PEACHAM, Henry, The Gentlemans Exercise. Or, An exquisite practise, as well for drawing all manner of Beasts in their true Portraitures : as also the making of all kinds of colours, to be used in Limning, Painting, Tricking, and Blazon of Coates, and Armes, with divers other most delightfull and pleasurable observations, for all young Gentlemen and others. As also Serving for the necessary use and generall benefit of divers Trades-men and Artificers, as namely Painters, Ioners, Free-Masons, Cutters and Carvers, &c. for the farther gracing, beautifying, and garnishing of all their absolute and worthy pieces, either for Borders, Architects, or Columnes, &c., London, J. Legat, 1634.1 quotations
The chiefe use of perspective you have in foreshortning, which is when by art the whole is concluded into one part, which onely shall appeare to the sight, as if I should paint a ship upon the Sea, yet there should appeare unto you but her forepart, the rest imagined hid, or likewise an horse with his brest and head looking full in my face, I must of necessity foreshorten him behind, because his sides and flankes appeare not unto me : this kind of draught is willingly overslipt by ordinary painters for want of cunning and skill to performe it ; and you shall see not one thing among a hundred among them drawne in this manner, but after the ordinary fashion side-wayes, and that but lamely neither.
The use of it is to expresse all manner of action in man or beast, to represent many things in a little roome, to give or shew sundry sides of Cities, Castles, Forts, &c. at one time.
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.2 quotations
Of the Head in Foreshortning.
Hitherto I have treated of the Head, both Foreright and in other Positions, but that you might know all that is needfull for the perfect understanding of this profession, it is necessary that I specifie the manner how to draw the Face by an easy, absolute and fair way ; Treating thus I propound to you Methodical means therein, because my intent is to Facilitate the matter in that manner, but without writing thereupon it may be intelligible, for a draught well made hath that power, that it makes it self understood without any discourse of the Author thereon, but I alwayes observe both the one and the other also ; I say that the foreshortning which is made onely with Fretts, Grates, Squares, or with Geometrical Instruments, breed onely a confusion of lines, which is not the best principal of expert Ingenuity, the reason whereof is, that it can hardly be measured by any Rule, unless the whole Body be framed together. Therefore I will shew an easy Rule, very like to that of the foreright Face, that is, to make a Circular draught with the aspect upwards, or downwards, as in the foreright Head, where the Traverse lines are straight, but these go Circularly, for if the Heads flye upwards the Traced strokes and the Divisions must be raised, with caution that the Eares and Eyes fall not out of their due points, as is signified in the first Place.
FIALETTI, Odoardo et BROWNE, Alexander, [Planche 1: visages], estampe, dans BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675, n.p..
The fourth Excellency in Good Drawing is Foreshortening, which is to take a thing as it appears to our Eye, and not to draw to the full length and proportion of every Part, but to make it shorter, by reason that the full length and bigness is hid from our sight. As if I were to design a Ship standing foreright, there can appear but onely her Fore-part, the rest is hid from our sight, and therefore must not be expressed. […]. Wherefore observe this Rule, that you must always rather imitate the Visible Proportion of things, then the Proper and Natural Proportions before mentioned by Measure ; for the Eye and the Understanding together being directed by the Prospective Art, ought to be the Guide and Measure to judge of Drawing and Painting. Observe therefore that in all Foreshortenings there must be a Proportion observed according to the judgment of the Eye, that what Limbs do appear may agree in Proportion as well as in Foreshortening.
AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art. Together with The Lives of the Most Eminent Painters From Cimabue, to the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, John Gain, 1685.1 quotations
Is, when a Figure seems of greater quantity than really it is ; as, if it seems to be three foot long, when it is but one : Some call it Fore-Shortning.
BELL, Henry, The Perfect Painter : or, a Compleat History of the Original, Progress and Improvement of Painting. Shewing, I. The Antiquity, Excellency and Usefulness of that Divine Art, to Those who are desirous of being Acquainted with the true Knowledge and Secrets therein contain'd. II. Plain Instructions to form a right Judgment of the real Value of good Pictures, and how to distinguish Originals from Copies. III. A Chronological Account of the most celebrated Painters, from their Rise, to the Present Time, London, s.n., 1730.1 quotations
He [ndr : Cimon de Cleonen] was the First bold and daring Man that took Courage to adventure into the Ocean of this ART [ndr : la peinture], that made many remarkable Discoveries of the incognita thereof, and left the Way open and fairly obvious to all his Followers ; for he enriched it with such a Variety of Embellishments, that in him first it began to have some Form of itself, and arrive to a competent Perfection ; what in their Paintings was Dead and Stiff, he gave Motion and Life to by his Skill, that he attained to in the Art of Fore-shortenings, turning the Faces of his Figures several Ways, either looking Upward, Backward, or Downward ; and by his Kowledge in the various Motions of the Limbs and Joints, and Muscling of the whole Body, which he was the first that attained and taught, what before either they knew nothing at all of Drapery, or, however, but some very unpleasant, flat and startch’d Way, he rectify’d, and, as Pliny tells us, taught a true and natural sort of Drapery, and the proper Plaiting and Foldings of all sorts of Garments.