SHADOW (n.)

BRUIN (SHADOW) (nld.) · OMBRA (ita.) · OMBRE (fra.) · SCHADUW (nld.) · SCHATTEN (deu.) · SCHATTIERUNG (deu.) · SLAGSCHADUW (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
SCHADUW (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
OMBRE (fra.)
BERMINGHAM, Ann, Learning to Draw: Studies in the Cultural History of a Polite and Useful Art, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 2000.

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

11 sources
24 quotations

Quotation

A Shadow is nothing else but a diminution of the first and second light.
The first light I call that which proceedeth immediately from a lightned body, as the beames of the Sunne.
The second is an accidental light dispreading it self into the aire or
medium, proceeding from the other.
Under this division are comprehended the other lights, as the light of glory is referred to the first. The light of all manner of reflexions to the second.
            Shadowes are threefold : the first is a single shadow, and the least of all other, and is proper to the plaine Superficies, where it is not wholy possessed of the light ; as for example.
I draw a foure square plate thus, that shadow, because there is no hollow, but all plaine (as neerest participating with the light) is most naturall and agreeable to that body.
The second is the double shadow, and it is used when the Superficies begins once to forsake your eyes as you may perceive best in columnes as thus : where it beeing darkened double, it presenteth to your eye (as it were) the backside, leaving that unshadowed to the light. Your treble shadow is made by crossing over your double shadow againe, which darkeneth by a third part in this manner, as followeth. [ndr : les deux types d’ombres sont illustrés par des petits dessins accolés au texte].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

Generall rules for shadowing.
You must alwayes cast your shadow one way, that is, on which side of the body you begin your shadow, you must continue it till your worke be done : as if I would draw a man, I begin to shadow his left cheeke, the left part of his necke, […] leaving the other to the light, except the light side be darkned by the opposition of another body, […].
2. All circular and round bodies that receive a concentration of the light, […] must be shadowed in circular manner as thus : [ndr: insertion d’un dessin explicatif dans le corps du texte].
3. All perfect lights doe receive no shadow at all, therefore hee did absurdly, that in the transfiguration of our Saviour in the Mount, gave not his garments a deepe shadow, but also thinking to shew great Art, hee gave the beames of the light it selfe a deeper, both which ought to have beene most glorious, and all meanes used for their lustre and brightnesse; which hath beene excellently well observed of
Stradane and Goltzius.
4. Where contrary shadowes concurre and strive […] let the neerest and most solide body be first served. […].
5. It will seeme a hard matter to shadow a gemme or well pointed Diamond, […] : but if you observe the rules of the light which I shall give you, you shall easily doe it without difficultie.
6. All shadowes participate in the
medium according to the greatnesse or weakenesse of the light.
7. No body betweene the light, and our sight can effect an absolute darkenesse, wherefore I said a shadow was but a diminution of the light, and it is a great question whether there be any darknesse in the world or not.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

Quotation

Of Colouring
{Colouring. what ?} Corruption composition or mixing of
Colours, we call Painting ; which is, to express shadows in Colours ; thereby, to resemble, what we do desire to imitate, by a moderate confusion, or tempering, discordant Colours ; as white, black, red, blew, green, &c.
[…].
{With Light and shadows.} Observe herein
Light and Shadows, Obscurity and Brightnesse.
Contrary things are more apparant, being placed neer their Contraries ;
Light and Shadows forward, set out any Painting outwards ; as if you might take hold of any part.
Obscurity or Darknesse, is the duskishness of a deeper shadow ; as brightness is the Intension of Light.
White appears sooner, or neerer to the Eye ; and the black seems farther off, any thing that should seem hollow (as in a Well, or Cave,) must be coloured blackish ; more deep, more black.
On the contrary, to lighten or rise forward, with
white.
{Tonus, what?}
Tonus or brightnesse ; as it is of necessary use, so of excellent ornament in a Picture, it is which is above light ; {A Brightness.} sparkling as in the glory of Angels, twinckling of precious stones ; […] : the variety of these Ornaments, must be expressed excellently ; but avoid satiety, not cloy your Picture with it.
{Harmogia what ?}
Harmoge in Colours, is an unperceivable way of Arts ; stealing to pass from one Colour to another, as in the sea and skie meeting in one thin mistly Horizontall stroake, both are lost and confounded in sight ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

I cannot prescribe, how to order your light, in a piece of Landskip by the Life ; for according to the place, as you look North, or Southward, East, or West-ward, as the time of the day and the Sun’s declination, so must you order your shadows as they appear. But in all working of Painting by Fancie, let your light descend from your left, to your right hand : So will it appear upon the work, from the right to the left, the more gracefull. […].
{To make a Landskip.} In making it ; First, beginne with a large
skie or Element and if there be any shining or reflection of the Sunne, (in which only the Dutch are neat and curious,) then you must be carefull, by no meanes to mixe Red-lead, or Mene, in the purple of the skie, or Clouds, but only with Lake and White ; […] For you must not mingle the blew Colours of the Clouds with any Pensil that hath touched Masticoate ; It will make the skie Greenish and discoloured.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Quotation

Having made your hand fit and ready in generall proportion, learn to give all bodies their true shadows according to their eminence and concavity, and to heighthen or deepen, as your body appeareth nearer or farther from the light ; which is a matter of great judgment, and indeed the soul (as I may say) of a picture.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

After you have made the white of the Eyes, and proportion of the Nose, &c. lay your Carnation or Flesh colour over the Face, casting in here and there some shadowes, which work in with the flesh colour by degrees. Your flesh-colour is commonly compounded of white lead, lake, and vermilion ; but you may heighthen or deepen it at your pleasure.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Then shadow the face all over as you see cause, and finish the Nose, compassing the tip of it with some dark, or light reddish shadow.
The shadowes for your face are compounded commonly of Ivory, black, white Lead, Vermilion, Lake, Sea-coale, black, &c. 
Then shadow your cheekes and lips (with the mouth-stroke, which make of Lake only) with Vermilion and Lake, as you list mixed together.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Quotation

CHAP. XXIV. Of Preparations for Limning.
[...]
V. Have ready a quantity of light carnation or flesh colour temperd up in a shell by it self with a weak gum water ; If it be a fair complexion mix white and red Lead together ; if a brown or swarthy, add to the former, Masticot, or English Oker, or both : but be sure the flesh colour be always lighter than the complexion you would limne ; for by working on it you may bring it to its true colour.

[...]
VII. In all shadowings have ready some white, and lay a good quantity of it by it self, besides what the shadows are first mixed with ; for red for the cheeks and lips, temper Lake and red Lead together : for blew shadows (as under the eyes and in veins) Indico or Ultramarine and white : for gray faint shadows, white, English Oker, sometimes Masticote : for deep shadows, white, English oker, Umber : for dark shadows, Lake and Pink, white make a good fleshy shadow.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

Now the Painter expresseth two things with his colour : First the colour of the thing, whether it be artificial or natural, which he doth with the like colour, as the colour of a blew garment with artificial blew, or the green colour of a Tree with the like green : Secondly he expresseth the light of the Sun, or any other bright Body apt to lighten or manifest the colours, and because colour cannot be seen without light, being nothing else (as the Philosophers teach) but the extream Superficies of a dark untransparent Body lightned, I hold it expedient for him that will prove exquisite in the use thereof, to be most diligent in searching out the effects of light, when it enlightneth colour, which who so doth seriously consider, shall express all those effects with an admirable Grace ; […].
Now when the
Painter would imitate this blew thus lightned, he shall take his artificial blew colour, counterfeiting therewith the blew of the garment, but when he would express the light, wherewith the blew seems clearer, he must mix so much white with his blew, as he findeth light in that part of the garment, where the light striketh with greater force, considering afterwards the other part of the garment, where there is not so much light, and shall mingle less white with his blew proportionably, and so shall he proceed with the like discretion in all the other parts : and where the light falleth not so vehemently, but only by reflexion there he shall mix so much shadow with his blew, as shall seem sufficient to represent that light, loosing it self as it were by degrees, provided alwayes, that where the light is less darkned, there he place his shadow,
In which judicious expressing of the effects of light together with the
colours, Raphael Urbine, Leonard Vincent, Antonius de Coreggio and Titian were most admirable, handling them with so great discretion and judgement, that their Pictures seemed rather natural, then artificial ; the reason whereof the vulgar Eye cannot conceive, notwithstanding these excellent Masters expressed their chiefest art therein, considering with themselves that the light falling upon the flesh caused these and such like effects, in which kind Titan excelled the rest, who as well to shew his great Skill therein, as to merit commendation, used to cozen and deceive Mens Eyes, […].

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

Quotation

Of the Vertue of Light.


Light hath so great force in Pictures, that (in my judgement) therein consisteth the whole grace thereof, if it be well understood, an contrarywife, the disgrace if it be not perceived, and evident example whereof we may see in a Body proportionably drawn which being yet without the lights, sheweth very beautifull, so far forth as it is wrought, but if afterwards it shall be shadowed without judgement and art, so that the shadowes be confusedly placed where the lights ought to be, and contrarywise the lights where the Middle of the shadows should be, and the concavities and convexities disorderly suited, without any Imitation of Nature it were better it had never been either drawn or lightned, whereas having lights well disposed, it doth not only add perfection to the draught but so sets it off from the Flat that it seems to be imbossed
And in this
vertue and power consisteth the chiefest excellency of the Painter […].

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Wherefore, I will handle the lights, saying nothing of the shadows, although they be handled together with them, for the shadows do necessarily follow the lights, being caused by the decay of the light, taking so much the more force, by how much the more forcibly the light striketh upon the Body, whence ariseth that exceeding great raising and heightning of a natural plain, in a Body receiving the light according to his proper nature.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

The Ground colour for a Face.


[…], you are to lay a
ground or primer of flesh colour before you begin your work, and that must be tempered according to the complexion of the Face to be drawn, if the complexion be fair, temper white, red lead, and lake, if an hard swarthy complexion, mingle with your white and red a little fine Masticot, or English Ocur, but Note that your ground ought alwayes to be fairer then the Face you take ; for it is a facile matter to darken a light colour, but a difficult to lighten a deep one ; for in Limning you must never heighten, but work them down to their just colour
[…].


The Order of Shadowes for the Face.
{
Shadows} In all your Shadowes, remember to mix some white, (exempli gratia) for the red in the Cheeks, Lips, &c. temper Lake, red Lead ; […] Note that black must not by any means be used in a Face, for other shadowes your own observation must direct you, for it is impossible to give a general Rule for the shadowes in all Faces, unless we could force nature to observe the same method in composing and modelling them, so that one in every punctilio should resemble the other. 

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Of Landskip.


{
Landskip.} In drawing Landskip with water colours ever begin with the Skie, and if there be any Sunbeams, do them first. 
{
Purple Clouds.} For the Purple Clouds, only mingle Lake and white.
{
Yellow.} The Sun-beams, Masticot and white.
{
Note 1.} Work your blew Skie with smalt only, or Ultramarine.
{
Note 2.} At your first working dead colour all the piece over, leave nothing uncovered, lay the colour smooth and even.
{
Note 3.} Work the Skie down in the Horizon fainter as you draw near the Earth, except in tempestuous skies, work your further Mountains so that they should seem to be lost in the Air.
{
Note 4.} Your first ground must be of the colour of the Earth and dark ; yellowish, brown, green, the next successively as they loose in their distance must also faint and abate in their colours
{
Note 5.} Beware of perfection at a distance.
{
Note 6.} Ever place light against dark, and dark against light (that is) the only way to extend the prospect far off, is by opposing light to shadows, yet so as ever they must loose their force and vigor in proportion as they remove from the Eye, and the strongest shadow ever nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

Friend.
 
            What is properly the Colouring of a Piece of Painting ?
 
                        Traveller.
 
           
It is the Art of employing the Colours proper to the Subject, with a regard to the Lights and Shadows that are incident to the Story, either according to the Truth of it, or to the Painter’s Invention : and out of the Management of these comes all the Strength, Relievo, and Roundness that the Figures have : ’tis hard to give Positive Rules here, it depending much on Practice ; but the most General is, so to manage your Colours, Lights, and Shadows, that the Bodies enlightned may appear by the Opposition of your Shadows ; which by that means may make the Eye rest with Pleasure upon them ; and also, that there be an imperceptible passage from your Shadows to your Lights.
            ’Tis generally observed likewise to make the greatest Light fall upon the middle of the Piece, where the principal Figures ought to be, and to lessen it by degrees towards the sides till it loose it self.
In gentle Shadows, avoid strong Shadowings upon the Naked Members, least the black that is in them seems to be part of the Flesh.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps

Quotation

Chap. VI, Of Shadowing, and Rules to be observed therein.
The out-lines of any Draught or Picture give the Symmetry or Proportion, which is enough to a good judgment : So the Figures before in this Book have only the out-lines, and those are best to practice first by : I say, the Out-lines shew the Proportion to a good judgment ; but the Lines and Shadows give the lively likeness. In Shadowing therefore of any Picture you must observe these Rules following.

RULE I.
Cast your Shadows always one way, that is, on which side you begin to shadow your Figure, either on the right or left side, you must continue so doing through your whole work. As in the figure of a Man, if you begin to shadow his left Cheek, you must shadow the left side of his Neck, the left side of his Arms, the left side of his Body, […].
RULE II.
All Shadows must grow fainter and fainter, as they are farther removed from the opacous body from whence they issue.
RULE III.
In great Winds, where Clouds are driven to and for several ways ; as also in Tempests at Sea, where Wave exposeth Wave ; here contrary shadows must concur, as striving for superiority : here in such cases you must be sure to supply the greatest first, and from them, according to your judgment supply the lesser ; practice and imitation of good Copies will be your best director.
RULE IV.
All Circular bodies must have a Circular shadow, as they have a Circular form, and as the object of light which causeth shadow is Circular.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Chap. VI, Of LANDKSIP.
The bounds and limits of
Landskip are inexpressible, they being as various as fancy is copious ; I will give you only some general Rules for Painting of Landskip, and so conclude this third Book.
In painting of any Landskip always begin with the Sky, the Sun-beams, or lightest parts first ; next the Yellow beams, which compose of Masticote and White ; next your Blew Skies, with Smalt only. At your first colouring leave no part of your ground uncovered ; but lay Your Colours smooth and even all over. Work your Sky downwards towards your Horizon fainter and fainter, as it draws nearer and nearer to the Earth ; you must work your tops of Mountains and objects far remote, so faint that they may appear as lost in the Air : Your lowest and nearest Ground must be of the colour of the earth, of a dark yellowish brown Green, the next lighter Green, and so successively as they lose in their distance, they must abate in their colour. Make nothing that you see at a distance perfect ; as if discerning a Building to be fourteen or fifteen miles off, I know not Church, Castle, House, or the like ; so that in drawing of it you must express no particular sign, as Bell, Portcullis, or the like ; but express it in colours as weakly and faintly as your eye judgeth of it. Ever in your Landskip place light against dark, and dark against light, which is the only way to extend the prospect far off, occasioned by opposing light to shadow ; yet so as the shadows must lose their force in proportion as they remove from the eye, and the strongest shadow must always be nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Chap. III, How to order your Colours upon your Pallat, and how to temper Shadows for all Complexions.
Dispose your single Colours upon your Pallat in this order, laying them at a convenient distance one from another, so that they be not apt to intermix. First lay on your Vermilion, then lake, then burnt Oker,
India Red, Pink, Umber, Blacks, and Smalt : lay the White next to your thumb, because it is oftenest used, for with it you lighten all your shadows ; next to your White lay a stiff sort of Lake : this done, your Pallat is furnished with the single Colours belonging to a Face ; then for the tempering of your Shadows to all Complexions, observe the following Directions.

1. For a Fair Complexion.
Take a little White, and twice as much Vermilion, and as much Lake temper these well together upon your Pallat with the flat blade of your knife ; lay aside by it self on your Pallat the greatest quantity of this to be used for the deepest Carnation of the Face […].
Your Carnations being thus tempered, and orderly laid upon your Pallat, prepare your faint Shadows. For which,
Take Smalt, and mix it with a little White, which may serve for the Eyes ; lay aside the greatest quantity, and to the rest add a little Pink, this well tempered and laid by it self, will serve for the faint greenish shadows in the Face.
Now prepare your deep Shadows : for which take Lake, Pink, […].

2.
For a more Brown or Swarthy Complexion.
Lay your single Colours on your Pallat as before, and in like manner temper them, only amongst your White Lake, and Vermilion, put a little quantity of burnt Oker, to make it look somewhat Tawny […].

3.
For a Tawny Complexion.
The general Colours must be the same as before, only the Shadows are different, for you are to prepare them of Umber, and burnt Oker, […].

4.
For an Absolute Black Complexion.
Your dark Shadows must be the same as before ; but for your heightnings, you must take White, burnt Oker, Lake, and Black, put but a little White in at first, […].
Here note, that the single Colours at first laid upon your Pallat being tempered together according to the former directions, serve for shadows for all Complexions.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Where there be several Lights there must be care taken how they are placed that by their Opposition, they take not away all Occasions of Shaddowing, which will diminish their Beauty, though the want of force and strength ; likewise that they cast not double Shaddows, and confound each other.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

All Shaddow must have a Sympathy with the Lights in their Colour as likewise the Reflections with the Bodys Reflecting. Arteficial Lights, if very bright, give a quick Heightning, and dark and deeply shortned Shaddows.
Lastly it must be carefully observ’d that betwixt all
Lights and Shaddows there must be such Mediums, as may take of all Hardness, and so Arteficially wrought in as may not foul either with the other and so take away the Beauty and strength of the Picture.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

However I will here make him [ndr : au lecteur] an Offer of an Abstract of what I take to be those by which a Painter, or Connoisseur, may safely conduct himself, [...] III. There must be One Principal Light, and This, and all the subordinate ones with the Shaddows, and Reposes, must make One, Intire, Harmonious Mass ; The several Parts must be well Connected, and Contrasted, so as that Tout-ensemble must be Grateful to the Eye ; as a good piece of Musick is to the Ear. By this Means the Picture is not only more Delightful, but better Seen, and Comprehended. [...] V. The Colouring whether Gay, or Solid, must be Natural, Beautiful, and Clean, and what the Eye is delighted with, in Shaddows as well as Lights, and Middle Tints.

term translated by OMBRE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 12-13.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Quotation

The Face is admirably well Drawn [ndr : du portrait de la comtesse Dowager of Exeter, par Van Dyck]; the Features are pronounc’d Clean, and Firmly, so as ‘tis evident he that did That conceiv’d strong, and Distinct Ideas, and saw wherein the Lines that form’d Those differ’d from all others ; there appears nothing of the Antique, or Raffaelle-Tast of Designing, but Nature, well understood, well chosen, and well manag’d ; the Lights, and Shadows are justly plac’d, and shap’d, and both sides of the Face answer well to each other.

term translated by OMBRE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 32-33.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

There are Instances where two Masses ; a Light, and a Dark one, divide the Picture, each possessing One Side. I have of This sort by Rubens, and as fine a Composition as can be seen ; the Masses are so well Rounded, the Principal Light being near the Middle of the Bright One, and the Other having Subordinate Lights upon it so as to Connect, but not to Confound it with the rest ; and they are in agreeable Shapes, and melting into One Another, but nevertheless sufficiently determined.
Very commonly a Picture consists of a Mass of Light, and another of Shadow upon a Ground of a Middle Tinct. And sometimes ‘tis composed of a Mass of Dark at the bottom, another Lighter above that, and another for the upper part still Lighter ; (as usually in a Landscape) Sometimes the Dark Mass employs one Side of the Picture also.

dark

term translated by OMBRE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 99-100.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition

Quotation

DESIGN or DRAWING
By these Terms is sometimes understood the expressing our Thoughts upon Paper, or whatever other flat Superficies ; and that by Resemblances form’d by a Pen, Crayon, Chalk, or the like. But more commonly, The giving the Just Form, and Dimension of Visible Objects, according as they appear to the Eye ; if they are pretended to be describ’d in their Natural Dimensions ; If Not, but Bigger, or Lesser, then Drawing, or Designing signifies only the giving those Things their true Form, which implies an exact proportionable Magnifying, or Diminishing in every part alike
And this comprehends also giving the true Shapes, Places, and even Degrees of Lights, Shadows, and Reflections ; because if these are not right, if the thing has not its due Force, or Relief, the true Form of what is pretended to be drawn cannot be given : These shew the Out-Line all round, and in every part, as well as where the Object is terminated on its Back-Ground.

term translated by OMBRE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 114-115.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

[…] he [ndr : Ludovicus Demontiosius ou Jean de Monjosieu] labours to convince us in the Truth of, he distinguishes all the Colours in a Picture in reference to the different Modification of Light upon Bodies, into three Sorts, or rather Degrees, Light, Splendor and Shadow ; in the Light the Colour is Deluted, in the Shadow Saturated, and in the Splendor only the Species of the Colour is truly discern’d ; this Splendor he calls also the Tone, carrying so near an Analogy with the Sence of it in Musick, where it comprehends the Phthonge, the Intervals, the Place of the Voice, and the Tenor ; all which he applies to the Meaning of this Splendor, or Tone in Painting : To these three foregoing Degrees of Colour, he adds a fourth Thing incident, call’d the Harmoge, which is the Commixture, or the curious and insensible Transition of the three Degrees of Colours ; and this, in the Opinion of our Author, is the Interpretation of the famous Contest about the Scissure and Intersection of Lines ; of which, when Apelles had given a Specimen, and Protogenes had seem it, Artem agnovit sed negligentiam Artificis notavit, and therefore took another Pencil, and what was left somewhat too hard and unpleasant in the Union of the Colours, he corrected and made more tender, ‘till Apelles again returning by the Interposition of another Colour, gave it such a Finishing, as left no Place for any further Attempt.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur