RULE (n.)

GESETZ (deu.) · GRUNDREGEL (deu.) · KUNSTREGEL (nld.) · KUNSTWET (nld.) · LEHRGESETZ (deu.) · LEHRSATZ (deu.) · REGEL (deu.) · REGEL (nld.) · RÈGLE (fra.) · REGOLA (ita.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
PRÉCEPTE (fra.) · REGEL (nld.) · RÈGLE (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
RÈGLE (fra.)
BÄTSCHMANN, Oskar, « Fréart de Chambray et les règles de l’art », Revue d’esthétique : La naissance de la théorie de l’art en France 1640-1720, 31/32, 1997, p. 61-69.
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « RÈGLE », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 420-426.
HECK, Michèle-Caroline, « Vingt-cinq règles pour les peintres  : théorie et pratique de la peinture dans la “Teutsche Academie” de Joachim von Sandrart », Revue de l’Art, 132, 2001 - 2002, p. 43–50.
OECHSLIN, Werner, « Au-delà de la théorie de l'art et de la philosophie : l'œil et le cœur », Revue d'esthétique, 31/32, 1997, p. 51-59.

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LINKED QUOTATIONS

8 sources
15 quotations

Quotation

Generall rules for shadowing.
You must alwayes cast your shadow one way, that is, on which side of the body you begin your shadow, you must continue it till your worke be done : as if I would draw a man, I begin to shadow his left cheeke, the left part of his necke, […] leaving the other to the light, except the light side be darkned by the opposition of another body, […].
2. All circular and round bodies that receive a concentration of the light, […] must be shadowed in circular manner as thus : [ndr: insertion d’un dessin explicatif dans le corps du texte].
3. All perfect lights doe receive no shadow at all, therefore hee did absurdly, that in the transfiguration of our Saviour in the Mount, gave not his garments a deepe shadow, but also thinking to shew great Art, hee gave the beames of the light it selfe a deeper, both which ought to have beene most glorious, and all meanes used for their lustre and brightnesse; which hath beene excellently well observed of
Stradane and Goltzius.
4. Where contrary shadowes concurre and strive […] let the neerest and most solide body be first served. […].
5. It will seeme a hard matter to shadow a gemme or well pointed Diamond, […] : but if you observe the rules of the light which I shall give you, you shall easily doe it without difficultie.
6. All shadowes participate in the
medium according to the greatnesse or weakenesse of the light.
7. No body betweene the light, and our sight can effect an absolute darkenesse, wherefore I said a shadow was but a diminution of the light, and it is a great question whether there be any darknesse in the world or not.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

Generall rules for Landtskip.

You shall alwayes in your Landtskip shew a faire Horizon, and expresse the heaven more or lesse either over-cast by clouds, or with a cleere skie, […].
2. If you shew the Sunne, let all the light of your trees, hilles, rockes, buildings, &c. be given thitherward : shadow also your clouds from the Sunne : and you must be very daintie in lessening your bodies by their distance, […].
If you lay your Landskip in colours, the farther you goe, the more you must lighten it with a thinne and ayerie blew, to make it seeme farre off, begining it first with a darke greene, so driving it by degrees into a blew, which the densitie of the ayre betweene our sight, and that place doth (onely imaginarily) effect.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

The Practice of Drawing or Designing.
{The practice of Drawing and Designing.} I Would prepare you with Rule and Compasse, and other Instruments, necessary for you to lye by you at hand ; but advise you to practise without them ; It is your eye must judge, without artificiall Measuring. And when you have past my first directions, and are perfect to draw by the Life, you may afterwards, in large Proportions and dimensions, use your Instruments, both for perfection, ease, and speed.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Quotation

CHAP. II. Of the Instrument of Drawing.
 
I. The
Instruments of Drawing are sevenfold, viz. Charcoals, feathers of a Ducks-wing, black and red Lead pensils, pens made of Ravens quils, Rulers, Compasses, and Pastils. [...] VI. The Rulers which are of Use, to draw straight or perpendicular lines, triangles, squares or polygons, the which you are to use in the beginning till practice and experience may render them needless.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Quotation

Of the Necessity and Definition of Proportion.


It was not without just Cause, that the antient
Græcians (at which time the Art of Painting had fully attained to his Perfection, by the Industry of Timantes, Eusenidas, Aristides, Eupompus, Sicyonias and Pamphilus, the famous Macedonian Painter, and Master of Apelles, who also was the first learned Painter directing his Workes by the Rules of Art, above any of his Predecessors, and well considering that whatsoever was made without measure and proportion, could never carry with it any such congruity as might represent either Beauty or Grace to the judicious beholder) were wont to say, that it was impossible to make any tolerable, much less any Commendable Picture, without the help of Geometry and Arithmetick, wherefore they required the Knowledge thereof, as a thing most necessary, which saying was also approved by Philip Macedo. And surely it is impossible (to omitt the meere Artizans) that he who is ignorant of these two Sciences, should understand the exact measure and proprotion of any probable or true Body, the necessity of which proportions shall be shewed hereafter.

Il ne semble pas qu'un peintre du nom de Sicyonias ait existé. Browne évoque peut-être plus globablement un ou des artistes originaires de la ville de Sicyon.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

Of the Head in Prophile or side-wayes.
The manner to make this
Head by just and safe rules is thus, First forme a perfect equall Triangle in what position you will, turning the Triangle to make the Face upon one of the three sides ; be it which it will,  either upwards or downwards, higer or lower {According to Odoardo Fialetti.} ; […].


Of the Foreright Face.
Being then desireous to draw the Foreright
Face, it will be necessary to Forme a perfect Ovall, […].


Of the Head in Foreshortning.
Hitherto I have treated of the
Head, both Foreright and in other Positions, but that you might know all that is needfull for the perfect understanding of this profession, it is necessary that I specifie the manner how to draw the Face by an easy, absolute and fair way ; Treating thus I propound to you Methodical means therein, because my intent is to Facilitate the matter in that manner, but without writing thereupon it may be intelligible, for a draught well made hath that power, that it makes it self understood without any discourse of the Author thereon, but I alwayes observe both the one and the other also ; I say that the foreshortning which is made onely with Fretts, Grates, Squares, or with Geometrical Instruments, breed onely a confusion of lines, which is not the best principal of expert Ingenuity, the reason whereof is, that it can hardly be measured by any Rule, unless the whole Body be framed together. Therefore I will shew an easy Rule, very like to that of the foreright Face, that is, to make a Circular draught with the aspect upwards, or downwards, as in the foreright Head, where the Traverse lines are straight, but these go Circularly, for if the Heads flye upwards the Traced strokes and the Divisions must be raised, with caution that the Eares and Eyes fall not out of their due points, as is signified in the first Place.


Of the side face without any Measure.
Being desireous to make the side
face without any Triangle or Measure, which with a little care and practice, observing the distances and Measures which will serve for Direction, because the Head and other parts of the Body ought to be proportional, and made from Measures ; it will easily follow, Framing or Traceing many, you may not only Facilitate it by the Eye and Judgement, but also accommodate the Hand, to Trace and draw, all things right, for it is true that the Eye will have its place. I having drawn certain stroaks or draughts from the life of nature, and reduced it with the Pencil into Colours, have found it come off punctually right, of a correspondent bigness to that, which I have imitated, and have not found any thing disproportioned, but have alwayes found it fall out right as I would have it, therefore I say that this Rule, and Measure which I have set down, in the Porphile or other opositions of the Head, is not any hindrance to the excellency of the Art, nor will weaken your worth, but will serve for a general Rule being once possest therewith, and also become prevalent when occasion shall require, to make a Head Ten times as big as the Life ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Quotation

{Proportion.} All which representations are after declared in that part of the Definition [ndr : la définition de la peinture p. 24], where it is said, that Painting, with proportionable lines maketh, &c. where we must Note that the Painter in his descriptions, doth not draw lines at randome, without Rule, Proportion, or Art, (as some vainly have imagined) since the Arrantest Bunglers that are, proceed with some little Method, and although Horace in his book de Arte Poetica saith : that


The Poet and the Painter, hath like Patent to invent,
A Story and dispose the same as shall him best content.


Yet that is thus to be understood, that it is lawfull for him to express a
Figure, […] ; this only excepted the Painter is bound to proceed in all his Works according to proportion and art. Wherefore before you begin to Stell, delineate or trick out the proportion of a Man, you ought to know his true Quantity and Stature for it were a gross absurdity to make a Man of the length of Eight Faces, which is of Nine or Ten, besides this, we ought to know what proportion the Fore-head hath with the Nose, […], and in a Word to learn the true proportions of all things natural and artificial.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

Some further Observations in drawing a Naked Figure, standing Foreright, by the Life.


