COPY (TO) (v.)
EVELYN, John, Sculptura: Or, The History, And Art of Chalcography And Engraving in Copper. With an ample enumeration of the most renowned Masters, and their Works. To which is annexed A new manner of Engraving, or Mezzo Tinto, communicated by his Highness Prince Rupert, to the Authour of this Treatise, London, G. Beedle, 1662.2 quotations
The principal end of a Graver that would coppy a Design, or a piece compos’d of one, or more Objects, is, to render it correct both in relation to the Draught, Contours and other particularities, as to the Lights and shades on the Front, flying or turning, in bold, or faint touches ; so as may best express the Reliefe ; in which Gravers have hitherto, for the most part, rather imitated one another, then improved, or refined upon Nature ; some with more, some withe fewer stroaks : having never yet found out a certain and uniforme guide to follow in this work ; so as to carry their stroaks with assurance, as knowing where they are to determine, without manifestly offending the due rules of perspective.
And this it is, which has rendred it so difficult to coppy after Designes and Painting ; and to give the true heightnings, where there are no hatchings to express them ; unless he, that Copies, Design perfectly himself, and possess more then the ordinary talent and judgement of Gravers, or can himself manage the Pencil. But to return to Prints again, we are to understand, that what the Artists do many times call excellent, does not alwayes signifie to the advantage of the Graver ; but more frequently, the Design, consisting in the lineaments, proportion and ordonnance, if these be well, and masterly perform’d, and for which we have so recommended the practise of this Art to our English Painters in chap. IV. Though, to speak of an accomplish’d piece indeed, it is the result of integrall causes only, and where they universally encounter.
AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art. Together with The Lives of the Most Eminent Painters From Cimabue, to the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, John Gain, 1685.1 quotations
After the Death of Raphael and his Schollars (for, as for Michael Angelo he made no School) Painting seemed to be Decaying ; and for some Years, there was hardly a Master of any Repute all over Italy. The two best at Rome were Joseph Arpino and Michael Angelo da Caravaggio, but both guilty of great Mistakes in their Art : the first followed purely his Fancy, or rather Humour, which was neither founded upon Nature nor Art, but had for Ground a certain Practical, Fantastical Idea which he had framed to himself. The other was a pure Naturalist, Copying Nature without distinction or discretion ; he understood little of Composition or Decorum, but was an admirable Colourer.