LIMNING

LIMNING (n.)

DÉTREMPE (fra.) · TEMPERA (ita.) · WASSERFARBEN (deu.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
VERLICHTERIE-KUNST (nld.)

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15 quotations

Quotation

Of Limning in Water-Colours
The True Order and Names of Colours, the means to prepare them for the Pensill and to clense them from their corrupt mixtures, wherewith they are Sophisticate.
We name them
Seaven (though in truth the first and last White and Black are no Colours ; but Elements.)
Whites,
Ceruse ;
White-Lead.

Reds,
India-Lake.
Read-Lead, or Mene.

Yellows,
Masticoate.
Oker of England.

Greens,
Sap-green.
Pinck.
Bise-green.
Cedar-green
.

Blews,
Indico.
Ultramanue.
Bise-blew.
Smalt


Browns,
Umber,
Spanish-brown
Terra lemnia or
Cullins earth

 
Blacks,                                   Ivory burnt.
Cherry-stones burnt.             Lamp-blacke.
 
{Colours not usefull.} In this account or number of Colours, I name not
Vermilion ; Verdigreece ; Veraiters blew and green ; and severall other Colours, frequent with Painter-stainers, but in our work unnecessary, useless, & dangerous ; both for their Minerall qualyties, coorse and gross bodies, not to be mixt with our Colours, of a more fine subtile, and transparent Quality.
We do not admit of divers others ; as
Saffrons, Litmus, Russet, Brasill, Log-woods ; nor of Colours, extracted from Flowers, juice of Herbs or Roots ; more proper, for washing, or Colouring, Prints, Cards, Maps.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

The Generall manner of working in Limning
{Manner of Limning.} It is an
Art so curious and difficult to describe by my Pen, that many Practitioners with much Industry and the help of Demonstration, have not easily proved Proficients, […].
{To the Life. First Sitting.} The order you are to follow to the
Life, is to observe somewhat, the manner of Oyl-Painters. The first sitting, to dead-Colour the face only ; (not troubling your self at all with the Comparus of Hairs ; Apparells, &c.) Which commonly takes up the time of two houres ; or if very exact, three or foure houres.
{Second.} The next
sitting requires four or five hours : for in that time you are to goe over the face very curiously, observing whatsoever may conduce either to the Likeness which is the Principall ; or to the judicious Colouring and observation of the severall graces, beauties or deformities as they appear in Nature ; or else in close, sharp, neat workmanship, and sweetnesse of the Shadows, and smooth touching of the Colours.
{Third.} The
third sitting, is commonly the work of two or three hours, and is spent in cloathing what was before left imperfect and rough ; but principally in giving to every deep shadows, their strong and deepning touches, as well in dark shadows of the Eye and Face, Eye-brows, Haire, Eares, &c.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Observations in Limning.
{Observations in Limning.} When you begin to work, temper the
Colours in a shell with your finger, dipt in water, a little before you begin ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

Chap. XIII, Of Drawing, Limning, and Painting: with the lives of the famous Italian Painters.
Since
Aristotle numbreth Graphicè, generally taken, for whatsoever is done with the Pen or Pencill (as writing fair, Drawing, Limning and Painting (amongst those his παιδενματα, or generous Practises of youth in a well governed Common-wealth : I am bound also to give it you in charge for your exercise at leasure, it being a quality most commendable, and so many waies usefull to a Gentleman. For should you (if necessity required) be employed for your Countries service in following the warre, you can describe no plot, manner of fortification, form of Battalia, situation of Town, Castle, Fort, Haven, Island, course of River, passage thorow Wood, Marish ; over Rock, Mountain, &c. […] without the help of the same. {The manifold use of Painting or Limning.} In all Mathematicall Demonstrations, nothing is more required in our travail in forrain Regions. It bringeth home with us from the farthest part of the world in our bosomes, whatsoever is rare and worthy the observance, as the generall Mappe of the Country, the Rivers, Harbourgs, Havens, Promontories, &c within the Landscap, of fair Hils, fruitfull Valleyes : the forms and colours of all Fruits, severall beauties of their Flowers ; […]. And since it is only the imitation of the surface of Nature, by it as in a book of golden and rare-limmed Letters, the chief use end of it, we read a continuall Lecture of the Wisdome of the Almighty Creator […].

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Quotation

CHAP. XV. Of  Limning and the Materials thereof.
I. Limning is an Art whereby in water Colours, we strive to resemble Nature in every thing to the life.

II. The Instruments and Materials thereof are chiefly these. 1.
Gums. 2. Colours. 3. Liquid Gold and Silver. 4. The Grindstone and Muller. 5. Pencils. 6. Tables to Limn in. 7. Little glass or China dishes.
III. The
Gums are chiefly these four, Gum Arabick, Gum Lake, Gum Hedera, Gum Armoniack.
IV. The principal
Colours are these seven, White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, Blew, Brown : out of which are made mixt or compound Colours.
V. The
Liquid Gold and Silver is eithe natural or artificial.
The natural is that which is produced of the Metals themselves : the Artificial is that which is formed of other colours.
VI. The
Grinding stone, Muller, Pencils, Tables, and Shells or little China dishes are only the necessary instruments and attendants, which belong to the practice of Limning.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

CHAP. XXIV. Of Preparations for Limning.
[...]
V. Have ready a quantity of light carnation or flesh colour temperd up in a shell by it self with a weak gum water ; If it be a fair complexion mix white and red Lead together ; if a brown or swarthy, add to the former, Masticot, or English Oker, or both : but be sure the flesh colour be always lighter than the complexion you would limne ; for by working on it you may bring it to its true colour.

[...]
VII. In all shadowings have ready some white, and lay a good quantity of it by it self, besides what the shadows are first mixed with ; for red for the cheeks and lips, temper Lake and red Lead together : for blew shadows (as under the eyes and in veins) Indico or Ultramarine and white : for gray faint shadows, white, English Oker, sometimes Masticote : for deep shadows, white, English oker, Umber : for dark shadows, Lake and Pink, white make a good fleshy shadow.

VIII. To make choice of the light.
Let it be fair and large, and free from shadows of trees or houses, but all clear skie light, and let it be direct from above, and not transverse ; let it be northerly and southerly ; and let the room be close and clean, and free from the Sun-beams.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

The Colours to be used in Limning are termed thus,


Whites (Flake white / Serus)
Red (Carmine, / Indian Lake, / Red Lead, / Indian Red, / Burnt Ocur, &c.)
Yellow (Masticot, / Yellow ocur, / Eng. ocur, / Pinck.)
Greens (Sap Green, / Pinck and Bice, / Green Bice, / Terra Vert.)
Blews (Ultra Marine, / Dutch Bice, / Smalt, / Indigo.)
Browns (Gall Stone, / Mumme, / Cullins Earth, / Umber, / Rust.)
Blacks (Ivory black, / Sea-cole, / Lamp black, / Cherry Stone.)

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

As for Vermillion, Verdigrease, Orpiment, &c. they are too course and gritty to use in water colours ; Turnsoile, Litmus blew, Rosset, Brasil, Logwood, Saffron, are more fit for washing prints then curious Limning.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

The Ground colour for a Face.


[…], you are to lay a
ground or primer of flesh colour before you begin your work, and that must be tempered according to the complexion of the Face to be drawn, if the complexion be fair, temper white, red lead, and lake, if an hard swarthy complexion, mingle with your white and red a little fine Masticot, or English Ocur, but Note that your ground ought alwayes to be fairer then the Face you take ; for it is a facile matter to darken a light colour, but a difficult to lighten a deep one ; for in Limning you must never heighten, but work them down to their just colour
[…].


The Order of Shadowes for the Face.
{
Shadows} In all your Shadowes, remember to mix some white, (exempli gratia) for the red in the Cheeks, Lips, &c. temper Lake, red Lead ; […] Note that black must not by any means be used in a Face, for other shadowes your own observation must direct you, for it is impossible to give a general Rule for the shadowes in all Faces, unless we could force nature to observe the same method in composing and modelling them, so that one in every punctilio should resemble the other. 

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

Of Drapery, or drawing Apparel.


As for
Apparel and Clothing of Personages, you ought to be extreme careful not onely in the Habiting every thing properly belonging to the Degrees and Functions of the Persons represented, but also in giving them their right and proper Colours. As for Example, the Blessed Virgin is universally and by commont consent represented in Purple and Azure ; […]. As for the manner of Drawing of Drapery, I find but two ways in Miniture.

The first way or manner of Working the Drapery.


The first way is that which the
Italian and French do use, working it with the point of a Pencil, and Hatching it ; and other places stipled all over alike, yet so as when it is finished, you may perceive the Parchment appear in several places quite through the Work, which in my Opinion is too slight a way. That manner I do approve of better, for Washing or Drawing any Design with Indian Ink, and indeed ought not to be called Limning but Washing.


The second way or manner of Working a Drapery.


The second way is that which I shall recommend to you as the best and most proper way. First, lay a good full flat Ground all over where you design your
Drapery, of what Colour you would have it. This Groud-colour being laid, you will find it much the easier to work on, upon which you both heighten and deepen, according as your Genius or as the Life shall direct you. […] ; and this was Isaac Olivar’s Way.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

The practise of Limning is a quality commendable in any person, and a practice meet for the Noblest personage of what quality soever ;

Conceptual field(s)

Quotation

Chap. I. Of necessaries belonging to Limning.
To the Limning in Water-colours there belong several things, as
Gumms of several sotrs, and Waters made of them, a Grinding-stone and Muller, several Colours, Liquid Gold and Silver, several Sizes to lay Gold, Parchment of the finest, as of Abortive Skins ; Pencils of divers sorts ; of the making and preparing all these in their order, and then to their use.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils

Quotation

SECT III. Of Colours.
There are simply six,
viz. White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, and Blew ; to which we may add Browns, but they are compounded. […].

Chap. II,
Of Colours used in Limning : their names, and how to order them.
SECT. I.
Of the Names of Colours, and how every Colour is to be prepared ; whether Ground, Wash’d, or Steep’d.

BLACKS. /
Cherry-stones burnt. / Ivory burnt. / Lamp black.

WHITES. /
Ceruse. / White-Lead.

REDS. /
Red-Lead. / Lake.

GREENS. /
Bise. / Pink. / Sapgreen. / Cedar-green.

BLEWS. /
Indico. / Ultramarine. / Bise. / Smalt.

YELLOWS. / English
Oker. / Masticote.

BROWNS. /
Umber. / Spanish Brown. / Colen’s Earth.

These are the principal Colours used in Limning ; I have omitted many others but they are such that are not fitting for this Work, which I shall speak of when I come to teach how to
wash Maps and printed Pictures, for which use those Colours I have omitted are only useful.
Of the Colours here mentioned, useful in Limning, they are to be used three several ways,
viz. either Washed, Grownd, or Steeped.

The Colours to be only
Washed are these :
Bise. / Smalt.
Cedar. / Ultramarine.
Red-Lead. / Masticote.

To be
Steeped, only Sap-green.

The Colours to be
Washed and Grownd, are these :
Ceruse. / White-Lead. / Lake. / English Oker.
Pink. / Indico. / Umber. / Colens Earth.
Spanish
Brown. / Ivory, / and Cherry-stone. ) black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

We now draw pretty near to our intended purpose, viz. Minuture or Limining to the life in Water-Colours : But,
SECT. I.
How to prepare a Table for a Picture in small.
Get pure fine Paste-board, such as the ordinary playing-Cards are made of, you may have of what size and thickness you please, and very finely slick’d and glazed, at the
Card-makers : Take a piece of this Paste-board of the size you intend your Picture ; then take a piece of Parchment of the finest and whitest you can get, […] paste the Parchment to the Paste-board, with the out-side of the skin outermost ; lay on your Starch very thin and even ; then your Grinding-stone being made very clean, lay the Card thereupon with the Parchment-side downwards, and as hard as you can, rub the other side of the Paste-board with a Boars tooth set in a stick for that purpose ; when it is thorough drie, it is fit to work upon.
[…]

Miniature

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

Chap. IV, Of the Miniture or Limning of a Face in Water-Colours.
Having all things in a readiness, according to the directions before delivered, upon that part of your Card where you intend the Face of your Picture to be, lay that part of the Card over with your Colour that you have before prepared, answerable to the Complexion of the party ; it being well tempered, pretty thin, with a Pencil bigger than ordinary, spread your Colour very even and thin, free from hairs or other spots, in your Pencil, over the place where you are to make the Face of your Picture. The Ground being laid, you may begin the Draught, the party being ready to sit. Now to the finishing of a Face there will require three Operations or Sittings at the least.. At the first sitting you do only dead Colour the Face, and this takes about two hours time. At the second sitting you are to go over the Face more curiously, observing whatsoever may conduce to the graces or deformities of the party to be Drawn, together with a sweet dispose and couching of the Colours one within another, and this sitting will take up some four or five hours. At the third sitting you may finish the Face, this takes up some three hours time ; in which you perfect what was before imperfect and rough, in putting the deep and dark shadows in the Face, as in the Eyes, Eye-brows hair, and Ears, which things are the last of the Work, and not to be done till the Hair-curtain or the back-side of the Picture, as also the Drapery be wholly finished.

Miniature

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait