GOEREE, Willem, The art of Limning; In the which the True Grounds and Perfect Use of Water-Colours with All their Proprieties, are Clearly and Perfectly Taught; Formerly set out by that excellent Limner Mr. Gerhard of Brugge, And now much Augmented and Amended, with some Observations touching (besides the Illumination) the Colouring and Painting with Water-Colours, for the Profit of the Lovers of Art. By W.G. And now truly Translated from Dutch into English by J.L. Published by Robert Pricke, trad. par J.L., London, Robert Pricke, 1674.

Willem Goeree (Middelburg 1635 – Amsterdam 1711) was the son of the prominent physician and theologian Hugo Willem Goeree. In 1665 he married Elisabeth Janssonius van Waesberge, daughter of the important Amsterdam publisher Johannes Janssonius van Waesberge. At the time of his marriage, he was a bookseller and initially his Middelburg bookshop functioned as a branch of his father-in-law’s publishing house. Amongst their collaborative publications we find a re-edition of Franciscus Junius’ Schilderkunst der Ouden (Begin, heerlijcke voortgangh. en grootdadigh vermogen der wijdberoemde schilderkonst der antycken, 1675). After his marriage, Willem Goeree started to publish books himself. In 1680, the couple moved to Amsterdam and Goeree collaborated more closely with his father-in-law. However, in 1681 Johannes Janssonius van Waesberge died, as did Goeree’s wife in 1683 and the relationship with his brothers-in-law soon grew bad and all collaboration ended.  Willem Goeree’s son Jan (1670-1731) studied with Gerard de Lairesse and became a draughtsman and engraver. He produced many illustrations and frontispieces for books. His other two sons Willem and David continued the Goeree publishing house after their father’s death until 1732. [1]
            As an author, Goeree published on art and (the history of) religion. In 1668, he published Verlichterie-kunde of recht gebruyck der water-verwen. The book was bounded in the same volume as the Inleydinge tot de Al-ghemeene Teycken-Konst, also written by Goeree. In 1670, the Inleydingh tot de practijck der al-gemeene Schilder-Konst followed. Willem Goeree had the intention to write a six-volume magnum opus on the Art of Painting. In the preface to the reader in the Inleydingh tot de practijck der al-gemeene Schilder-konst of 1670, he writes that, apart from the volumes on Drawing and Painting, this book – which he calls “onse geheele Schilderkonst” –  would consist of books on Perspective, Anatomy, Architecture, Composition and Invention (“Ordineeringh and Inventeeringh”) and Light and Colour (“…de kracht en Eygenschap der schaduwen, dagen, reflexien en houdinge en wat verder in ‘t coloreeren waer te nemen state, door Wiskundige figueren te betoogen”) and was intended to assist and improve artistic instruction. The Verlichterie-kunde was not part of this series. Only two of the envisioned other volumes were published: one on Architecture (d’Algemeene Bouwkunde volgens d’Antyke en Hedendaagse Manier, 1681) and the other on Anatomy (Natuurlyk en Schilderkonstig Ontwerp der Menschkunde, 1682). Goeree stated in the latter that he had written the volume on composition, but it was never published.
The Verlichterie-kunde of recht gebruyck der water-verwen (1668) is a considerably enlarged edition of Gerard Ter Brugghen’s Verlichtery kunst-boeck in de welcke de rechte fondamenten, ende het volcoomen ghebruyck der illuminatie met alle hare eyghenschappen klaerlijcken werden voor oogen ghestelt, which had first been published in 1616 with subsequent editions in 1634 (Leiden: Jacob Roels) and 1667 (Amsterdam: Willem Gort). Goeree restructured the book, rewrote the text in a more appropriate contemporary Dutch and added information throughout. The reference to Ter Brugghen’s text is included on the title pages of all editions of Goeree’s book, both in Dutch and in German and English translations, suggesting the importance and notoriety of Ter Brugghen’s book. Goeree’s book appears to have enjoyed a similar popularity, as it was republished three times (1670, 1697 and 1705).[2]
            For the first edition of 1668, the treatise was bound together in one volume with the Teycken-konst. This example is followed in the English translation (1674), which was based on this first edition. Subsequent editions appeared in separate volumes. However, the German edition of 1678 (which was used for the analysis in the database) bound together the Verlichterie-kunde, Teycken-konst and Schilder-konst.
            Goeree divided his Verlichterie-kunde in two parts. In the first, he discusses the tools and the different colours, followed by technical advice. In the second part, he elaborates on the use of colours to depict particular subjects, going into great detail. The book includes a page on which the owner could add samples of all the colours that are discussed in the text.
            Although the detailed description of how to paint different subjects may be of great interest to the reader, the variety of art terms that are used in this part is limited, therefore, we have often chosen to only select chapter or paragraph titles. The database user is encouraged to open the pdf pages and consult the rest of the text. Moreover, for the first occurrence of a particular colour, we have added an index of subsequent occurrences of this colour in the text.

A suggested translation of the selected citations is added for the convenience of the database user who might not be familiar with the Dutch language. Please note that this should by no means serve as a definite translation, it is a work in progress.
The analysis is based on the second Dutch edition of 1670, instead of the first edition of 1668. The reason for this decision is both scientific (Goeree revised the first edition) and practical (the availability of a digitized version). For the analysis of the translations, we have worked with the only English translation (1674), which was likely based on the first Dutch edition (1668) and bound together with a translation of Goeree’s Teycken-konst. For the German, the analysis is based on the second edition of 1677 and not the first of 1669. The edition of 1677 was based on the second Dutch edition and was bound together with the translation of the Teycken-konst and Schilder-konst.

Marije Osnabrugge

[1] For more information on Goeree’s life and work as a publisher, see: KWAKKELSTEIN, 1998.
[2] For more information about the German translations of the text, see: OSNABRUGGE, forthcoming 2018.

Reader and Lovers of the Art of Limning

- A Prologue to the Reader and Lovers of the Art of Limning, p. *1-*2
- Of the Art of Limning
- Chapter I: Of Colours useful in the Art of Limning, p. 1-2
- Chapter II: Of the Preparation of white Lead, Flake white, and Shell-silver, and their use, p. 2
- Chapter III: Of blew Colours, p. 2-3
- Chapter IV: Of yellow Colours, and their Preparation, p. 3-5
- Chapter V: Of the Preparation of green Colours, and the use of the some, p. 5-6
- Chapter VI: Of Red Colours, their Preparation, Temperature and Use, p. 6-7
- Chapter VII: Of Brown Colour their Preparation, Termperature and Use, p. 7-8
- Chapter VIII: Of black Colours, their Preparation, Temperature and Use, p. 8
- Chapter IX: Of the Termperature of Colours, p. 8-9
- Chapter X: By what means you may make the water-Colour run, and to take upon Paper, p. 9
- Chapter XI: How you shall keep your Colours clean, p. 9-10
- Chapter XII: After what manner you ought to prepare or order your Paper, whereupon you intend to Limn, that your oclours may not sink thorow, p. 10
- Chapter XIII: Of some peculiar Properties as must be observed and also well understood in the colouring with Water-colours, p. 10-11
- Chapter XIV: What Colours and what Places are to be laid First in a Piece of Work, for to Finish the same throw a certain way, orderly and well, p. 11-12

- The Second Part of the Art of Limning, Touching the Practice and Use of Water-Colours, about several things, in particular to paint and colour the same naturally, according to Art
- Introduction, p. 12-13
- Chapter I: How all manner of Skies are to be laid and coloured, p. 13-14
- Chapter II: Of Grounds and diversities of Walls of Chambers, Halls or otherwise, p. 14-15
- Chapter III: How all naked Figures with water-Colours are to be coloured, p. 15-16
- Chapter IV: How all manner of Hair of Men, Women and Children are to be coloured, p. 16-17
- Chapter V: How all manner of Trees, Branches, Ships, Countrey-Cottages, and all manner of wooden work is to be coloured, p. 17
- Chapter VI: How Towns, Castles, Ruines, whether they stand upon the fore-ground, or further distance, ought to be coloured, p. 17-18
- Chapter VII: How all manner of Rocks, Marble Pillars, and such like, seen at a distance, or close by, ought to be coloured, p. 18-19
- Chapter VIII: How all manner of Mountains, Hills, Landskips, Trees and Greens, as are to be seen afar off, or hard by, are to be coloured, p. 19-20
- Chapter VIII [sic]: To make a Discourse of the Beasts of the Field, that would cause a long Discourse; Therefore omitting that, I will only speak of those that are most and generally known, p. 20-22
- Chapter X: How all manner of creeping and venomous Cratures must be coloured, p. 22-23
- Chapter XI: How all Manner of Birds are to be coloured, p. 23-24
- Chapter XII: How all sorts of Waters and Fishes must be coloured, p. 24-25
- Chapter XIII: How all manner of Fruits of Trees is to be coloured, p. 25-26
- Chapter XIV: How all Manner of Things going in the Earth, and out of the Earth must be coloured, p. 26
- Chapter XV: How all manner of Flowers are to be naturally coloured, p. 26-27
- Chapter XVI: How all manner of Gold, Silver, Tinn or Iron-Work is to be coloured, p. 28