SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.5 quotations
CHAP. II. Of the Instrument of Drawing.
I. The Instruments of Drawing are sevenfold, viz. Charcoals, feathers of a Ducks-wing, black and red Lead pensils, pens made of Ravens quils, Rulers, Compasses, and Pastils.
Of Engraving, Etching and Limning.
Shewing the Instruments belonging to the work ; the matter of the work, and the way and manner of performing the same ; together with all other requisites and ornaments.
CHAP. I. Of Graving, and the Instruments thereof.
I. GRAVING is an Art which teacheth how to transfer any design upon Copper, Brass, or Wood, by help of sharp pointed and cutting Instruments.
II. The chief Instruments are four, 1. Gravers, 2. An Oyl stone, 3. A Cushion, 4. A burnisher.
CHAP. XV. Of Limning and the Materials thereof.
I. Limning is an Art whereby in water Colours, we strive to resemble Nature in every thing to the life.
II. The Instruments and Materials thereof are chiefly these. 1. Gums. 2. Colours. 3. Liquid Gold and Silver. 4. The Grindstone and Muller. 5. Pencils. 6. Tables to Limn in. 7. Little glass or China dishes.
III. The Gums are chiefly these four, Gum Arabick, Gum Lake, Gum Hedera, Gum Armoniack.
IV. The principal Colours are these seven, White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, Blew, Brown : out of which are made mixt or compound Colours.
V. The Liquid Gold and Silver is eithe natural or artificial.
The natural is that which is produced of the Metals themselves : the Artificial is that which is formed of other colours.
VI. The Grinding stone, Muller, Pencils, Tables, and Shells or little China dishes are only the necessary instruments and attendants, which belong to the practice of Limning.
CHAP. XXIII. Of the Manual Instruments.
II. The grinding stone may be of Porphury, Serpentine, or Marble, [...].
III. Choose your pensils thus [...].
V. To prepare the Table. [...].
II. The Instruments and Materials of washing are chiefly six, to wit, 1. Alom-water, 2. Size, 3. Liquid Gold, 4. Pensils, 5. Colours, 6. Vernish.
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.1 quotations
The use and property of every particular Instruments.
The Copper Plate is the only matter to Etch upon ; […] ; your Needles are to hatch withall upon the ground, the pencil is to wipe away the bits of ground, […], the Polisher is to make smooth any place that is rough, […] ; the Gravers are to mend here and there a stroak where need requires. […].
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.3 quotations
Chap. III, Of necessary Instruments appertaining to Drawing.
1. Sallow coals split into the forms of Pencils, which you may best have of those that sell Charcoal ready burnt for your use ; these are to be prepared by sharpning them at the point ; their use is to touch over your Draught lightly at the first : you may know Sallow coals from others by the fineness of their grain.
2. You must also have a Feather of a Ducks wing, with which you may wipe out at pleasure what you desire to alter in your Draught.
3. Black-lead Pencils, to go over your Draught more exactly the second time.
4. Pens made of a Ravens quill, to finish your design ; which will strike a more neat stroke than the common quill : but you must be very exact here, for there is no altering what you do with the Pen.
5. A Rule and a pair of Compasses with three Points to take in and out ; one for Chalk, another for Black-lead, or red Chalk, or any other Paste. The use of the Compasses is required in most things you draw, which you are to use after your out-stroke is done, by trying how near your Draught and Pattern agree, and this being only toucht out in Charcoal, you may alter at pleasure.
6. Pastils made of several Colours, to draw upon coloured Paper or Parchment, the making whereof is as followeth.
How to make Pastils of several colours.
Take the Colour that you intend to make your Pastil, and grind it dry, […].
These Pastils are very fine and commodious for drawing upon coloured papers, and therefore I would have you,
7. Provide your self also of fine Blew paper ; some light-coloured, other-some more sad ; as also with Paper of divers other colours, which now is very common to be sold in many places.
8. Have alwayes in a readiness by you the Crumbs of fine Manchet or White-bread ; the use whereof is, when you have drawn any thing with Black-lead that disliketh you, you may strew some of these Crumbs upon the defective member, and with a linnen cloth rub it hard upon the defective place, and it will fetch out the Black-lead, and leave the Paper or Parchment fair and white. It is also usefull when you have finished a piece, either Head, Leg, Arme, or whole Bodie with Black-lead, and would trace it over with Ink to finish it, the Black-lead will be seen in many places, being thicker then the line of your Pen ; wherefore when you have finished your Drawing with Ink, and that dry, rub it over with these Crumbs, and it will not only take off the superfluous Black-lead, but all other spots of your Paper.
Chap. II, Of GRAVING
Sect. I. Of necessary Instruments belonging to Graving.
He that will undertake the Art of Graving, must know how to Draw, and hatch with a Pen ; which, I doubt not, but he that hath observed the former Rules can do.
1. Of your Oyl-stone.
The first thing you are to do, is to provide a good Oyl-stone, which you may have of those that sell several Tools for the Goldsmiths ; which, let be very smooth, not too hard nor too soft, and be sure it be without pin-holes. Now to fit your self aright, you are to resolve what kind of Graving you will follow ; if you follow Picture or Letter-work, that is a work more curious than the Goldsmiths : Arms and Letters are upon Silver or Pewter, and accordingly your Gravers must be shap’d.
2. Of Gravers
Goldsmiths Gravers are crooked, that they may more readily come at hollow work ; but for Copper-pictures or Letters, the best Gravers are the straight, which chuse thus ; Take a File and touch the edge of the Graver therewith, if the File cut it, it is too soft, and will never do you good ; but if the File will not touch it by reason of the hardness, it will serve your occasion, although such a Graver be apt at first to break short off, after a little use by whetting it will come to a good temper, and condition, as by experience I have found ; though some ignorant of what they have writ, would puzzle you about altering the temper.
Of Limning in Water-Colours, The Third Book, Chap. III, How to prepare a Table for a Picture in small for Limning, to make choice of your Light, the manner of Sitting in respect of Position and Distances, and what necessary Instruments are to lie by you when you are at work, p. 78-81
Chap. III, How to prepare a Table for a Picture in small for Limning, to make choice of your Light, the manner of Sitting in respect of Position and Distance, and what necessary Instruments are to lie by you when you are at work. [...] SECT. IV. Of such necessaries as are to lie by you while you are at work.
1. You must have two small Sawcers or other China-dishes, in either of which there must be pure clean Water ; the one of them is to wash your Pencils in, being foul ; the other to temper your Colours with when there is occasion.
2. A large, but clean, fine and dry Pencil, to cleanse your work from any kind of dust that may by accident fall upon it : such Pencils they call Fitch-Pencils.
3. A sharp Pen knife to take off hairs that may come from your Pencil, […].
4. A Paper, having a hole cut therein, to lay upon your Card to cover it from dust, and to rest your hand upon, to keep the foil and sweat of your hand from sullying your Parchment, and also to try your Pencils on before you apply them to your Work […].
5. Have a pretty quantity of Carnation (as some call it) or Flesh-colour, somewhat lighter than the Complexion of the party your are to draw, tempered up in a shell by it self with a weak Gum-water. If it be a Fair complexion, White-lead and Red-lead mixed. If a Swarthie or Brown complexion, to your White and Red-lead add a quantity of Masticote, or English-Oker, or both if occasion be. But whatever the Complexion be, be sure you temper your Flesh-colour lighter than the party ; for by often working upon it you may bring it to its true colour, it being first too light ; but if it be first too sad, there then is no remedy.
6. Having prepared your Flesh-colour, take a large Shell of Mother of Pearl, or a Horse-Mussel-Shell, […], and therein (as Painters in Oyl dispose their Colours upon their Pallat for their working of a Face, so must you) place your several Shadows in this Shell in little places one distinct from another.
SMITH, Marshall, The Art of Painting According to the Theory and Practise of the Best Italian, French, and Germane Masters. Treating of The Antiquity of Painting. The Reputation it allways had. The Characters of severall Masters. Proportion. Action and Passion. The Effects of Light. Perspective. Draught. Colouring. Ordonnance. Far more Compleat and Compendious then hath yet been publisht by any, Ancient or Modern. By M. S. Gent., London, The Vendüe, 1692.1 quotations
Chap XXVII, The Instruments and Materials us’d in Painting and the preparing Colours to the Pallat.
Your Pencels must be Swans Quils, Goose Quills, [...].
For you Pallat, you should give order to the Colour shops, [...].
Your Mostick is best of a Bamboo, or some other stick that is light and yielding to the Hand, [...].
Your Cloath must be of an even thread : [...].
Your Easel must be of a convenient Sise according to your work ; [...].