GELIJKENIS (n. f.)

ÄHNLICHKEIT (deu.) · RESEMBLANCE (eng.) · RESSEMBLANCE (fra.) · SIMILITUDE (eng.) · SIMILITUDO (lat.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
/ · GLEICHHEIT (deu.) · IMITATIO (lat.) · IMITATION (eng.) · LIKENESS (eng.) · RESEMBLANCE (eng.) · SIMILITUDE (eng.) · SIMILITUDO (lat.)

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17 quotations

Quotation

[...] 't en waer saeck dat die ghene noch verder gingen de welcke dese wonderen der Nature niet alleen nae de maete des menschelicken vernufts beschouwen, maer oock de ghelijckenisse der selvigher wonderen nae 't leven wonderbaerlick af-maelen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] …it is necessity that those go even further, who observe these wonders of Nature not only to the extent of human ingenuity, but also wonderfully reproduce the similitude after life of the same wonders.

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 2

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

't Is ghewisselick een uyttermaeten groote saeck de waere verbeeldinghen van allerley roerende ende onroerende dinghen in sijn ghemoedt op te legghen; evenwel nochtans is het noch een meerder saecke datmen een levende ghelijckenisse deser inwendigher verbeeldinghen kan uytwercken, voornaemelick indien den Konstenaer niet en blijft hanghen aen dese of geene bysondere wercken der Natuere, maer liever uyt opmerkinghe van d'aller schoonste lichamen die erghens te vinden sijn een volmaeckt voor-beeldt in sijn fantasije indruckt,

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is clearly an extremely important case to imprint the true representations of all sorts of movable and unmovable things in one's mind; even so it is an even more important case that one can bring about a living similitude of these inner representations, especially if the Artist does not stick to these or other specific works of Nature, but rather by observation imprints a perfect example of the most beautiful bodies that can be found anywhere in his fantasy.

term translated by SIMILITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 3
term translated by SIMILITUDE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p .6

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Hoe gantsh grof ende on-volmaeckt de beginselen der Schilder-Konst wel eer gheweest sijn, geeft ons Aelianus te verstaen, als hy {var. Hist. Lib. X. cap. 10.} ghetuyght dat d'aller Oudste Schilders de waere gelijckenisse der naturelicker dinghen soo gantsch erbarmelick plachten af te maelen, dat sy ghedwonghen waeren by elck bysonder Beeldt haerer Schilderyen by te schrijven.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] How very crude and imperfect the beginnings of the Art of Painting used to be, is explained to us by Aelianus, when he {…} attests that the Oldest Painters used to reproduce the true similitude of the natural things so completely abominably, that they were forced to add writing to every special image in her paintings.

ÆLIANUS, Claudius
Anciens (les)

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 14

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Ghemerckt dat ons dan in de treffelicke wercken van groote Meesters de schoonheyd der dinghen selver nerghens nae so krachtighlick beweeght; als de voorspoedighe stoutigheyd der Konste, soo ghebeurt het oock menighmael dat de levende ghelijckenisse van lellicke ende afsichtighe dinghen niet min vermaeckelick bevonden wordt als de gelijckenisse van d'aller schoonste lichamen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Seen that nothing moves us more powerful than the beauty of things themselves in the striking works of great Masters; as the successful boldness of Art, this is how it also often happens that the living similitude of ugly or hideous things can be found just as entertaining as the similitude of the most beautiful bodies.

term translated by IMITATIO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 45
term translated by IMITATION in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 79

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Wy aenschouwen de Schilderije van een hagedisse, van een Simme, van Tersites tronie met lust ende verwonderingh, seght Plutarchus {de poesis aud.}, meer om de ghelijckenisse die wy daer in sien dan om de schoonheyd. Want alhoewel men het ghene in sijn eyghen nature leelick is niet en kan schoon maecken, d'imitatie van schoone of leelicke dinghen werd nochtans sonder eenigh onderscheyd gepresen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] We behold the Painting of a lizard, of an Ape, or of the face of Tersites with desire and astonishment, says Plutarchus {…}, more for the similitude that we see in it than for the beauty. Because although one cannot make beautiful that which is in his one nature ugly, the imitation of beautiful or ugly things is nevertheless praised without any distinction.

term translated by SIMILITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 45-46
term translated by SIMILITUDE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 79

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Apelles plaght de Conterfeytsels van d’een en d’ander soo gantsch ghelijck te maecken, dat de troniebekijckers, diemen Metopocopos ofte Physiognomers noemt, soo wel uyt sijne Schilderyen als uyt het leven selver voorsegghen konden wanner dien afghemaelde persoone soude overlijden. Plin. XXXV.10. Dies heeft sich oock Philophomus vervoordert de reden by te brenghen, waerom goede Schilders de waere ghelijckenisse der naeghebootster dinghen niet wel en konnen missen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Apelles tends to make the portraits of one and the other so very resembling, that the ‘watchers of faces’, who one calls Metopocopos or Physiognomers, could predict from both his paintings and from life itself when the depicted person would die. Plin. XXXV.10. This also made Philophomus develop the reasoning, why good Painters could not very well miss the true resemblance of imitated things.

term translated by SIMILITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 161
term translated by SIMILITUDE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 265

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Ghelijck dan d’oude Konstenaers de ghelijckenisse niet t’eenemael en versuymden, soo plaghtense nochtans meer wercks van de Symmetrie te maecken; achtende dat de ghelijckenisse maer alleen uyt de Konst ontstaet, waer als de Symmetrie uyt een sekere volmaecktheyd, die de Konst verder te boven gaet, hervoord komt, siet Maximus Tyrius Dissertat. XVI. Want daer stelt hy ons een gantsch merckelick onderscheyd tussen dese twee hoofd-stucken voor ooghen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Just like the old Artists did never neglect the resemblance, as such they tend to make even more work of Symmetry; believing that the resemblance only springs forth from the Art, whereas the Symmetry comes forth from a certain kind of perfection, that far surpasses the Art, see Maximus Tyrius (…). Because there he shows us a rather significant difference between these two chief principles

The paraphrasing of the citation is somewhat different in the Latin edition. [MO]

term translated by SIMILITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 161
term translated by SIMILITUDE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 265

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Philostratus heeft den rechten aerd midsgaders oock de waere kracht van de Teycken-konst veele dudydelicker uytghedruckt. Het en maght niet gheloochent werden of de linien, seght hy {Lib. ii. de vita Apollonij. Cap. 10.}, die sonder eenighen verwen-prael maer allen in licht en schaduwe bestaen, verdienen den naem van een Schilderye; vermids wy in de selvighe niet alleen de ghelijckenisse van d’afgebeelde personagien beschouwen, maer oock haere bewegheninghen selver, ’t sy datse door een schroomherighe schaemte ergens afghekeert of door een vrymoedighe voordvaerendheyd ergens tot aenghedreven worden ende alhoewel dese linien op ’t aller eenvoudighste t’saemen ghestelt sijnde de vermenghinghe van ’t bloed als oock de jeughdigheyd van ’t hayr en den baerd in ’t minste niet uyt en drucken, nochtans ghevense ons de volmaeckte ghestaltenis van eenen swarten ofte witten mensche bescheydenlick te kennen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Philostratus has expressed the true nature as well as the true power of the Art of Drawing much clearer. It may not be denied that the lines, he says {…}, that exist without any splendor of colours but only in light and shadow, deserve the name of Painting; as we see not only the similitude of the depicted persons in it, but also their movements itself, whether that they are averted out of a hesitant shame or are driven towards something by a frank diligence and although these lines that are composed in the most simple way do not express the mixing of blood or the youthfulness of the hair and the beard in any way, nevertheless they modestly illustrate the perfect shape of a black or white man to us.

term translated by SIMILITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 163-164
term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 270

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Die ghene onder en tusschen dewelcke het teyckenen langh ghenoegh en met eenene vlijtighen ernst gheoeffent hebben, moghen ’t hier by niet laeten blijven en d’aenghevoanghene Konste ten halven niet laeten steken; aengesien de Teycken-konst (alhoewelse met goed recht voor een gantsch ghewightigh point en voor den eenighen ghebaenden wegh tot de Schilder-Konst en d’andere Bootser-konsten gheouden wordt) maer alleenlick een aenleydinghe tot yet grootsers schijnt te wesen. De verwen hebben een sonderlinghe kracht om onse ooghen tot sich te trecken, seght Plutarchus {In Pericle circa ipsum initium}, vermids ’t menschelicke ghesicht door de bloeyende lieffelickheyd der selvighen krachtighlick opgheweckt ende ghespijst wordt. Ghelijck het oversulcks uyt ons voorighe bewijs lichtelicken is af te nemen, dat een welgheproportioneerde Teyckeningh de waere ghelijckenisse der afgheteyckender dinghen ghenoeghsaemlick uyt-druckt; soo en magh men evenwel de schaduwe deser onvolmaeckter ghelijckenisse met de levendighe volmaecktheyd van een veelverwighe Schilderye in ’t minste niet verghelijcken.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Meanwhile those who have practiced drawing long enough and with a diligent seriousness, can leave it to this and not abandon the commenced Art halfway; since the Art of Drawing (although she is thought with good reason to be a very important point and the only common road towards the Art of Painting and the other Imitation-arts) appears to only be occasion for something bigger. The colours have a remarkable power to draw our eyes towards them, says Plutarchus {…}, as the human sight is strongly excited and fed by its blooming loveliness. Just like it is therefore easy to deduct from our previous evidence, that a well-proportioned Drawing delightfully expresses the true similitude of the drawn things; as such one may nevertheless not compare the shadow of this imperfect similitude in the least with the living perfection of a Painting with many colours.

Junius states that the (art of) drawing (tekenen, tekenkunst) is the basis for Painting (schilderkunst) and for the other arts that consist in imitation. However, he argues that an artist should never be satisfied by only producing drawings, as the colours (verf) add enormously to the impact of a painting. The liveliness of a painting with many different colours (veelverwigh schilderij) is much closer to perfection than a drawing. As such, the effect of colour is connected to the liveliness of a painting. In this citation, ‘verf’ should be translated as colour. In the Latin edition (1637), this term is described as 'diversissimorum colorum'. In the English edition, Junius refers to the collection of the earl of Arundel. This reference is missing in the Latin and Dutch edition. [MO]

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 164
term translated by RESEMBLANCE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 271

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Alhoewel een Beeld alle de waerachtighe linien der afghebeelder dingen uytdruckt; nochtans derft het de rechte kracht der dinghen selver, als wesende onbeweghelick en sonder eenigh roersel, seght Tertullianus Lib. II. adversus Marcionem. Het manghelt de kley-stekerye, seght Apuleius {In Apologia.}, aen de behaeghelicke lustigheyd die het leven dapper plaght te verwackeren; het schort de steenen aen de Coleur; het liegt de Schilderyen aen stijvigheyd; en alle dese verscheydene soorten van naeboetsinghe hebben ’t roersel ghebreck, ’t welck de levende ghelijckenisse der dinghen met een sonderlinghe ghetrouwigheyd plaght te vertoonen. Ghelijck het oversulcks altijd waerachtigh is dat d’afghebeelde dinghen ’t naturelicke roersel derven, soo plaghtense oock somtijds heel end’al van het naegheboetste roersel ontbloot te sijn; ghemerckt d’aller oudste en d’eerste Meesters in haere wercken een gantsch swaere, lompe, ende onbeweghelicke maniere volghden, sonder eenigh levendighe roersel in de selvighe uyt te storten.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Although an Image only expresses the true lines of the depicted things; it nevertheless lacks the true power of the things themselves, like being unmoving and with any stir, says Tertullianus (…). The clay-sculpting misses, says Apuleius, the comforting delight that life strongly tends to incite; the stones lack Colour; the Paintings lack stiffness; and all these different sorts of imitation miss the stirring, which the living similitudees of things tend to show with a remarkable faithfulness. Like it is moreover always true that the depicted things lack the natural movement, as such they sometimes also are completely devoid of the imitated movement; seen that the oldest and first Masters followed a rather heavy, akward and still manner, without putting any lively movement in it.

term translated by SIMILITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 178
term translated by SIMILITUDE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 290

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

’t Ghene yet anders ghelijckt, seght hy [NDR: Quintilianus] {Lib. x. Cap. 2.}, moet noodsaeckelick te kort schieten en meer bevalligheyd hebben dan die dinghen welckers ghelijckenis het schijnt te draegen. Want ghelijck de dinghen, die wy voor ons patroon aennemen, de nature selver ende een waere kracht in sich hebben; soo plaght allerley naevolghinge in ’t teghendeel maer alleen ghecontrefeyt te sijn en sich nae anderer dinghen gheleghenheyd te voeghen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] That which resembles something else, he says {…}, necessarily has to have shortcomings and have more gracefulness than the things whose similitude it appears to bear. Because like the things that we take as our example, have nature itself and the true power in them; as such all sorts of imitations, on the other hand, only tend to be portrayed and follow the situation of other things

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 217

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Even alsoo plaght het oock met de Copijen van d’allervolmaeckste Schilderijen toe te gaen; met sietse daghelicks van de nettigheyd haerer originelen afwijcken; Want ghelijck het swaer valt een waere ghelijckenisse nae het leven te treffen, seght den selvighen Plinius in een andere plaets {Lib. V. Epist.28.}, soo is het nabootseren van ’t naeghebootseerde noch veel moeyelicker.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] The fate of the copies of the most perfect Paintings tend to be similar; one sees them daily diverging from the neatness of their originals; Because as it is difficult to make a true similitude after life, says the same Plinius in another location {…}, as such the imitation of the imitated is even harder

Somewhat contradicting earlier statements in this chapter, Junius states that is more difficult to produce a good copy (kopie), as it is hard to imitate (nabootsen) the imitation. Copies necessary lack the neatness (netheid) of the originals (origineel) that are painted after natuur (naar het leven). [MO]

term translated by SIMILITUDO in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 218
term translated by SIMILITUDE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 349

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai