SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.1 quotations
CHAP. III. Of the precepts of Drawing in General.
I. Be sure to have all the necessaries aforesaid in readiness, but it will be good to practise as much as may be without the help of your Rule and Compasses ; it is your eye and fansie must judge without artificial measurings.
II. Then first begin with plain Geometrical figures, [...]. For these are the foundations of all other proportions.
IV. Having made your hand fit and ready in General proportions, then learn to give every object its due shade according to its convexity or concavity, and to elevate or depress the same, as the object appears either nearer or farther off the light, the which is indeed the life of the work.
V. The second practice of drawing consists in forming fruits, as Apples, Peares, Cherries, [...] with their leaves : the imitation of flowers, as Roses, Tulips, Carnations, &c. Herbs, as Rosemary, Time, Hysop, &c. Trees, as the Oak, Fir, Ash, Wallnut, &c.
VI. The third practice of drawing imitates, 1. Beats, as the Lamb, Elephant, [...]. 2. Fowls, as the Eagle, Swan, [...]. 3. Fishes, as the Whale, Herring, [...] of which variety of Prints may be bought at reasonables rates.
VII. The fourth praxis imitates the body of man with all its Lineaments, the Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Cheeks, Hands, Arms, and shaddows all exactly proportional both to the whole and one to another, as well to situation as magnitude.
VIII. The fifth praxis is in Drapery, imitating Cloathing, and Artificially setting off the outward Coverings, Habit & Ornaments of the Body, as Cloath, Stuff, Silk and Linnen, their natural and proper folds ; which although it may seem something hard to do, yet by much exercise and imitation of the choisest Prints will become facile and easie.
IX. In drawing of all the aforegoing forms, or what ever else, you must be perfect, first in the exact proportions : secondly in the general or outward lines before you fall to shadowing or trimming of your work within.
X. In mixed and uncertain forms, where Circle and Square will do no good (but onely the Idea thereof in your own fansie) as in Lions, Horses, and the like ; you must work by reason in your own judgment, and so obtain the true proportion by daily practice. Thus,
Having the shape of the thing in your mind, first draw it rudely with your coal, then more exactly with your lead or pensil ; then peruse it well, and consider where you have erred, and mend it, according to that Idea, which you carry in your mind ; this done, view it again, correcting by degrees the other parts, even to the least Jota, so far as your judgement will inform you ; and this you may do with twenty, thirty, fourty or more papers of several things at once : having done what you can, confer it with some excellent pattern or print of like kind, using no rule or compass at all, but your own reason, in mending every fault, giving every thing its due place, and just proportion ; by this means you may rectifie all your errours, and step and Incredible way on to perfection.