ACTION

ACTION (n.)

ACTE (fra.) · ACTIE (nld.) · ACTION (fra.) · AKTION (deu.) · ATTO (ita.) · AZIONE (ita.) · BEDRIJF (nld.) · BEDRIJVENSKRACHT (nld.) · BEZIGHEID (nld.) · DAAD (nld.) · DOEN (nld.) · DOENING (nld.) · VERRICHTUNG (deu.) · WERKING (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
ACTIE (nld.) · ACTION (fra.) · ATTITUDE (fra.) · ATTITUDINE (ita.) · BEZIGHEID (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
ACTION (fra.) · ATTITUDE (fra.)
HARD, Frederick, « Ideas from Bacon and Wotton in William Sanderson's "Graphice" », Studies in Philology, 36/2, 1939, p. 227-234 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/4172440 consulté le 30/03/2018].

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LINKED QUOTATIONS

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11 quotations

Quotation

Of Action and Passion.
{4. Action and Passion.} The next observation, is out of which,
Life and Motion doth result : It shews no Action or Passion in a Piece, barely upright, looking forward ; the Armes hanging down, the feet close together, and so seems unmoveable, and stiff.
{How to be expressed} In lineall
Pieces, there may be a deceitfull similitude of Life and Motion, and statues may seem to live and breathe but coloured Pictures shew a lively force in the severall effects, and properties of Life and Spirit.
{And to be improved} To be well acquainted with
Nature, Manner, guize and behaviour ; as to paint a Man, angry or sad ; joyfull earnest ; or idle ; all passions to be proper to the figure : […]. Indeed the severall postures of the head, describe the Numbers of passions ; […]. In a word, each severall member or part of the body, either of themselves, or in reference of some other part, expresses the passions of the mind, as you may easily observe in the Life.
[…].
{By example of Titian’ Pieces.} I have seen a piece of
Tytian’s : A Child in the Mothers Lap playing with a Bird ; so round and pleasing, it seem’s a doubt whether a Sculpture or Painting ; whether Nature or Art, made it ; the mother smiles and speaks to : the child starts, and answers.
{And of
Palma’s Piece.} Another of Palma’s ; a speaking Piece indeed. The young Damsell brought for Old Davids Bedfellow ; all the company in Passion and Action : some in admiration of her beauty, others in examining her features, which so please the good Old Man, that in some Extasie of passion, he imbraces her which her humility admits, yet with a silent modesty as best became her, only to be dumb and so suffer.
[…].
[...] And so have we done with an Example of all in One : For
 
                       Invention
allures the mind.
                       Proportion, attracts the Eyes.
                       Colour ;
delights the Fancie.
                      
Lively Motion, stirs up our Soul.
                      
Orderly Disposition, charmes our Senses.
 
{Conclude a rare Picture.} These produce gracefull
Comliness, which makes one fairer then fair ; […].
This Grace is the close of all, effected by a familiar facility in a free and quick spirit of a bold and resolute Artificer ; not to be done by too much double
diligence, or over doing ; a careless shew, hath much of Art.

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

In imitation whereof, I hold it expedient for a Painter, to delight in seeing those which fight at cuffs, to observe the Eyes of privy murtherers, the courage of wrastlers, the actions of Stage-players, and the inticing allurements of curtesans, to the end he be not to seek many particulars, wherein the very Life and Soul of painting consisteth, wherefore, I could wish all Men carefully to keep their Brains waking, which whosoever shall omit his invention (out of doubt) will sleep, studying perhaps Ten Years about the action of one Figure, which in the end will prove nothing worth, whence all famous inventors, for the avoiding of such gross defects, have the rather shewed themselves subtile Searchers out of the effects of nature, being moved thereunto by a special delight of often seeing, and continually practizing that which they have preconceived, so that who so keepeth this Order, shall unawares attain to such an habit of practice, in lively expressing all Actions and Gestures, best fitting his purpose, that it will become an other nature.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

Of a Graceful Posture.


The second thing in good Pictures is their
graceful Posture and Proper Actions ; that is, that the true and natural Motion of every thing be expressed in the Life and Spirit of it, that is, to quicken the Life by Art ; as in a King, to express the greatest Majesty by putting or designing him in such a Graceful posture, that may move the Spectators with Reverence to behold him. […]. So in all your Draughts the Inward Affections and Dispositions of the Mind may be most lively exprest in the Outward Action and Gesture of the Body. Now to attain to the Knowledge of this, you ought most diligently to observe the Works of several Famous Masters, and also to follow their Examples, who were used to delight themselves in beholding the Eyes of Private Murtherers, the Actions and Carriages of Wrestlers, and those that fought at Cuffs ; to observe the Actions of Stage-Players, the Inticing Allurements of Curtizans ; and for Thieves that are led to Execution, to mark the Contracting of their Brows, the Motions of their Eyes, and the Carriage of their whole Bodies, to the end they may express them to the Life in their Drawings and Works.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

SECT. I. Of Actions or Gestures.
These are those that most nearly resemble the life, be it either in laughing, grieving, sleeping, fighting, wrastling, running, leaping, and the like.
Amongst the Ancients, famous for lively motion and gesture,
Leonard Vincent deserves much, whose custom was to behold clowns, condemned persons, and did mark the contracting of their brows, the motions of their eyes and whole bodies ; and doubtless it cannot but be very expedient for an Artist in this kind to behold the variety of exercises, that discovers various actions, where the motion is discovered between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and learned, the sad and the merry.
John de Bruges was the first inventer of Oyl-painting, that deserv’d excellently in this particular.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

The Passions of the Minde are certain Motions, proceeding from the Apprehension of Something : and are either Sensitive, Rationall or Intellectual. Sensitive is, when we consider Good and Evil as Profitable or Unprofitable, Pleasant or Offensive. Rational, when we Consider good and Evil as Virtue or Vice ; Prayse or Disprayse ; and Intellectual, when we regard them as True or False.
[...].
            The
Artist is therefore diligently to observe that he is not only to show the Passion by Contraction, Dilation, &c. of Features, but likewise to adapt a Complexion sutable to the Character the Figure is to bare in the Design, whither a Soldier, a Lover, a Penitent, &c. as for Example.
            A
Martialist should have a Meager Body with large rays’d and hard Limbs, Great Bones well Knit with Joynts, the Complexion Swarthy with an adult, Red, large Eyes, Yellowish like a Flame of Fire, wide Nostrels, a wide Mouth, thick and purplelish Lips, small Ears, [...].
            Thus he that can express the
Propertys of one Complection may easily conceive of the Rest, since all Natural Things have a Correspondency in Method, Form, Proportion, Nature, aad Motion ; which Philosophically understood bring a Certain knowledg of all Passion and Action to be imagin’d in Bodys.
            For most Certain it is that those
Passions of the Minde, whence these Externall Actions flow, discover themselves more or less as the Bodys have Affinity with any of the four Complections arising from the four Elements.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

In Expression we must Regard the Sex, Man must appear more Resolute and Vigorous, his Actions more Free, Firm and Bold ; but Womans Actions more Tender, Easy and Modest.
            We must likewise Regard the
Age, whose different Times and Degrees carry them to different Actions, as well by the Agitations of the Minde as the Motions of the Body.
            We must also take Notice of the
Condition, if they be Men of great Extent and Honour, their Actions must be Reserv’d and Grave ; but if Plebeians, more Rude and Disorderly.
           
Bodys Deifyd must be Retrench’d of all those Corruptible Things which serve only for the Preservation of Humane Life, as the Veins, Nerves, Arterys ; and taking onely what serve for Beauty and Form.
            We must likewise observe to give to
Man Actions of Understanding ; to Children, Actions which only Express the Motions of their Passions ; to Brutes, purely the Motions of Sence.
[...].
            Nor is it sufficient that we observe
Action and Passion in their own Natures, in the Complection and Constitution ; in the Age, Sexe, and Condition : but we must likewise observe the Season of the Year in which we express them.
            The
Spring ; Merry, Nimble, Prompt and of a good Colour. The Summer, causeth Open and Wearisome Actions, Subject to sweating and Redness. Automn, Doutbfull, and something Inclining to Melancholly. Winter, Restrain’d, drawn in and Trembling.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

Too force Atittudes must be avoided, which cause extravagant Contorsions : but the boldest Action are allowed (not exceeding Nature) which may be advantagious to the Design.
           
Wee must avoid an Injudicious Mixture of Passions, which will disturbe the Harmony of the Picture ; as the mixing Anxiety, and Roughness, with Chearfullness, Clemency, &c.
            We should never Express a Figure without first examining the Action from the Life ; since in every Action there is some Alteration in the Muscles, Joynts, Contorsions, &c.
            Passions must not only be form’d in the Features and Actions, but suited, also, to fit Constitutions and Complections.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

Every Historical Picture is a Representation of one single point of Time ; This then must be chosen ; and That in the Story which is the most Advantageous must be It. Suppose, for Instance, the Story to be painted is that of the Woman taken in Adultery, the Painter Seems to be at liberty to choose whether he will represent the Scribes and Pharisees accusing her to our Lord ; Or our Lord writing on the Ground ; Or pronouncing the last of the Words, Let him that is among you without Sin cast the first Stone at her ; Or lastly his Absolution, Go thy way, Sin no more. […] When our Saviour says the Words, Let him that is without Sin cast the first Stone, He is the principal Actor, and with Dignity ; the Accusers are asham’d, Vex’d, Confounded, and perhaps Clamorous ; and the Accused in a fine Situation, Hope and Joy springing up after Shame, and Fear ; all which affords the Painter an opportunity of exerting himself, and giving a pleasing Variety to the Composition ; For besides the various Passions, and Sentiments naturally arising, the Accusers begin to disperse, which will occasion a fine Contrast in the Attitudes of the Figures, some being in Profile, some Fore-right, and some with their Backs turn’d ; some pressing forward as if they were attentive to what was said, and some going off : And this I should chuse ; for as to the Last, Tho’ there our Lord pronounces the decisive Sentence, and which is the principal Action, and of the most Dignity in the whole Story, yet Now there was no body left but himself, and the Woman ; the rest were all drop’d off one by one, and the Scene would be disfurnished.

term translated by ACTION in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 41-42.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → sujet et choix

Quotation

There must be one Principal Action in a Picture. Whatever Under-Actions may be going on in the same instant with That, and which it may be proper to insert, to Illustrate, or Amplify the Composition, they must not divide the Picture, and the Attention of the Spectator.

term translated by ACTION in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 82.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Every Action must be represented as done, not only as ‘tis possible it might be perform’d, but in the Best manner. In the Print after Rafaëlle, grav’d by Marc Antonio, you see Hercules gripe Anteus with all the Advantage one can wish to have over an Adversary : […]. Daniele da Volterra has not succeeded so well in his famous Picture of the Descent from the Cross, where one of the Assistants, who stands upon a Ladder drawing out a Nail, is so disposed as is not very Natural, and Convenient for the purpose.

term translated by ACTION in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 47-48.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

The same regard [ndr : que pour les airs de la tête] must be had to every Action, and Motion. The Figures must not only do what is Proper, and in the most Commodious Manner, but as People of the best Sense, and Breeding, (their Character being consider’d) would, or should perform such Actions. The Painter’s People must be good Actors ; they must have learn’d to use a Humane Body well ; they must Sit, Walk, Lye, Salute, do every thing with Grace. There must be no Awkard, Sheepish, or Affected Behaviour, no Strutting, or silly Pretence to Greatness ; no Bombast in Action : Nor must there be any Ridiculous Contorsion of the Body, Nor even such Appearances, or Fore-shortnings as are displeasing to the Eye, though the same Attitude in another View might be perfectly Good.

motion

term translated by ATTITUDE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 153-154.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude