TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATIONLEERMEESTER (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONSMAÎTRE (fra.)
AGLIONBY, William, Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art. Together with The Lives of the Most Eminent Painters From Cimabue, to the time of Raphael and Michael Angelo. With an Explanation of the Difficult Terms, London, John Gain, 1685.1 quotations
There remained in Græce some little footsteps of the Art [ndr : au Moyen Âge] ; and from thence it was, that about the Year 1250, there came some Painters, who could hardly be called Masters, having scarce any more knowledge of the Art than just to draw the Out-lines without either Grace or Proportion ; the first Schollar they made in Italy, was at Florence, and was called Cimabue ; who being helped by Nature, soon outdid his Masters, and began to give some strength to his Drawings, but still without any great Skill, as not understanding how to manage his Lights and Shadows, or indeed, how to Design truely ; it being it those days an unusual and unattempted thing to Draw after the Life.
SMITH, Marshall, The Art of Painting According to the Theory and Practise of the Best Italian, French, and Germane Masters. Treating of The Antiquity of Painting. The Reputation it allways had. The Characters of severall Masters. Proportion. Action and Passion. The Effects of Light. Perspective. Draught. Colouring. Ordonnance. Far more Compleat and Compendious then hath yet been publisht by any, Ancient or Modern. By M. S. Gent., London, The Vendüe, 1692.1 quotations
Painting is an Art, which by Draught of Lines and Colours, doth not only Express the Forms of all things, on the superficies of the Earth (according to Socrates) [...] with the Actions of all Animals, but likewise the Passions of Intellectual Beings. [...] It is the most Ingenuous Art, and greatly assisting to Natural Philosophy ; since with the greatest Scrutiny it examines into the very Entity of Nature.
It Argues in the Masters the Finest and Sublimest Invention, to Express many Times, the most Heroick Actions in the World, with greater Magnanimity and Beauty then the Celebrated Actors were possessed with.
And those great Men whose Works have been held in such Admiration, both by the greatest Judgments as well as the Noblest Quality ; it shews in them Souls Capacitated and Adapted for such high Actions as themselves have Express so to the Life : for there must be a Concretion of Idea’s into a Form in the Minde before Action is produc’d : of Mindes to Replete their works are sufficient Evidence.
RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Two Discourses. I. An Essay on the whole Art of Criticism as it relates to Painting. Shewing how to judge I. Of the Goodness of a Picture ; II. Of the Hand of the Master ; and III. Whether ‘tis an Original, or a Copy. II. An Argument in behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur ; Wherein is shewn the Dignity, Certainty, Pleasure, and Advantage of it. Both by Mr. Richardson, London, W. Churchill, 1719.3 quotations
There are certain Arguments, which a Connoisseur is utterly to reject, as not being such by which he is to form his Judgement, of what Use soever they may be to those who are incapable of judging otherwise, or who will not take the Pains to know better. [...] One of the commonest, and most deluding Arguments, that is used on this Occasion is, that ‘tis of the Hand of such a One. Tho’ this has no great Weight in it, even admitting it to be Really of that Hand, which very often ‘tis not : The best Masters have had their Beginnings, and Decays, and great Inequalities throughout their whole Lives, as shall be more fully noted hereafter. That ‘tis done by one who has had great Helps, and Opportunities of improving himself ; Or One that Says, he is a great Master, is what People are very ready to be cheated by, and not one Jot the less, for having found that they have been so cheated again, and again before, nay, tho’ they justly laugh at, and despise the Man at the same Time.
There are such Peculiarities in the turn of Thought, and Hand to be seen in Some of the Masters (in Some of their Works especially) that ‘tis the easiest thing in the World to know them at first Sight ; such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarotti, Guilio Romano, Battista Franco, Parmeggiano, Paolo Farinati, Cangiagio, Rubens, Castiglione, and some others ; And in the Divine Raffaelle one often sees such a Transcendent Excellence that cannot be found in any other Man, and assures us this must be the Hand of him who was what Shakespear calls Julius Cæsar. The foremost Man of all the World.
There are several others, who by imitating other Masters, or being of the same School, or from whatsoever other Cause have had such a Resemblance in their Manners as not to be so easily distinguish’d, Timoteo d’Urbino, & Pellegrino da Modena, imitated Raffaelle ; Cæsare da Sesto, Leonardo da Vinci ; Schidone, Lanfranco, and others imitated Corregio ; Titian’s first Manner was a close imitation of that of Giorgione ;
DA VINCI, Leonardo
GIORGIONE (Giorgio da Castelfranco)
IL CORREGGIO (Antonio Allegri)
IL PARMIGIANINO (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola)
MICHELANGELO (Michelangelo Buonarroti)
RAFFAELLO (Raffaello Sanzio)
RUBENS, Peter Paul
After all it must be acknowledg’d that as in Other Sciences there are certain Branches of them wherein One Man excels, and Another in Others, but knows little of the rest ; So in Connoissance, No One Man can be acquainted with the Hands of All, even of the most considerable Masters ; nor with all the Manners perhaps of any One of those who have had great Variety of them ; Nor to be very Expert in more than a few of These : He must be contented with a Moderate Skill in many, and to be Utterly Ignorant in Some of them : Such is the Narrowness of our Faculties, the Extent of the Science, or the want of Helps, and Materials for the Study.
However let it be remember’d too That Every Connoisseur may judge concerning the Goodness of a Picture, or Drawing as to all the Parts of it except the Invention, and Expression in History, and the Resemblance in Portraits ; and these no One Man can judge Accurately of in All Cases, because no One Man can be acquainted with all the Stories, or Fables, or other Subjects of the Picture ; as no One Man can know Every Body.
So by conversing with the Works of the best Masters in Painting, one forms better Images whilst we are Reading, or Thinking. I see the Divine Airs of Rafaëlle when I read any History of our Saviour, or the Blessed Virgin ; and the Awful ones he gives an Apostle when I read of their Actions, and conceive of those Actions that He, and Other great Men describe in a Nobler manner than otherwise I should ever have done.