In my Opinion, to understand how to make choice of a good
Naked, and to draw it well, is one of the most Difficult Studies in Painting, because it cannot be done well without the understanding of Anatomy. Being then desirous to draw a Naked Figure, you must strike a Line Perpendicular as long you would have the Figure to be, then you divide that Line into so many Divisions or Parts as you design the Proportion […]. And since Nature, that Cunning Work-Mistress, is so extremely Various in her Representations, the Painter is not bound to observe this Rule exactly when he draws to the life ; because all these Rules were intended for no other use then to create the Idea of such and such Proportions first in our Brain, and before they be designed in a true Symmetrical way upon Paper, and to prevent us from Designing our Figures in an Extravagant or Preposterous Proportion. […]. 
Observe (as you proceed downwards) to place all the Muscles in their right and proper places according to Nature, as you judiciously may observe in the Life, there being no certain Rules for placing and drawing the Muscles in their proper places Therefore ’tis extremely Advantageous to draw very much after the Life, and after good Prints of Anatomy, and those Statues aforementioned, and Anatomies of Plaster of Paris, which is the onely way to arrive at the perfection of Drawing a Naked Figure well ; without which never expect to be a good History Painter.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

Though Nature be the Rule, yet Art has the Priviledge of Perfecting it ; for you must know that there are few Objects made naturally so entirely Beautiful as they might be, no one Man or Woman possesses all the Advantages of Feature, Proportion and Colour due to each Sence. Therefore the Antients, when they had any Great Work to do, upon which they would Value themselves did use to take several of the Beautifullest Objects they designed to Paint, and out of each of them, Draw what was most Perfect to make up One exquisite Figure ; Thus Zeuxis being imployed by the Inhabitants of Crotona, a City of Calabria, to make for their Temple of Juno, a Female Figure, Naked ; He desired the Liberty of seeing their Hansomest Virgins, out of whom he chose Five, from whose several Excellencies he fram’d a most Perfect Figure, both in Features, Shape and Colouring, calling it Helena.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Friend,
            Wherein particularly lies the Art of
Colouring ?
            Traveller.
Beside the Mixture of Colours, such as may answer the Painter’s Aim, it lies in a certain Contention, as I may call it, between the Light and the Shades, which by the means of Colours, are brought to Unite with each other ; and so to give that Roundness to the Figures, which the Italians call Relievo, and for which we have no other Name : In this, if the Shadows are too strong, the Piece is harsh and hard, if too weak, and there be too much Light, ’tis flat. I, for my part, should like a Colouring rather something Brown, but clear, than a bright gay one : But particularly, I think, that those fine Coral Lips, and Cherry Cheeks, are to be Banished, as being far from Flesh and Blood. ’Tis true, the Skins, or Complexions must vary, according to the Age and Sex of the Person ; An Old Woman requiring another Colouring than a fresh Young one. But the Painters must particularly take Care, that there be nothing harsh to offend the Eye, as that neither the Contours, or Out-Lines, be too strongly Terminated, nor the Shadows too hard, nor such Colours placed by one another as do not agree. 
           
Friend,
Is there any Rule for that ?
           
Traveller,
Some Observations there are, as those Figures which are placed on the foremost Ground, or next the Eye, ought to have the greatest Strength, both in their Lights and Shadows, and Cloathed with a lively Drapery ; Observing, that as they lessen by distance, and are behind, to give both the Flesh and the Drapery more faint and obscure Colouring. And this is called an Union in Painting, which makes up an Harmony to the Eye, and causes the Whole to appear one, and not two or three Pictures
.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Quotation

Friend.
 
            What is properly the Colouring of a Piece of Painting ?
 
                        Traveller.
 
           
It is the Art of employing the Colours proper to the Subject, with a regard to the Lights and Shadows that are incident to the Story, either according to the Truth of it, or to the Painter’s Invention : and out of the Management of these comes all the Strength, Relievo, and Roundness that the Figures have : ’tis hard to give Positive Rules here, it depending much on Practice ; but the most General is, so to manage your Colours, Lights, and Shadows, that the Bodies enlightned may appear by the Opposition of your Shadows ; which by that means may make the Eye rest with Pleasure upon them ; and also, that there be an imperceptible passage from your Shadows to your Lights.
            ’Tis generally observed likewise to make the greatest Light fall upon the middle of the Piece, where the principal Figures ought to be, and to lessen it by degrees towards the sides till it loose it self.
In gentle Shadows, avoid strong Shadowings upon the Naked Members, least the black that is in them seems to be part of the Flesh. But above all, there is a thing called by the Italians, Il degra damento de Colori ; which in English may be termed, The diminishing of Colours : And it consists in making an Union and Concord between the Colours in the formost part of your Piece, and those that are behind, so that they be all of one tenour, and not broke ; and by this means every part corresponds with another in your Picture, and makes up one Harmony to the Eye.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

5. A Rule and a pair of Compasses with three Points to take in and out ; one for Chalk, another for Black-lead, or red Chalk, or any other Paste. The use of the Compasses is required in most things you draw, which you are to use after your out-stroke is done, by trying how near your Draught and Pattern agree, and this being only toucht out in Charcoal, you may alter at pleasure.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Quotation

Cap. XII, Rules of Proportion.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Quotation

Draught is a Physical Line, or Lineal Demonstration ; and hath always some Dimentions, if it be never so slender : and serves to represent Bodys according to their Forms, Aspects and Scituation ; Limiting and Determining the surface of an Object ; and Making out the Several Parts, which are contain’d therein. For no Superficies can Exist, without being Terminated by Lines, Streight, Circular or Mixt.
            The
Extent of Draught is Immense ; for it is not only concern’d in all the Visible Things in Nature, but in all Things which the Fancy or Imagination can form any Idea of, that can be compris’d under the Figure of Body : nay, so vast is its extent, that it adventures to Dive into the very Soul, and express its Thoughts ; for though Colour is accessary to Expression, yet nothing can be Terminated without Lines.
            They that would arrive to the Perfection in the
Practick, must dilligently observe these following Rules.
            First he must draw by the Hand,
Circles, Ovals, &c. Then the several Features of the Face by themselves, [...] then the several Members, [...]. Observing in the Hands and Feet, to draw the upper Lines first then the lower ; [...].
            When he attempts a whole Body, he must begin with a Body standing Frontwise, [...].
            For
Rustick and Country Figures, the Contours must be Gross, Equally Counterhatch’d and Notch’d, without regard to extraordinary Neatness and Roundness.
            But for Grave and serious Persons, they must be rounded, noble and Certain ; not so at adventure as the foremention’d.
            They must be strong, Resolute, Noble, Perfect and Chose for
Heroes.
            They must be Puissant and Austere, full of Greatness and Majesty, for
Deifyd Bodys.
            And for
young Women and Children, the Contours must be Smooth, Round and Delicate.
            They must Design the Nudity, Model, &c. exactly, without Charging or overburthening any of their Parts ; their being no way to obtain an entire exactness, but by proportioning every part with the first, comparing them exactly, so that we may be at liberty to Strengthen and go over again the Parts as we shall think fit, when we make use of this Design ; as it truly follows and represents the Models whither they be Antique or Natural.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

Rules may be establish’d so clearly derived from Reason as to be Incontestable. If the Design of the Picture be (as in General it is) to Please, and Improve the Mind (as in Poetry) the Story must have all possible Advantages given to it, and the Actors must have the Utmost Grace, and Dignity their several Characters will admit of : If Historical, and Natural Truth only be intended That must be follow’d ; tho’ the Best Choice of These must be made ; In Both Cases Unity of Time, Place, and Action ought to be observ’d : The Composition must be such as to make the Thoughts appear at first Sight, and the Principal of them the most conspicuously ; And the Whole must be so contrived as to be a Grateful Object to the Eye, both as to the Colours, and the Masses of Light, and Shadow. These things are so evident as not to admit of any Dispute, or Contradiction ; As it also is that the Expression must be Strong, the Drawing Just, the Colouring Clean, and Beautiful, the Handling Easy, and Light, and all These Proper to the Subject. Nor will it be difficult to know Assuredly what is so, unless with relation to the Justness of the Drawing ; but to know in the Main whether any thing is Lame, Distorded, Mis-shapen, ill Proportioned, or Flat, or on the contrary Round, and Beautiful is what any Eye that is tolerably Curious can judge of.
The Rules being Fix’d, and Certain ; Whether a Picture, or Drawing has the Properties required is easily seen, and when they are discover’d a Man is as certain he sees what he thinks he sees as in any other Case where his own Senses convey the Evidence to his Understanding.

term translated by RÈGLE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 185-187.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
SPECTATEUR → jugement