as possible with Those Materials, and in those Dimentions, This is as Truly a Coppy as if it were done as Large, and in the same Manner as the Original.

term translated by COPIE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 92.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → connaissance

Quotation

There are some Pictures, and Drawings which are neither Coppies, nor Originals, as being partly One, and partly t’other. If in a History, or large Composition, or even a Single Figure, a Face, or more is incerted, Coppied from what has been done from the Life, such Picture is not intirely Original. Neither is that So, nor Intirely Coppy where the Whole Thought is taken, but the Manner of the Coppier used as to the Colouring, and Handling. A Coppy Retouch’d in Some places by Invention, or the Life is of this Æquivocal kind. I have several Drawings first coppied after Old Masters (Guilio Romano for example,) and then Heightned, and endeavour’d to be improved by Rubens ; So far as His hand has gone is therefore Original, the rest remains pure Coppy. But when he has thus wrought upon Original Drawings (of which I have also many Instances,) the Drawing looses not its first Denomination, ‘tis an Original still, made by two several Masters.
The Ideas of Better, and Worse are generally attached to the Terms Original, and Coppy ; and that with good reason ; not only because Coppies are usually made by Inferiour Hands ; but because tho’ he that makees the Coppy is as Good, or even a Better Master than he that made the Original whatever may happen Rarely, and by Accident, Ordinarily the Coppy will fall short : Our Hands cannot reach what our Minds have conceiv’d ; ‘tis God alone whose works answer to his Ideas. In making an Original our Ideas are taken from Nature ; which the Works of Art cannot equal : When we Coppy ‘tis these Defective Works of Art we take our Ideas from ; Those are the utmost we endeavour to arrive at ; and these lower Ideas too our Hands fail of executing perfectly : An Original is the Eccho of the Voice of Nature, a Coppy is the Eccho of that Eccho.

Original

term translated by COPIE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 92-94.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

Coppies made by a Master after his Own Work are discoverable by being well acquainted with what that Master did when he followed Nature ; These shall have a Spirit, a Freedom, a Naturalness which even He cannot put into what he Coppies from his Own Work, as has been noted already.

term translated by COPIE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 105.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

Of Prints there are two Kinds : Such as are done by the Masters themselves whose Invention the Work is ; and such as are done by Men not pretending to Invent, but only to Coppy (in Their way) Other men’s Works.
The Latter sort of Prints are always profess’d Coppies with respect to the Invention, Composition, Manner of Designing, Grace, and Greatness. But These Prints may be also Coppied as they frequently are, and to know what are So, and what are Orignals is by being well acquainted with the Hands of the Graver, or Etcher, who in This respect are the Masters, as the Painter from whom They Coppied were to them.

term translated by ESTAMPE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 106.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

When a Painter intends to make a History (for example) the way commonly is to design the thing in his Mind, to consider what Figures to bring in, and what they are to Think, Say, or Do ; and then to Sketch upon Paper this Idea of his ; and not only the Invention, but Composition of his intended Picture : This he may alter upon the same Paper, or by making other Sketches, till he is pretty well determin’d as to that ; (and this is that first Sense in which I said the Term Drawing, or Designing was to be understood.) In the next place his Business is to consult the Life, and to make Drawings of particular Figures, or parts of Figures, or of what else he intends to bring into his Work, as he finds necessary ; together also with such Ornaments, or other things of his Invention, as Vases, Frizes, Trophies, &c. till he has brought his Picture to some Perfection on Paper, either in these loose Studies, or in one entire Drawing. This is frequently done, and sometimes these Drawings are finish’d very highly by the Master, either that his Disciples might be able from them to make a greater Progress in the Grand Work, and so leave the less for Himself to do ; or because he made Advantage of such Drawings from the Person who employ’d him, or some other ; and perhaps sometimes for his own Pleasure.
Of these Drawings of all kinds, those great Masters […] made very many ; sometimes several for the same thing, and not only for the same Picture, but for one Figure, or part of a Figure ; and though too many are perish’d, and lost, a considerable Number have escap’d, and been preserved to our Times, some very well, others not, as it has happen’d : And these are exceedingly priz’d by all who understand, and can see their Beauty ; for they are the very Spirit, and Quintessence of the Art ; there we see the Steps the Master took, the Materials with which he made his Finish’d Paintings, which are little other than Copies of these, and frequently (at least in part) by some Other Hand ; but these are undoubtedly altogether his Own and true, and proper Originals.

term translated by COPIE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 119-121.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...