PERSPECTIVE

PERSPECTIVE (n.)

PERSPECTIEF (nld.) · PERSPECTIEF-PRACTYK (nld.) · PERSPECTIVE (fra.) · PERSPEKTIVE (deu.) · PERSPEKTIVE-KUNST (deu.) · PERSPEKTIVE-PRAKTIK (deu.) · PERSPEKTIVE (WISSENSCHAFT) (deu.) · PROSPEKT (deu.) · PROSPETTIVA (ita.) · SEHE-KUNST (deu.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
PERSPECTIEF (nld.) · PERSPECTIF (fra.) · PERSPECTIVE (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
PERSPECTIVE (fra.)
HAMOU, Philippe, La vision perspective (1435-1740). L’art et la science du regard, de la Renaissance à l’âge classique, Paris, Payot & Rivages, 2007.
HOCHMANN, Michel et JACQUART, Danielle (éd.), Lumière et vision dans les sciences et les arts de l’Antiquité au XVIIe siècle, Actes du colloque de Paris, Genève, Droz, 2010.
MARTINET, Marie-Madeleine, « L'espace dans la peinture anglaise aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles : perspective de l'esprit et distance affective », Espaces et représentations dans le monde anglo-américain aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, Actes du colloque de Paris, Paris, Presses de l'université Paris-Sorbonne, 1981, p. 62-82.
TURNER, James, « Landscape and "Art Prospective" in England, 1584-1660 », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 42, 1979, p. 290-293 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/751107 consulté le 30/03/2018].

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CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

6 sources
7 quotations

Quotation

Of Foreshortning
The chiefe use of perspective you have in foreshortning, which is when by art the whole is concluded into one part, which onely shall appeare to the sight, as if I should paint a ship upon the Sea, yet there should appeare unto you but her forepart, the rest imagined hid, or likewise an horse with his brest and head looking full in my face, I must of necessity foreshorten him behind, because his sides and flankes appeare not unto me : this kind of draught is willingly overslipt by ordinary painters for want of cunning and skill to performe it ; and you shall see not one thing among a hundred among them drawne in this manner, but after the ordinary fashion side-wayes, and that but lamely neither.
The use of it is to expresse all manner of action in man or beast, to represent many things in a little roome, to give or shew sundry sides of Cities, Castles, Forts, &c. at one time.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

CHAP. XXIV. Of Perspective in General.
[...], the
Art of seeing in English, is that by which we behold, contemplate, and draw the likeness of all magnitudes, just in form and manner as they appear to the Eye.
II. The manner to be seen or speculated is a magnitude : the manner of the speculation, is by radiations of Light, either direct, reflected, or broken.
[...].
IV. A line is a complication of points ; that is (according to EUCLID) a length only without either breadth or thickness.
V. A superficies is a complication of lines ; that is, a length having breadth without thickness.
[...]
VI. A solid is a complication of superficies ; that is, a length and breadth, having depth or thickness.
[...]
 
CHAP. XXV.
Of the Active part of Perspective.

I. The Active part of Perspective is either
Ichnographical, Orthographical, or Scenographical.
            [...].

CHAP. XXVII.
The General Practice of Perspective.
[...]
XII. If in Landskip, there be any standing waters, as rivers, ponds, and the like ; place the horizontal line level with the farthest sight or appearance of it.
[...]

art of seeing

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

Traveller,
            The Art of
Painting, is the Art of Representing any Object by Lines drawn upon a flat Superficies, which Lines are afterwards covered with Colours, and those Colours applied with a certain just distribution of Lights and Shades, with a regard to the Rules of Symetry and Perspective ; the whole producing a Likeness, or true Idæa of the Subject intended.
                        Friend,
            This seems to embrace a great deal ; for the words Symetry and Perspective, imply a knowledg in Proportions and Distances, and that supposes Geometry, in some measure, and Opticks, all which require much Time to Study them, and so I am still involved in perplexities of Art.
                        Traveller,
           
It is true, that those Words seem to require some Knowledg of those Arts in the Painter, but much less in the Spectator ; for we may easily guess, whether Symetry be observed, if, for Example, in a Humane Body, we see nothing out of Proportion ; as if an Arm or a Leg be not too long or short for its Posture, or if the Posture its self be such as Nature allows of : And for Perspective, we have only to observe whether the Objects represented to be at a distance, do lessen in the Picture, as they would do naturally to the Eye, at such and such distances ; thus you see these are but small Difficulties.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Be sure in Landskip that you lessen your bodies proportionably according to their distances, so that the farther the Landskip goeth from your eye, the fainter you must express any thing seen at distance, till at last the Sky and the Earth seem to meet, as the Colours in a Rain-bow do.
There are many excellent pieces of Landskip to be procured very easily ; as also of Landskip and Perspective intermixed, which pieces to me were ever the most delightful of any other ; and such I would advise you to practice by ; they, if they be good, being the only helps to teach you proportion of bodies in any position, either near or a-far off.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Quotation

Perspective (being a Species of Geometry) is a Science treating of Visible Lines, and may be divided into three parts, Optica, Sciographica and Specularia.
           
Optica is of two kindes, either Physiological or Grammical.
The
Physiological part scearcheth the Universal Principles, Causes and Elements of the appearences of things [...].
The
Grammical is the Art of Delineation, and is more Necessary to Painting then the other. [...].
            Another
Species is call’d Sciographica ; It handleth the Causes, Principles, Elements and Properties of Shaddows ; giving the Reason of the Variety of the Apparitions of the Shapes and Images of Things, [...].
            The last
Species is Specularia, and considereth the Reflections and Refractions of Beams, giving Directions for making Glasses, [...].
            The
Eye is the Foundation of Perspective, because thence the Natural and the Rational Sight is Formed : Natuaral wherein the shapes of Things seen do come to it simply, by the Beams of light ; Rational, wherein there is farther Consider’d the Reason and Effect of the Sight, even where the Eye cannot be otherwise plac’d then by supposition, as at an infinite distance, &c.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

Yet although in Things at Distance, we must go by the Rationall Proportion in Perspective, and in things near by the Natural ; yet we must not so observe the Natural, but regard must be had to the Grace of the Picture.
            For the Power of
Painting, not only extends it self, to the Imitation of Nature, but sometimes to the Correcting of it : rendring Things more pleasing to the Eye, then they are of themselves.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

DESIGN or DRAWING
By these Terms is sometimes understood the expressing our Thoughts upon Paper, or whatever other flat Superficies ; and that by Resemblances form’d by a Pen, Crayon, Chalk, or the like. But more commonly, The giving the Just Form, and Dimension of Visible Objects, according as they appear to the Eye ; if they are pretended to be describ’d in their Natural Dimensions ; If Not, but Bigger, or Lesser, then Drawing, or Designing signifies only the giving those Things their true Form, which implies an exact proportionable Magnifying, or Diminishing in every part alike
And this comprehends also giving the true Shapes, Places, and even Degrees of Lights, Shadows, and Reflections ; because if these are not right, if the thing has not its due Force, or Relief, the true Form of what is pretended to be drawn cannot be given : These shew the Out-Line all round, and in every part, as well as where the Object is terminated on its Back-Ground.

In a Composition of several Figures, or whatever other Bodies, if the Perspective is not just the Drawing of that Composition is false. This therefore is also imply’d by this Term. That the Perspective must be observ’d in the Drawing of a Single Figure cannot be doubted.
I know
Drawing is not commonly understood to comprehend the Clair-obscure, Relief, and Perspective, but it does not follow however that what I advance is not right.

term translated by PERSPECTIVE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 114-115.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective