UNION (n.)

BINDING (nld.) · EINIGKEIT (deu.) · REDDERING (nld.) · SAMENSMELTING (nld.) · UNION (fra.) · ZUSAMMENFÜGUNG (deu.) · ZUSAMMENKUNST (deu.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
FINIR (fra.) · UNION (fra.)
BLANC, Jan, « UNION », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 457-460.
BOSKAMP, Ulrike, Primärfarben und Farbharmonie: Farbe in der französischen Naturwissenschaft, Kunstliteratur und Malerei des 18. Jahrhunderts, Weimar, VDG, 2009.
BOSKAMP, Ulrike, « Contre l’harmonie des couleurs : le comte de Caylus, Jacques-Fabien Gautier-d’Agoty et le retour à l’ordre dans le coloris », dans MARTIN, Marie-Pauline et SAVETTIERI, Chiara (éd.), La Musique face au système des arts, Paris, Vrin Éditions, 2013, p. 225-241.
LEONHARD, Karin, « Flowering Colour. Still Life Painting and Baroque Colour Theory », dans BUSHART, Magdalena et TEINLE, Friedrich (éd.), Colour Histories, Berlin, De Gruyter, 2015, p. 261-294.
PUTTFARKEN, Thomas, Roger de Piles’ Theory of Art, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 1985.

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

3 sources
7 quotations

Quotation

Friend,
            Wherein particularly lies the Art of
Colouring ?
            Traveller.
Beside the Mixture of Colours, such as may answer the Painter’s Aim, it lies in a certain Contention, as I may call it, between the Light and the Shades, which by the means of Colours, are brought to Unite with each other ; and so to give that Roundness to the Figures, which the Italians call Relievo, and for which we have no other Name : In this, if the Shadows are too strong, the Piece is harsh and hard, if too weak, and there be too much Light, ’tis flat. I, for my part, should like a Colouring rather something Brown, but clear, than a bright gay one : But particularly, I think, that those fine Coral Lips, and Cherry Cheeks, are to be Banished, as being far from Flesh and Blood. ’Tis true, the Skins, or Complexions must vary, according to the Age and Sex of the Person ; An Old Woman requiring another Colouring than a fresh Young one. But the Painters must particularly take Care, that there be nothing harsh to offend the Eye, as that neither the Contours, or Out-Lines, be too strongly Terminated, nor the Shadows too hard, nor such Colours placed by one another as do not agree. 
           
Friend,
Is there any Rule for that ?
           
Traveller,
Some Observations there are, as those Figures which are placed on the foremost Ground, or next the Eye, ought to have the greatest Strength, both in their Lights and Shadows, and Cloathed with a lively Drapery ; Observing, that as they lessen by distance, and are behind, to give both the Flesh and the Drapery more faint and obscure Colouring. And this is called an Union in Painting, which makes up an Harmony to the Eye, and causes the Whole to appear one, and not two or three Pictures
.

harmonie

Conceptual field(s)

Quotation

Traveller,
            ’
Tis very true, tis one of the most difficult parts of Painting [ndr : le traitement de la draperie]; and the best Rule is, that your Drapery be in large Foldings, Noble and Simple, not repeated too often, but following the Order of the Parts ; and let them be of Stuffs and Silks that are commonly worn, of beautiful Colours, but sweet, and such as do not trench upon the Naked too harshly, and by that means they will be of great Use for the Union of the Whole ; either by reflecting the Light, or giving such a Fund as is wanting for the other Colours to appear better. They serve also to fill up any empty place in the Picture.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → vêtements et plis

Quotation

Friend.
 
            What is properly the Colouring of a Piece of Painting ?
 
                        Traveller.
 
           
It is the Art of employing the Colours proper to the Subject, with a regard to the Lights and Shadows that are incident to the Story, either according to the Truth of it, or to the Painter’s Invention : and out of the Management of these comes all the Strength, Relievo, and Roundness that the Figures have : ’tis hard to give Positive Rules here, it depending much on Practice ; but the most General is, so to manage your Colours, Lights, and Shadows, that the Bodies enlightned may appear by the Opposition of your Shadows ; which by that means may make the Eye rest with Pleasure upon them ; and also, that there be an imperceptible passage from your Shadows to your Lights.
            ’Tis generally observed likewise to make the greatest Light fall upon the middle of the Piece, where the principal Figures ought to be, and to lessen it by degrees towards the sides till it loose it self.
In gentle Shadows, avoid strong Shadowings upon the Naked Members, least the black that is in them seems to be part of the Flesh. But above all, there is a thing called by the Italians, Il degra damento de Colori ; which in English may be termed, The diminishing of Colours : And it consists in making an Union and Concord between the Colours in the formost part of your Piece, and those that are behind, so that they be all of one tenour, and not broke ; and by this means every part corresponds with another in your Picture, and makes up one Harmony to the Eye.

concord · harmony

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Quotation

Some Observations there are about the Number of Figures fit to be employed in an Historical Piece. Hannibal Carrache was of Opinion, that a Piece that contained above twelve Figures, could never be free from Confusion ; and the Reason that he used to give, was ; first, That he thought that no Piece could be well with more than three great Gruppos, or Knots of Figures : And Secondly, That that Silence and Majesty which is necessary in Painting, is lost in that Multitude and Croud of Figures. But if your Subject be such as constrains you to a Multitude, such as the Representation of a Battle, or of the Last Day of Judgement, then you are likewise dispensed from that great Care of Finishing ; but must chiefly study Union, and the disposing of your Lights and Shadows.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → groupe

Quotation

In Carnations, we must avoid the Affectation of too many Clear Red Colours, which more resemble the Skin when Flead of, then the true Natural Skin.
            Nor must we affect the diversity of
Sparkling and Glowing Colours, as the Bright of Diaphanous Bodys, which represent reflections of the variety of Neighbouring Colours ; always remembring, that mans Skin how Beautiful soever, dwells in a delicate down-Colour.
            We must observe in the
Contrast, or the Opposition which Intervenes in the Union of Colours ; that by a sweet Interruption it may rayse up its Briskness, without it a fading Disagreeableness ensues.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

In great works we mnst lay the Colours on Full, that we may Empast and Incorporate them sweetly, and that will make them to hold Firm and be lasting.
[...].
Colours must be so laid together, that they may be all sweetly united under the Briskness of a principall one, that it may participate of the Light which is chief over all the rest in the Picture ; and that all the Colours be Connected together by an agreeable Union, and likewise so dispos’d as they may partake of each other, by the Communication of the Light and help of Reflection.
We must not only avoid all
Garrish and Gaudy Colouring (the Effect of a poor Judgment) but likewise a Briskness in the Meaner Parts which may any way hurt the Eye of the Picture.
We must observe to lay the Colours very strong at first, because it is easy to weaken what we would put back ; but more difficult to give a strength, where it is weakly put in.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

[…] he [ndr : Ludovicus Demontiosius ou Jean de Monjosieu] labours to convince us in the Truth of, he distinguishes all the Colours in a Picture in reference to the different Modification of Light upon Bodies, into three Sorts, or rather Degrees, Light, Splendor and Shadow ; in the Light the Colour is Deluted, in the Shadow Saturated, and in the Splendor only the Species of the Colour is truly discern’d ; this Splendor he calls also the Tone, carrying so near an Analogy with the Sence of it in Musick, where it comprehends the Phthonge, the Intervals, the Place of the Voice, and the Tenor ; all which he applies to the Meaning of this Splendor, or Tone in Painting : To these three foregoing Degrees of Colour, he adds a fourth Thing incident, call’d the Harmoge, which is the Commixture, or the curious and insensible Transition of the three Degrees of Colours ; and this, in the Opinion of our Author, is the Interpretation of the famous Contest about the Scissure and Intersection of Lines ; of which, when Apelles had given a Specimen, and Protogenes had seem it, Artem agnovit sed negligentiam Artificis notavit, and therefore took another Pencil, and what was left somewhat too hard and unpleasant in the Union of the Colours, he corrected and made more tender, ‘till Apelles again returning by the Interposition of another Colour, gave it such a Finishing, as left no Place for any further Attempt.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs