AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art. Together with The Lives of the Most Eminent Painters From Cimabue, to the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, John Gain, 1685.

AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art. Together with The Lives of the Most Eminent Painters From Cimabue, to the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, John Gain, 1685.

Getty Research Institute Los Angeles ND1130 .A3 205 quotations 135 terms
William Aglionby (?-1705), physicien et diplomate, est l’auteur de plusieurs textes dont des traductions sur des sujets variés. Son activité de diplomate l’amène à voyager dans plusieurs pays d’Europe, lui permettant d’acquérir une certaine culture. Il se rend notamment en Hollande, en Espagne, en Italie et en France, où il obtient par ailleurs son diplôme de physicien dans les années 1650-1660. Lors d’un passage à Londres, il est élu membre de la Royal Society en 1667. Il ne se fixe néanmoins pas dans cette ville et entreprend de nouveaux voyages en Europe. Parallèlement, il se lance dans l’écriture : il réalise notamment des traductions et ouvrages sur divers sujets (la chimie, les papes, la Hollande). De retour à Londres dans les années 1680, il devient finalement un membre actif de la Royal Society. C’est également à ce moment qu’il publie son Painting illustrated in three Diallogues, ainsi qu’une traduction sur le théâtre. La dédicace de son ouvrage sur la peinture nous renseigne par ailleurs sur son enfance. Aglionby y exprime en effet sa reconnaissance à William Cavendish, 4th Earl of Devonshire, ainsi qu’à sa famille, et notamment au père de ce dernier, le 3rd Earl, tout en évoquant son enfance. Selon C. Hanson, cette famille aurait employé un George Aglionby à partir de 1629 en tant que tuteur du 3rd Earl of Devonshire. En outre, des paiements, effectués douze ans plus tard envers Mrs Aglionby, probablement la mère de William et la femme de George, ont été retrouvés. Les Devonshire ont ainsi pu apporter le soutien financier qu’Aglionby désirait pour la publication de son Painting illustrated [1].
L’écriture de cet ouvrage est dictée par le constat fait par Aglionby du manque d’intérêt pour les arts, et notamment pour la peinture d’histoire, en Angleterre, contrairement à d’autres pays européens – ce qu’il a pu constater durant ses divers séjours. Cette dénonciation apparaît en particulier dans la préface de Painting illustrated, où Aglionby affirme qu’aucun peintre d’histoire n’est né sur le sol anglais – John Evelyn, auteur anglais d’un texte sur l’art et traducteur de Fréart de Chambray, fait le même constat. Selon lui, cela provient de la préférence pour le portrait, mais aussi du fait que les personnes susceptibles de commander des œuvres d’art manquent de connaissances et ne peuvent donc pas encourager le genre « noble » qu’est la peinture d’histoire. Le but de son ouvrage est d’expliquer les principes généraux de ce genre pictural, mais aussi de familiariser les éventuels commanditaires à la peinture italienne. Pour ce faire, il fournit un glossaire expliquant des termes liés en particulier à la peinture d’histoire, tels que cartoon, drapery, figure, history ou encore model, comme le fit également Evelyn dans sa traduction de Fréart de Chambray. Il construit en outre son ouvrage sous la forme de trois dialogues entre un connaisseur de l’art, le traveler qui, après avoir voyagé, a acquis un certain nombre de connaissances en art, et un de ses amis, qui aimerait en apprendre davantage sur la peinture. Dans le premier dialogue, le traveller explique à son ami des termes et notions techniques. Il insiste par exemple sur la différence entre la peinture à l’huile, à la détrempe et la fresque. Le deuxième discours expose une histoire de la peinture de l’Antiquité jusqu’à leur époque, en s’attardant surtout sur des artistes italiens, même si certains peintres nordiques sont évoqués. Enfin, le dernier discours s’intéresse à la manière de bien juger un tableau. L’ouvrage contient également des Vies d’artistes italiens de la Renaissance (la première est celle de Cimabue et la dernière de Donatello) fondées sur onze Vite de Vasari – il s’agit de la première traduction en anglais de ce texte [2]. Tout au long de son texte, Aglionby insiste sur le fait que la peinture peut s’apprendre facilement et qu’il suffit d’avoir quelques connaissances. L’auteur se présente ainsi comme un virtuoso désireux de promouvoir la peinture d’histoire en Angleterre, en s’appuyant sur des exemples italiens en particulier [3].
Il est intéressant de noter qu’Aglionby utilise beaucoup l’italique dans ses dialogues. Il distingue ainsi les propos du voyageur de ceux de son ami, qui sont en écriture romaine. En outre, certains termes se distinguent dans les propos du voyageur en n’étant pas en italiques. De même, dans les paroles de l’ami, des termes apparaissent en italiques. Dans les deux cas, ces mots mis en valeur peuvent parfois être significatifs : il s’agit soit de noms d’artistes et de lieux, soit de termes liés à la peinture comme light, colours ou encore passion. Mais parfois, il s’agit d’un vocabulaire lié à la vie quotidienne plus qu’à la peinture, comme dans le cas de slaves, foundation ou gentlemen.
Aglionby se trouve néanmoins face à un problème : celui du manque de vocabulaire artistique en anglais. Pour contourner cela, il emploie alors des termes italiens, tels que morbidezza ou schizzo. Il tente en outre de traduire et d’adapter certains mots à la langue anglaise. À la place du terme italien attitudine, néanmoins mentionné, Aglionby utilise par exemple aptitude – terme évoqué avant lui par Evelyn dans sa traduction de Fréart. Il tente ainsi d’adapter le vocabulaire artistique à l’anglais, afin de le rendre davantage familier au lectorat de son pays.
Le texte d’Aglionby est influencé par la théorie continentale des arts, et notamment par le De Arte Graphica de Dufresnoy (1668). Il reprend par exemple la division de la peinture en trois parties, dessin, couleur et invention, que l’on retrouve chez ce dernier. Comme le notent certains historiens de l’art, tels B. Cowan, « Aglionby’s own writings on painting were more or less a reiteration of arguments made several decades earlier by the French writer Charles Du Fresnoy [4] ». Il semble évident que les séjours à l’étranger d’Aglionby ont eu un rôle fondamental sur sa conception de l’art. Néanmoins, selon C. Hanson, puis C. Good, même si Aglionby s’inspire fortement de la théorie française et italienne des arts, il demeure intéressant d’étudier la manière dont il s’approprie le texte de Dufresnoy et l’adapte pour un public anglais et non connaisseur [5]. En effet, Aglionby ne fournit pas une traduction littérale de Dufresnoy ou de son commentaire par de Piles, mais construit son texte sous forme de dialogue, ce qui lui permet d’apporter une touche personnelle. Il faut également replacer Painting illustrated dans le contexte de la Royal Society, institution, fondée en 1660, qui a pour but de promouvoir les sciences et le savoir en Angleterre. Elle valorise notamment les voyages et la diffusion des informations dans la sphère des Lettres. Parmi ses membres, on compte des collectionneurs et des commanditaires d’œuvres d’art [6]. Le but premier d’Aglionby est plutôt d’introduire le peuple anglais à la théorie continentale des arts plutôt que de faire une œuvre originale, ce que C. Good justifie par un manque de confiance de sa part [7]. Ce dernier ne serait ainsi pas prêt à mettre en place une véritable théorie de l’art anglaise, même si, de par le vocabulaire qu’il utilise, il apporte des éléments novateurs.

Élodie Cayuela

[1] C. Hanson, 2009, p. 95.
[2] Sur l'influence de Vasari chez Aglionby, voir F. Paknadel, 1978, p. 37-39.
[3] Sur les Virtuosi, voir B. Cowan, 2004.
[4] B. Cowan, 2004, p. 157, voir aussi L. Salerno, 1951, p. 250.
[5] C. Hanson, 2008, p. 18 et 99 ; C. Good, 2013, p. 97 ; F. Paknadel, 1978, p. 35-37.
[6] À ce propos, voir C. Hanson, 2008, p. 107 et B. Cowan, 2004, p. 170 et suivantes.
[7] C. Hanson, 2008, p. 99-103 ; C. Good, 2013, p. 101-102.

in-4 english

Dedication
William Cavendish, 4th Earl of Devonshire

Structure
Table des matières at n.p.
Glossaire at n.p.
Préface at n.p.
Dédicace(s) at n.p.

AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art Together with the LIVES of the Most Eminent Painters From Cimabue, to the Time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, John Gain, 1686.

AGLIONBY, William, Choice Observations upon the Art of Painting. Together with Vasari's Lives Of the Most Eminent Painters, From Cimabue To the Time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, R. King, 1719.

AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues, Portland, Collegium Graphicum, 1972.

CLARK, Georges, « Dr. William Aglionby », Notes and Queries, IX, 1921, p. 141-143.

SALERNO, Luigi, « Seventeenth-Century English Literature on Painting », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 14/3-4, 1951, p. 234-258 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/750341 consulté le 30/03/2018].

PAKNADEL, Félix, Critique et peinture en Angleterre de 1660 à 1770, Thèse de doctorat, Université de Provence, 1978.

GIBSON-WOOD, Carol, « Jonathan Richardson, Lord Somers's Collection of Drawings, and Early Art-Historical Writing in England », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 52, 1989, p. 167-187 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/751543 consulté le 30/03/2018].

BAXANDALL, Michael, « English Disegno », dans CHANEY, Edward et MACK, Peter (éd.), England and the Continental Renaissance. Essays in Honour of J. B. Trapp, Woodbridge - Rochester, The Boydell Press, 1990, p. 203-214.

COWAN, Brian, « An Open Elite: the Peculiarities of Connoisseurship in Early Modern England », Modern Intellectual History, 1/2, 2004, p. 151-183.

HANSON, Craig A., The English Virtuoso: Art, Medicine, and Antiquarianism in the Age of Empiricism, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2009.

GOOD, Caroline Anne, “Lovers of Art”. Early English Literature on the Connoisseurship of Pictures, Thesis, University of York, 2013 [En ligne : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/5694/1/Caroline%20Good%20'Lovers%20of%20Art'%20PhD%20Thesis.pdf consulté le 11/07/2016].

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

QUOTATIONS

Providence yet kinder, gave us two Arts, which might express the very Lines of the Face, the Air of the Countenance, and in it a great part of the Mind of all those whom they should undertake to Represent ; and these are, Sculpture and Painting.
           
Michael Angelo, the famousest Sculptor of these Modern Ages, looking one day earnestly upon a Statue of St. Mark made by Donatello, after having long admired it, said at last, That if Saint Mark were like that Statue, he would have believed his Gospel upon his Physionomy, for it was the honestest Face that ever was made. ’Tis hard to say, whether he commended the Artist, the Saint, or the Art it self most by this Expression : But this Inference we may make from it, That if the Faces of Heroes do express the Greatness of their Minds, those Arts which perpetuate their Memory that way, are the truest of all Records.

art

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

I shall not undertake to determine here, which of these two Arts [ndr : la peinture et la sculpture] deserves our Admiration most : [...] But this I may say in favour of the Art of Painting, whose praises I am now to Celebrate, That it certainly is of a greater Extent than Sculpture, and has an Infiniter Latitude to delight us withal. [...] And from this Idæa of the Art, we may naturally derive a Consequence of the Admiration and Esteem due by us to the Artist ; he who at the same time is both Painter, Poet, Historian, Architect, Anatomist, Mathematician, and Naturalist ; he Records the Truth, Adorns the Fable, Pleases the Fancy, Recreates the Eye, Touches the Soul ; and in a word, entertains you with Silent Instructions, which are neither guilty of Flattery, nor Satyr ; and which you may either give over, or repeat with new Delight as often as you please.
            If these
Qualities do not sufficiently recommend the Owner of them to our Esteem, I know not what can ; and yet by a strange Fatality, we name the word Painter, without reflecting upon his Art, and most dis-ingeniously, seem to place him among the Mechanicks, who has the best Title to all the Liberal Arts.

painter

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

artist

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités

I shall not undertake to determine here, which of these two Arts [ndr : la peinture et la sculpture] deserves our Admiration most : The one, makes Marble-Stone and Brass soft and tender : the other, by a strange sort of Inchantment, makes a little Cloth and Colours show Living Figures, that upon a flat Superficies seem Round, and deceives the Eye into a Belief of Solids, while there is nothing but Lights and Shadows there : But this I may say in favour of the Art of Painting, whose praises I am now to Celebrate, That it certainly is of a greater Extent than Sculpture, and has an Infiniter Latitude to delight us withal.
            To see in one Piece the Beauty of the Heavens, the Verdant Glory of the Earth, the Order and Symmetry of Pallaces and Temples ; the Softness, Warmth, Strength, and Tenderness of Naked Figures, the Glorious Colours of Draperies and Dresses of all kinds, the Liveliness of Animals ; and above all, the Expression of our Passions, Customs, Manners, Rites, Ceremonies, Sacred and Prophane : All this, I say, upon a piece of portative Cloth, easily carried, and as easily placed, is a Charm ; which no other Art can equal.

art

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → comparaison entre les arts

Air.
Is properly taken for the Look of a Figure, and is used in this Manner, The Air of the Heads of Young Women, or Grave Men, &c.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Antique.
This word Comprehends all the Works of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture that have been made in the Time of the Antient Greeks and Romans, from Alexander the Great, to the Emperour Phocas ; under whom the Goths Ravaged Italy.

Conceptual field(s)

MANIÈRE ET STYLE → école

Aptitude.
It come from the Italian word Attitudine, and means the posture and action that any Figure is represented in.

Il est à noter qu'Aglionby n'emploie pas le terme anglais Attitude, mais celui d'Aptitude.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Cartoon.
It is taken for a Design made of many Sheets of Paper pasted together ; in which the whole Story to be painted in Fresco, is all drawn exactly, as it must be upon the Wall in Colours : Great Painters never painting in Fresco, but they make Cartoons first.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Colouring.
’Tis one of the parts of Painting, by which the Objects to be painted receive their Complexion, together with their True Lights and Shadows.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Chiaro-Scuro.
It is taken in two Senses : first, Painting in Chiaro-Scuro, is meant, when there are only two Colours employed. Secondly, It is taken for the disposing of the Lights and Shadows Skilfully ; as when we say, A Painter understands well the Chiaro-Scuro.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Le terme painting est ici compris dans un sens large, comprenant le dessin.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Contour.
The Contour of a Body, are the Lines that environ it, and make the Superficies of it.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Design.
Has two Significations : First, As a part of Painting, it signifies the just Measures, Proportions, and Outvvard Forms that a Body, imitated from Nature, ought to havt. Secondly, It signifies the whole Composition of a piece of Painting ; as when we say, There is great Design in such a Piece.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Distemper
A sort of Painting that implys the Colours mingled with Gumm. And the difference between that and Miniature, is than the one only uses the Point of the Pencil, the other gives the Pencil its whole Liberty.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Drapery.
Is a General Word for all sorts of Cloathing, with which Figures are Adorned : So we say, Such a Painter disposes well the Foldings of his Drapery.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → vêtements et plis

Figure.
Though this word be very General, and may be taken for any painted Object ; yet it is in Painting, generally taken for Humane Figures.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → groupe

Fresco.
A Sort of Painting, where the Colours are applyed upon fresh Mortar, that they may Incorporate with the Lime and Sand.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Festoon.
Is an Ornament of Flowers, employed in Borders and Decorations.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → ornement

Grotesk.
Is properly the Painting that is found under Ground in the Ruines of Rome ; but it signifies more commonly a sort of Painting that expresses odd Figures of Animals, Birds, Flowers, Leaves, or such like, mingled together in one Ornament or Border.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → ornement

Gruppo.
Is a Knot of Figures together, either in the middle or sides of a piece of Painting. So Carrache would not allow above three Gruppos, nor above twelve Figures for any Piece.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → groupe

History.
History-Painting is an Assembling of many Figures in one Piece, to Represent any Action of Life, whether True or Fabulous, accompanied with all its Ornaments of Landskip and Perspective.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire

Manner.
We call Manner the Habit of a Painter, not only of his Hand, but of his Mind ; that is, his way of expressing himself in the three principal Parts of Painting, Design, Colouring, and Invention ; it answers to Stile in Authors ; for a Painter is known by his Manner, as an Author by his Stile, or a Man’s Hand by his Writing.

Conceptual field(s)

MANIÈRE ET STYLE → le faire et la main

Model.
Is any Object that a Painter works by, either after Nature, or otherwise ; but most commonly it signifies that which Sculptors, Painters, and Architects make to Govern themselves by in their Design.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Nudity.
Signifies properly any Naked Figure of Man or Woman ; but most commonly of Woman ; as when we say, ’Tis a Nudity, we mean the Figure of a Naked Woman.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Print.
Is the Impression of a Graven or Wooden Plate upon Paper or Silk, Representing some Piece that it has been Graved after.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la gravure

Relievo.
Is properly any Embossed Sculpture that rises from a flat Superficies. It is said likewise of Painting, that it has a great Relievo, when it is strong, and that the Figures appear round, and as it were, out of the Piece.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Shortning.
Is, when a Figure seems of greater quantity than really it is ; as, if it seems to be three foot long, when it is but one : Some call it Fore-Shortning.

Shortening

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
EFFET PICTURAL → trompe-l’œil
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

fore-shortning

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
EFFET PICTURAL → trompe-l’œil
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Schizzo.
Is the first Design or Attempt of a Painter to Express his Thoughts upon any Subject. The Schizzos are ordinarily reduced into Cartoons in Fresco Painting, or Copyed and Enlarged in Oyl-Painting.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Tinto.
Is, when a thing is done only with one Colour, and that generally Black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Traveller,
            The Art of
Painting, is the Art of Representing any Object by Lines drawn upon a flat Superficies, which Lines are afterwards covered with Colours, and those Colours applied with a certain just distribution of Lights and Shades, with a regard to the Rules of Symetry and Perspective ; the whole producing a Likeness, or true Idæa of the Subject intended.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Traveller,
            The Art of
Painting, is the Art of Representing any Object by Lines drawn upon a flat Superficies, which Lines are afterwards covered with Colours, and those Colours applied with a certain just distribution of Lights and Shades, with a regard to the Rules of Symetry and Perspective ; the whole producing a Likeness, or true Idæa of the Subject intended.
                        Friend,
            This seems to embrace a great deal ; for the words Symetry and Perspective, imply a knowledg in Proportions and Distances, and that supposes Geometry, in some measure, and Opticks, all which require much Time to Study them, and so I am still involved in perplexities of Art.
                        Traveller,
           
It is true, that those Words seem to require some Knowledg of those Arts in the Painter, but much less in the Spectator ; for we may easily guess, whether Symetry be observed, if, for Example, in a Humane Body, we see nothing out of Proportion ; as if an Arm or a Leg be not too long or short for its Posture, or if the Posture its self be such as Nature allows of :

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Traveller,
            The Art of
Painting, is the Art of Representing any Object by Lines drawn upon a flat Superficies, which Lines are afterwards covered with Colours, and those Colours applied with a certain just distribution of Lights and Shades, with a regard to the Rules of Symetry and Perspective ; the whole producing a Likeness, or true Idæa of the Subject intended.
                        Friend,
            This seems to embrace a great deal ; for the words Symetry and Perspective, imply a knowledg in Proportions and Distances, and that supposes Geometry, in some measure, and Opticks, all which require much Time to Study them, and so I am still involved in perplexities of Art.
                        Traveller,
           
It is true, that those Words seem to require some Knowledg of those Arts in the Painter, but much less in the Spectator ; for we may easily guess, whether Symetry be observed, if, for Example, in a Humane Body, we see nothing out of Proportion ; as if an Arm or a Leg be not too long or short for its Posture, or if the Posture its self be such as Nature allows of : And for Perspective, we have only to observe whether the Objects represented to be at a distance, do lessen in the Picture, as they would do naturally to the Eye, at such and such distances ; thus you see these are but small Difficulties.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Traveller,
           
Design is the Expressing with a Pen, or Pencil, or other Instrument, the Likeness of any Object by its out Lines, or Contours ; and he that Understands and Mannages well these first Lines, working after Nature still, and using extream Diligence, and skill may with Practice and Judgment, arrive to an Excellency in the Art.
                        Friend,
            Me thinks that should be no difficult Matter, for we see many whose Inclination carys them to Draw any thing they see, and they perform it with ease.
                       
Traveller,
            I grant you, Inclination goes a great way in disposing the Hand, but a strong Imagination only, will not carry a Painter through ; For when he compares his Work to
Nature, he will soon find, that great Judgment is requisite, as well as a Lively Fancy ; and particularly when he comes to place many Objects together in one Piece or Story, which are all to have a just relation to one another. There he will find that not only the habit of the Hand but the strength of the Mind is requisite ; therefore all the Eminent Painters that ever were, spent more time in Designing after the Life, and after the Statues of the Antients, then ever did in learning how to colour their Works ; that so they might be Masters of Design, and be able to place readily every Object in its true situation.
                        Friend,
            Now you talk of Nature and Statues, I have heard Painters blam’d for working after both.
                        Traveller,
            It is very true, and justly ; but less for working after Nature than otherwise. Caravaggio a famous Painter is blam’d for having meerly imitated Nature as he found her, without any correction of Forms. And Perugin, another Painter is blam’d for having wrought so much after Statues, that his Works never had that lively easiness which accompanies Nature ; and of this fault Raphael his Scholar was a long time guilty, till he Reform’d it by imitating Nature.

nature

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Traveller,
           
Design is the Expressing with a Pen, or Pencil, or other Instrument, the Likeness of any Object by its out Lines, or Contours ; and he that Understands and Mannages well these first Lines, working after Nature still, and using extream Diligence, and skill may with Practice and Judgment, arrive to an Excellency in the Art.
                        Friend,
            Me thinks that should be no difficult Matter, for we see many whose Inclination carys them to Draw any thing they see, and they perform it with ease.
                       
Traveller,
            I grant you, Inclination goes a great way in disposing the Hand, but a strong Imagination only, will not carry a Painter through ; For when he compares his Work to
Nature, he will soon find, that great Judgment is requisite, as well as a Lively Fancy ; and particularly when he comes to place many Objects together in one Piece or Story, which are all to have a just relation to one another. There he will find that not only the habit of the Hand but the strength of the Mind is requisite ; therefore all the Eminent Painters that ever were, spent more time in Designing after the Life, and after the Statues of the Antients, then ever did in learning how to colour their Works ; that so they might be Masters of Design, and be able to place readily every Object in its true situation.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
MANIÈRE ET STYLE → le faire et la main

fancy

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
L’ARTISTE → qualités

mind