BATE, John, The Mysteryes of Nature and Art : Conteined in foure severall Tretises, The first of water workes The second of Fyer workes. The third of Drawing, Colouring, Painting, and Engraving. The fourth of divers Experiments as wel serviceable as delightful: partly Collected, and partly of the Authors Peculiar Pratice, and Invention, London, Ralph Mab - Thomas Harper, 1634.1 quotations
There are two principall sorts of Gravers, the long and the short : the long are straight, and for to engrave Plates withall, especially the greater, and these are to be held as the figure following doth expresse [ndr : voir le dessin introduit au milieu de ce paragraphe] where you may note that the pummell of the Graver resteth against the ball of the thumb, and the point is guided with the forefinger. And there ought to bee a little bagge of sand under your Plate, to the end that you might turne your plate upon it as your worke doth require.
The second sort is a short Graver, and turneth up somewhat at the end, and that is to engrave Letters and Scutchions in plate seales, and smaller plates, being fastened in some convenient instrument : this must be held likewise according unto the expression of the figure following [ndr : voir le dessin introduit au milieu de ce paragraphe] : where it is to be noted, that the pummell of the Graver is stayed against the further part of the hand, and is guided by the inward side of the thumbe. It were needfull that there were a piece of leather like a Taylors thimble, about the end of the thumbe, waxed or glued, whereby to guide the Graver more steadily, and stay it upon occasion.
EVELYN, John, Sculptura: Or, The History, And Art of Chalcography And Engraving in Copper. With an ample enumeration of the most renowned Masters, and their Works. To which is annexed A new manner of Engraving, or Mezzo Tinto, communicated by his Highness Prince Rupert, to the Authour of this Treatise, London, G. Beedle, 1662.2 quotations
The principal end of a Graver that would coppy a Design, or a piece compos’d of one, or more Objects, is, to render it correct both in relation to the Draught, Contours and other particularities, as to the Lights and shades on the Front, flying or turning, in bold, or faint touches ; so as may best express the Reliefe ; in which Gravers have hitherto, for the most part, rather imitated one another, then improved, or refined upon Nature ; some with more, some withe fewer stroaks : having never yet found out a certain and uniforme guide to follow in this work ; so as to carry their stroaks with assurance, as knowing where they are to determine, without manifestly offending the due rules of perspective.
And this it is, which has rendred it so difficult to coppy after Designes and Painting ; and to give the true heightnings, where there are no hatchings to express them ; unless he, that Copies, Design perfectly himself, and possess more then the ordinary talent and judgement of Gravers, or can himself manage the Pencil. But to return to Prints again, we are to understand, that what the Artists do many times call excellent, does not alwayes signifie to the advantage of the Graver ; but more frequently, the Design, consisting in the lineaments, proportion and ordonnance, if these be well, and masterly perform’d, and for which we have so recommended the practise of this Art to our English Painters in chap. IV. Though, to speak of an accomplish’d piece indeed, it is the result of integrall causes only, and where they universally encounter.
SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.2 quotations
CHAP. I. Of Graving, and the Instruments thereof.
I. GRAVING is an Art which teacheth how to transfer any design upon Copper, Brass, or Wood, by help of sharp pointed and cutting Instruments.
II. The chief Instruments are four, 1. Gravers, 2. An Oyl stone, 3. A Cushion, 4. A burnisher.
III. Gravers are of three sorts, round pointed, square pointed, and Lozeng pointed. The round is best to scratch with all : the square graver is to make the largest strokes : the Lozeng is to make strokes more fine and delicate : But a graver of a middle size betwixt the square and Lozeng pointed, will make the strokes or hatches show with more life and vigour, according as you manage it in working.
CHAP. III. Of Holding the Graver.
I. It will be necessary to cut off that part of the knob of the handle of the graver which is upon the same line with the edge of the graver ; thereby making (that lower side next to the plate) flat, that it may be no hinderance in graving.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.1 quotations
Chap. II, Of GRAVING
Sect. I. Of necessary Instruments belonging to Graving.
He that will undertake the Art of Graving, must know how to Draw, and hatch with a Pen ; which, I doubt not, but he that hath observed the former Rules can do.
1. Of your Oyl-stone.
The first thing you are to do, is to provide a good Oyl-stone, which you may have of those that sell several Tools for the Goldsmiths ; which, let be very smooth, not too hard nor too soft, and be sure it be without pin-holes. Now to fit your self aright, you are to resolve what kind of Graving you will follow ; if you follow Picture or Letter-work, that is a work more curious than the Goldsmiths : Arms and Letters are upon Silver or Pewter, and accordingly your Gravers must be shap’d.
2. Of Gravers
Goldsmiths Gravers are crooked, that they may more readily come at hollow work ; but for Copper-pictures or Letters, the best Gravers are the straight, which chuse thus ; Take a File and touch the edge of the Graver therewith, if the File cut it, it is too soft, and will never do you good ; but if the File will not touch it by reason of the hardness, it will serve your occasion, although such a Graver be apt at first to break short off, after a little use by whetting it will come to a good temper, and condition, as by experience I have found ; though some ignorant of what they have writ, would puzzle you about altering the temper.