TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATIONPERSPECTIEF (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONSPERSPECTIVE (fra.)
PEACHAM, Henry, The Gentlemans Exercise. Or, An exquisite practise, as well for drawing all manner of Beasts in their true Portraitures : as also the making of all kinds of colours, to be used in Limning, Painting, Tricking, and Blazon of Coates, and Armes, with divers other most delightfull and pleasurable observations, for all young Gentlemen and others. As also Serving for the necessary use and generall benefit of divers Trades-men and Artificers, as namely Painters, Ioners, Free-Masons, Cutters and Carvers, &c. for the farther gracing, beautifying, and garnishing of all their absolute and worthy pieces, either for Borders, Architects, or Columnes, &c., London, J. Legat, 1634.1 quotations
The chiefe use of perspective you have in foreshortning, which is when by art the whole is concluded into one part, which onely shall appeare to the sight, as if I should paint a ship upon the Sea, yet there should appeare unto you but her forepart, the rest imagined hid, or likewise an horse with his brest and head looking full in my face, I must of necessity foreshorten him behind, because his sides and flankes appeare not unto me : this kind of draught is willingly overslipt by ordinary painters for want of cunning and skill to performe it ; and you shall see not one thing among a hundred among them drawne in this manner, but after the ordinary fashion side-wayes, and that but lamely neither.
The use of it is to expresse all manner of action in man or beast, to represent many things in a little roome, to give or shew sundry sides of Cities, Castles, Forts, &c. at one time.
EVELYN, John, Sculptura: Or, The History, And Art of Chalcography And Engraving in Copper. With an ample enumeration of the most renowned Masters, and their Works. To which is annexed A new manner of Engraving, or Mezzo Tinto, communicated by his Highness Prince Rupert, to the Authour of this Treatise, London, G. Beedle, 1662.1 quotations
From these instances now, it will not be difficult how to apply the same upon all the sorts of bodies representable by Graving, and to comprehend in one’s imagination, the particles, as we may so call them ; Only there is this particular to be observed, that the projecture of the threads will not appear alike perspicuous in the deep, and shady parts of Relievos, as upon the illuminated, being lost in the dark : But this is easily supplyed by the imagination, or by holding a loose thread parallel to the shaded, neer to the body of the Figure ; by which the course of the rest may be well conceived. And this may serve to give great light to him that shall either grave in Copper, or draw with the pen, for the Symmetrically conducting hatches, determinatively, and with certitude, by thus imagining them to be Geometrically marked upon the Relievo, or embossement of the Natural, whereever he encounter it, and after his Plate, or Draught in perspective.
And indeed, that which is chiefly considerable and ingenious in this, is, that of their Perspective ; since the shades of the lines (in the foremention’d example which were upon the parts more, or lesse turn’d, appear to our eye accordingly, with more or less force, which renders clear a different effect, as to the swelling and extancies of the parts, then we find it in works where this method has not been observed ; so as truly, this may seem to be the most certain expedient of expressing by hatches, the Relievo of objects, whether with the Pen, or Burine. And this is the sence of a much larger discourse, which Monsieur du Bosse has proposed, treating of the practise of Perspective upon irregular Surfaces, and we have thought fit to insert into this Chapter ; not only because it is new and pretty ; but, for that (to us) it appears to be of good use, and as may be seen in some of the late heads graven by the incomparable Nanteuille, who had been the sole occasion of this ingenious consideration, about the time of our last being at Paris.
SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.1 quotations
CHAP. XXIV. Of Perspective in General.
[...], the Art of seeing in English, is that by which we behold, contemplate, and draw the likeness of all magnitudes, just in form and manner as they appear to the Eye.
II. The manner to be seen or speculated is a magnitude : the manner of the speculation, is by radiations of Light, either direct, reflected, or broken.
IV. A line is a complication of points ; that is (according to EUCLID) a length only without either breadth or thickness.
V. A superficies is a complication of lines ; that is, a length having breadth without thickness.
VI. A solid is a complication of superficies ; that is, a length and breadth, having depth or thickness.
CHAP. XXV. Of the Active part of Perspective.
I. The Active part of Perspective is either Ichnographical, Orthographical, or Scenographical.
CHAP. XXVII. The General Practice of Perspective.
XII. If in Landskip, there be any standing waters, as rivers, ponds, and the like ; place the horizontal line level with the farthest sight or appearance of it.
AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art. Together with The Lives of the Most Eminent Painters From Cimabue, to the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, John Gain, 1685.1 quotations
The Art of Painting, is the Art of Representing any Object by Lines drawn upon a flat Superficies, which Lines are afterwards covered with Colours, and those Colours applied with a certain just distribution of Lights and Shades, with a regard to the Rules of Symetry and Perspective ; the whole producing a Likeness, or true Idæa of the Subject intended.
This seems to embrace a great deal ; for the words Symetry and Perspective, imply a knowledg in Proportions and Distances, and that supposes Geometry, in some measure, and Opticks, all which require much Time to Study them, and so I am still involved in perplexities of Art.
It is true, that those Words seem to require some Knowledg of those Arts in the Painter, but much less in the Spectator ; for we may easily guess, whether Symetry be observed, if, for Example, in a Humane Body, we see nothing out of Proportion ; as if an Arm or a Leg be not too long or short for its Posture, or if the Posture its self be such as Nature allows of : And for Perspective, we have only to observe whether the Objects represented to be at a distance, do lessen in the Picture, as they would do naturally to the Eye, at such and such distances ; thus you see these are but small Difficulties.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.1 quotations
Be sure in Landskip that you lessen your bodies proportionably according to their distances, so that the farther the Landskip goeth from your eye, the fainter you must express any thing seen at distance, till at last the Sky and the Earth seem to meet, as the Colours in a Rain-bow do.
There are many excellent pieces of Landskip to be procured very easily ; as also of Landskip and Perspective intermixed, which pieces to me were ever the most delightful of any other ; and such I would advise you to practice by ; they, if they be good, being the only helps to teach you proportion of bodies in any position, either near or a-far off.
SMITH, Marshall, The Art of Painting According to the Theory and Practise of the Best Italian, French, and Germane Masters. Treating of The Antiquity of Painting. The Reputation it allways had. The Characters of severall Masters. Proportion. Action and Passion. The Effects of Light. Perspective. Draught. Colouring. Ordonnance. Far more Compleat and Compendious then hath yet been publisht by any, Ancient or Modern. By M. S. Gent., London, The Vendüe, 1692.2 quotations
Perspective (being a Species of Geometry) is a Science treating of Visible Lines, and may be divided into three parts, Optica, Sciographica and Specularia.
Optica is of two kindes, either Physiological or Grammical.
The Physiological part scearcheth the Universal Principles, Causes and Elements of the appearences of things [...].
The Grammical is the Art of Delineation, and is more Necessary to Painting then the other. [...].
Another Species is call’d Sciographica ; It handleth the Causes, Principles, Elements and Properties of Shaddows ; giving the Reason of the Variety of the Apparitions of the Shapes and Images of Things, [...].
The last Species is Specularia, and considereth the Reflections and Refractions of Beams, giving Directions for making Glasses, [...].
The Eye is the Foundation of Perspective, because thence the Natural and the Rational Sight is Formed : Natuaral wherein the shapes of Things seen do come to it simply, by the Beams of light ; Rational, wherein there is farther Consider’d the Reason and Effect of the Sight, even where the Eye cannot be otherwise plac’d then by supposition, as at an infinite distance, &c.
Yet although in Things at Distance, we must go by the Rationall Proportion in Perspective, and in things near by the Natural ; yet we must not so observe the Natural, but regard must be had to the Grace of the Picture.
For the Power of Painting, not only extends it self, to the Imitation of Nature, but sometimes to the Correcting of it : rendring Things more pleasing to the Eye, then they are of themselves.
DESIGN or DRAWING
By these Terms is sometimes understood the expressing our Thoughts upon Paper, or whatever other flat Superficies ; and that by Resemblances form’d by a Pen, Crayon, Chalk, or the like. But more commonly, The giving the Just Form, and Dimension of Visible Objects, according as they appear to the Eye ; if they are pretended to be describ’d in their Natural Dimensions ; If Not, but Bigger, or Lesser, then Drawing, or Designing signifies only the giving those Things their true Form, which implies an exact proportionable Magnifying, or Diminishing in every part alike
And this comprehends also giving the true Shapes, Places, and even Degrees of Lights, Shadows, and Reflections ; because if these are not right, if the thing has not its due Force, or Relief, the true Form of what is pretended to be drawn cannot be given : These shew the Out-Line all round, and in every part, as well as where the Object is terminated on its Back-Ground.
In a Composition of several Figures, or whatever other Bodies, if the Perspective is not just the Drawing of that Composition is false. This therefore is also imply’d by this Term. That the Perspective must be observ’d in the Drawing of a Single Figure cannot be doubted.
I know Drawing is not commonly understood to comprehend the Clair-obscure, Relief, and Perspective, but it does not follow however that what I advance is not right.