IMITATION (n.)

IMITATIE (nld.) · IMITATION (fra.) · NABOOTSING (nld.) · NACHAHMUNG (deu.) · NACHFOLGE-KUNST (deu.) · NACHMACHUNG (deu.) · NAEMAECKSEL (nld.) · NAEMAELSEL (nld.) · NAVOLGING (nld.) · VOLGH-KUNST (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
GELIJKENIS (nld.) · IMITATIE (nld.) · IMITATION (fra.) · IMITER (fra.) · NABOOTSEN (nld.) · NABOOTSING (nld.) · NAVOLGING (nld.) · VOLGH-LUST (nld.)
BLANC, Jan, Peindre et penser la peinture au XVIIe siècle : la théorie de l'art de Samuel van Hoogstraten, Berne, Peter Lang, 2008.
COSTA LIMA, Luis et FONTIUS, Martin, « Mimesis / Nachahmung », dans BARCK, Karlheinz et FONTIUS, Martin (éd.), Ästhetischen Grunsbegriffe. Historisches Wörterbuch in sieben Bänden, Stuttgart, JB Metzler, 2002, 7 vol. , vol. IV, p. 84-121.
DEKONINCK, Ralph, KREMER, Nathalie et GUIDERDONI-BRUSLÉ, Agnès (éd.), Aux limites de l'imitation. L'Ut pictura poésis à l'épreuve de la matière (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), Amsterdam - New York, Rodopi, 2009.
DÉMORIS, René, « De la vérité en peinture chez Félibien et Roger de Piles : imitation, représentation, illusion », Revue d’esthétique : La naissance de la théorie de l’art en France 1640-1720, 31/32, 1997, p. 36-50.
DÉMORIS, René, « À propos d'une délectation perdue : les avatars de l'imitation à l'âge classique », dans DÉMORIS, René (éd.), Les fins de la peinture, Actes du colloque de Paris, Paris, Éd. Desjonquères, 1990, p. 173-196.
GRENIER, Jean, L'imitation et les principes de l'esthétique classique, Paris, Centre de documentation universitaire, 1963.
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « IMITATION », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 289-298.
KREMER, Nathalie, Vraisemblance et représentation au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Champion, 2011.
MARIN, Louis, « Imitation et trompe-l'œil dans la théorie classique de la peinture au XVIIe siècle », L'imitation : aliénation ou source de liberté ?, Rencontres de l’École du Louvre, septembre 1984, Paris, La Documentation française, 1985, p. 181-196 [En ligne : http://www.louismarin.fr/ressources_lm/pdfs/Imitation.pdf consulté le 13/04/2018].
NATIVEL, Colette, « La théorie de l'imitation au XVIIe siècle en rhétorique et en peinture », XVIIe siècle, 175, 1992, p. 157-167.
PERES, Constanze, « Nachahmung der Natur: Herkunft und Implikationen eines Topos », dans KÖRNER, Hans (éd.), Die Trauben des Zeuxis. Formen und künstlerischen Wircklichkeitsaneigung, Hildesheim - New York - Zürich, Georg Olms Verlag, 1990, p. 2-39.

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CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

5 sources
6 quotations

Quotation

Of the Graces of Landtskip.
Though invention and imitation in this kinde are infinite, you must have a care to worke with a found judgement, that your worke become not ridiculous to the beholders eye, as well for true observation of the distance as absurditie of accident : that is, though your Landtship be good and true in generall, yet some particular error overslips your judgment either in mistaking or not observing the time and season of the yeere, the true shadow of your worke with the light of the Sunne, the bending of trees in winds and tempests, the naturall course of river and such like.
To settle therefore your judgement in these and the like, I whis you first to imitate the abstract or labour of every moneth. […].
  If you draw your Landtskip according to your invention, you shall please very well, if you shew in the same, the faire side of some goodly Citie, haven, forrest, stately house with gardens, I ever tooke delight in those peeces that shewed to the like a country village, faire or market,
Bergamascas cookerie, Morrice dancing, peasants together by the eares, and the like.
For your
Parergas or needlesse graces, you may set forth the same with farme houses, water-milles, pilgrimes travelling through the woods, the ruines of Churches, Castles, &c. but you shall finde your conceipt seconded with a thousand inventions.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

{Pen and Pensill described.} The most excellent use of the Penn, and Pensil, is illustrated by the admirable Art of Drawing, and Painting ; and perfectly defined, to be the Imitation of the Surface of Nature, in Proportion and Colour.
By
Mathematicall Demonstration of Globes, Spheres, Charts, […].
Or, by particular description of
Plotts, Fortifications, […].
Or, by shapes of Creatures ;
Men, and Beasts ; Birds, and Fishes.
Or, by
Vegetables ; Fruits, Flowers, Hearbs.
In all, it preferrs likenesse to the
Life, and conserves it, after Death ; and altogether by the Sense of Seeing.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Quotation

{Of Imitation.} The powers of a Painter, is expresses, by Imitation of Naturall things, whereof the most excellent, are ever, the most difficult ; easie to paint deformity.
{In severall graces and abilities.} In your Imitations of Art or Copying, observe to hit the virtues of the Piece, and to refuse the vices ; for all
Masters have somewhat, of them both. For, Paintings, may be puft-up, but not stately ; starved in Colour, nor delicate ; rash, not Confident ; Negligent, not Plain. […].
{Of Fancie.} Proficiency of
Painting, is purchased, not (altogether) by Imitation, (the common drole-way of ordinary Painters) if you neglect the amendment, by your own generous fancie ; (Est autem proprie Imago rerum animo insidentium). For, he that only follows another’s steps, must (needs) be the last in the race : Lazy Painters study not, the brain : Nature can do much with Doctrine ; but not Doctrine, without Nature : Nature, is of greater Moment : Every Artificer hath a peculiar Grace, in his own worke, agreeing to his Nature ; though many (of the other sort,) owe most to Doctrine.
{Surpassing Imitation.} The force, of Imitation of
Nature, is in the Fancie ; which worketh with the more Wisdome. It being an imaginative faculty, or wit, and is set on worke to imagine, what we have seen (or at least made up with some other Sense) being the Print or foot-steps of Sense. It is the treasury of the mind, The darkness of night awakes our Speculations of the day ; when sleep failes, the Mind does, then, digest the conceived things into Order ; that so, the whole invention wants nothing, but the hand of the Artificer, to effect the worke ; and, without Art, to do, Imagination is uselesse ; Fancie supplyes Imitation’s weakness : the property and Office whereof, is to retain those images, and figures, which the Common Sense receives : First, from the exterior sense ; and then transmits it to the judgemnt ; from thence, to the fancie ; and there locked up, and covered in the memory ; and we may alter and move with the re-presentation of things, although it have them not present, which the common Sense cannot have, unlesse present.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

I. POLYGRAPHICE is an Art, so much imitating Nature, as that by proportional lines with answerable Colours, it teacheth to represent to the life (and that in plano) the forms of all  corporeal things, with their respective passions.
II. It is called in general in Greek
Χρωματινη, in Latine Pictura, and in English the Art of Painting.
III. It is sevenfold (to wit) in
Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing and Colouring.
IV. Drawing is, that whereby we represent the shape and form of any corporeal substance in rude lines onely.
V. It consists in proportion and passion, as it hath relation to motion and situation, in respect of Light and Vision.
VI.
Sanderson saith, This Admirable Art is the Imitation of the surface of Nature in Colour and proportion, 1. By Mathematical demonstration, 2. By Chorographical description, 3. By shapes of Living creatures, 4. And by the forms of Vegetables, in all which it prefers Likeness to the life, conserves it after death, and this altogether by the sense of seeing.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

In imitation whereof, I hold it expedient for a Painter, to delight in seeing those which fight at cuffs, to observe the Eyes of privy murtherers, the courage of wrastlers, the actions of Stage-players, and the inticing allurements of curtesans, to the end he be not to seek many particulars, wherein the very Life and Soul of painting consisteth, wherefore, I could wish all Men carefully to keep their Brains waking, which whosoever shall omit his invention (out of doubt) will sleep, studying perhaps Ten Years about the action of one Figure, which in the end will prove nothing worth, whence all famous inventors, for the avoiding of such gross defects, have the rather shewed themselves subtile Searchers out of the effects of nature, being moved thereunto by a special delight of often seeing, and continually practizing that which they have preconceived, so that who so keepeth this Order, shall unawares attain to such an habit of practice, in lively expressing all Actions and Gestures, best fitting his purpose, that it will become an other nature.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

The next thing to be considered in an Historical Piece, is the Truth of the Drawings, and the Correction of the Design, as Painters call it ; that is, whether they have chosen to imitate Nature in her most Beautiful Part ; for though a Painter be the Copist of Nature, Yet he must not take her promiscuously, as he finds her, but have an Idea of all that is Fine and Beautiful in an Object, and choose to Represent that, as the Antients have done so admirably in their Paintings and Statues : And ’tis in this part that most of the Flemish Painters, even Rubens himself, have miscarryed, by making an ill Choice of Nature ; either because the Beautiful Natural is not the Product of their Countrey, or because they have not seen the Antique, which is the Correction of Nature by Art ; for we may truly say that the Antique is but the best of Nature ; and therefore all that resembles the Antique, will carry that Character along with it.
                       
Friend,
            I remember, you reckoned it to me among the Faults of some Painters, that they had studied too long upon the Statues of the Antients ; and that they had indeed thereby acquired the Correction of Design you speak of ; but they had by the same means lost that Vivacity and Life which is in Nature, and which is the true Grace of Painting.

                        Traveller.
            ’Tis very true, that a Painter may fall into that Error, by giving himself up too much to the Antique ; therefore he must know, that his Profession is not tyed up to that exact Imitation of it as the Sculptor’s is, who must never depart from that exact Regularity of Proportion which the Antients have settled in their Statues ; but Painters Figures must be such as may seem rather to have been Models for the Antique, than drawn from it ;
and a Painter that never has studied it at all, will never arrive at that as Raphael, and the best of the Lombard Painters have done ; who seem to have made no other Use of the Antique, than by that means to choose the most Beautiful of Nature.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai