MOTION

MOTION (n.)

BEWEGING (nld.) · BEWEGUNG (deu.) · BEWEGUNG DER SEELE (deu.) · GEBÄRDE (deu.) · MOTO (ita.) · MOUVEMENT (fra.) · MOVIMENTO (ita.) · ONTSTELTENIS (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
ACTIE (nld.) · BEWEGING (nld.) · MOUVEMENT (fra.) · ROERSEL (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
MOUVEMENT (fra.)

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

5 sources
13 quotations

Quotation

Of the Parts of a Piece
{Five Principa parts in a Picture.} In a
PICTURE from Nature, there are five Principall parts..
 
1.
Invention or Historicall Argument.
2.
Proportion, Symmetry.
3.
Colour, with Light or Darknesse.
4.
Motion, or Life, and their Action and Passion.
5.
Disposition, or œconomicall placing, or disposing, or ordering the work.
The
four first, are observed in all sorts of Pieces.
 
Disposition only in those Pictures, that have many figures ; not to appear mingle-mangle ; but, in all and every part of the Piece, to observe a decent comlinesse, or grace, in a mutuall accord, of all five.

life

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Of Action and Passion.
{4. Action and Passion.} The next observation, is out of which,
Life and Motion doth result : It shews no Action or Passion in a Piece, barely upright, looking forward ; the Armes hanging down, the feet close together, and so seems unmoveable, and stiff.
{How to be expressed} In lineall
Pieces, there may be a deceitfull similitude of Life and Motion, and statues may seem to live and breathe but coloured Pictures shew a lively force in the severall effects, and properties of Life and Spirit.
{And to be improved} To be well acquainted with
Nature, Manner, guize and behaviour ; as to paint a Man, angry or sad ; joyfull earnest ; or idle ; all passions to be proper to the figure : […]. Indeed the severall postures of the head, describe the Numbers of passions ; […]. In a word, each severall member or part of the body, either of themselves, or in reference of some other part, expresses the passions of the mind, as you may easily observe in the Life.
[…].
{By example of Titian’ Pieces.} I have seen a piece of
Tytian’s : A Child in the Mothers Lap playing with a Bird ; so round and pleasing, it seem’s a doubt whether a Sculpture or Painting ; whether Nature or Art, made it ; the mother smiles and speaks to : the child starts, and answers.
{And of
Palma’s Piece.} Another of Palma’s ; a speaking Piece indeed. The young Damsell brought for Old Davids Bedfellow ; all the company in Passion and Action : some in admiration of her beauty, others in examining her features, which so please the good Old Man, that in some Extasie of passion, he imbraces her which her humility admits, yet with a silent modesty as best became her, only to be dumb and so suffer.
[…].
[...] And so have we done with an Example of all in One : For
 
                       Invention
allures the mind.
                       Proportion, attracts the Eyes.
                       Colour ;
delights the Fancie.
                      
Lively Motion, stirs up our Soul.
                      
Orderly Disposition, charmes our Senses.
 
{Conclude a rare Picture.} These produce gracefull
Comliness, which makes one fairer then fair ; […].
This Grace is the close of all, effected by a familiar facility in a free and quick spirit of a bold and resolute Artificer ; not to be done by too much double
diligence, or over doing ; a careless shew, hath much of Art.

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

{Motion.} Furthermore it is added in the Definition [ndr : la définition de la peinture p. 24] : that it representeth the Bodily Motions, which is most true, for in that most Famous Picture of the last judgement, done by the Hand of the Divine Michael Angelo, in the Popes Chappel at Rome, who sees not what motions may be expressed in Bodies, and in what order they may be placed ; there may you see our Lady, St. John, and the other Saints represented with great Fear, whilest they beheld Christ moved with indignation against the wicked, who seem to fly away and hide themselves behind his Back, that they might not behold his angry countenance wholly inflamed with indignation : There shall you behold the guilty, who being astonished with Fear, and not able to indure his glorious presence, seek dark Dens and deep Caves to hide themselves in.
[…].
And to conclude there is no corporal Motion, whether it be forwards, or backwards ; on the right hand, or on the left ; upwards ; or downards, which may not be seen expressed, in this most artificial and admirable Picture, but if we shall farther consider the passions and motions of the Mind, whereof the Definition maketh mention likewise, they are also to be found in the same work, with no less Art then admiration to the beholder, especially in Christ in whom you may see Wrath and Indignation so kindled, that he seemeth to be altogether incensed therewith.
{
In the Saints a reverent in the damned, a desperate fear.} Again both in the Saints, and damned Soules, being appalled, and confused, is most lively expressed, an exceeding dread and horror of the wrathfull Judge, and in a Word, many motions as well of the Body, as of the Mind, are to be found in the Works of this Divine Bonaraot, of the rare Raphael Urbine, and of other worthy Painters both old and new, as well of love as hatred, sadness as mirth, and all other passions of the Mind.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

It is reported then that Michael Angelo upon a time gave this observation to the Painter Marius de Scina his Schollar, that he should alwayes make a Figure Pyramidal, Serpent like, and multiplyed by One Two and Three, in which precept (in my Opinion) the whole Mystery of the Art consisteth, for the greatest Grace and Life that a Picture can have, is, that it express motion ; which the Painters call the Spirit of a Picture. Now there is no Form so fit to express this Motion, as that of the Flame of Fire, which according to Aristotle, and the other Philosophers is an Element most active of all others, because the Forme of the Flame thereof is most apt for Motion, for it hath a Conus or sharp Point wherewith it seemeth to divide the Aire that so it may ascend to his proper Sphere, so that a Picture having this forme will be most beautifull.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

Of the Vertue and Efficacy of Motion.


It is generally confessed of all Men, that all such
Motions in Pictures, as do most neerly resemble the Life, are exceeding pleasant, and contrarywise those that which do farthest dissent from the same, are void of all gracious Beauty, committing the like discord in Nature, which untuned strings do in an instrument. Neither do these motions thus lively imitating Nature in Pictures, breed only an Eye-pleasing contentment, but do also performe the self same effects, which the natural do, for as he which laugheth, mourneth, or is otherwise effected, doth naturally move the beholders to the self same passion, of mirth or sorrow, so a picture artificially expressing the true natural motions, will (surely) procure laughter when it laugheth, pensiveness when it is grieved &c. […], All which points are (in truth) worthy of no less admiration then those miracles of the antient Musicians, who with the variety of their melodious harmony, were wont to stir Men up to wrath and indignation, love, warr, […]. 
But to return thither were I left, I am of Opinion that insomuch as these Motions are so Potent in affecting our Minds, when they be most artifcially counterfeited, we ought for our bettering in the knowledge thereof, to propose unto us the example of Leonard Vincent above all others : Of whom, it is reported, that he would never express any motion in a Picture, before he had first carefully beheld the Life, to the end he might come as neer the same, as was possible : whereunto afterwards joyning Art, his Pictures surpassed the Life.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

Of the Necessity of Motion.


The order of the
place requireth, that I should consequently speak of Motion it self, namely with what Art the Painter ought to give Motions best fitting his Pictures, which is nothing else but a correspondency to the nature of the proportion of the forme and matter thereof, and herein consisteth the whole spirit and life of the Art, which the Painters call sometimes the fury, sometimes the grace, and sometimes the excellency of the Art, for hereby they express an evident distinction between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and the learned, the sad and the merry, and (in a Word) discover all the several passions and Gestures which Mans Body is able to perform, which here we term by the name of Motions, for the more significant expressing of the Mind by an outward and bodily demonstration, so that by this means inward motions and affections may be as well, (or rather better) signified as by their speech, which is wrought by the proper operations of the Body, […]. 
Now the perfect knowledge of this motion, is (as hath been shewed) accounted the most difficult part of the art, and reputed as a divine gift. Insomuch, as herein alone consisteth the comparison between Painting and Poetry, for as it is required in a Poet, that besides the excellency of his wit, he should moreover be furnished with a certain propension and inclination of will, inciting and moving him to versity, (which the antient called the fury of Apollo and the Muses) so likewise a Painter ought, together with those natural parts which are required at his hands, to be furnished with a natural dexterity and inborn flight of expressing the principal motions, even from his cradle ; otherwise it is a very hard (if not impossible) matter, to obtain to the absolute perfection of this Art.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Notwithstanding, I am of Opinion, that it is possible to attain unto this so excellent a faculty [ndr : dans le choix des meilleures actions], (though perhaps not with that special eminency of natural facility,) as by industrious study in the knowledge of these motions ; and the causes whence they proceed. For from hence a Man may easily attain to a certain understanding, which afterwards putting in practice with patience, together with the other points, he may undoubtedly prove a judicious inventor, who never had any extraordinary natural inclination, my meaning is, that such an inventor, as guideth himself by understanding, shall attain to better perfection then the other, who is naturally indued with the dexterity, without industry and patience : for example, if a Man shall diligently peruse the whole History of Christ, out of doubt he shall gather the true Idea and Method, how he ought to represent the motions of Christ, the Apostles, the Jews, and all the rest, who had any part in that cruel Tragedy, so sufficiently, that the Mind of the beholder, shall be no less moved to pitty, tears and sorrow, at the sight of the picture, then Men are usually at the reading of the History, […]. 
Now amongst the
worthy Painters who excelled herein, Raphael Urbine, was not the least, who performed his Works, with a Divine kind of Majesty, neither was Polidore much behind him in his kind, whose Pictures seemed as it were passing furious, nor yet Andreas Montagnea whose vain shewed a very laborious curiosity. Nor yet Leonard del Vincent, in whose doings there was never any errour found in this point : Whereof amongst all other of his works, that admirable last supper of Christ in Refect. St. Mariæ de gratia in Milane, maketh most evident proof, in which he hath so lively expressed the passions of the Apostles minds in their countenances, and the rest of their Body, that a Man may boldly say, the truth was nothing superiour to his representation, and need not be afraid to reckon it amongst the best works of Oyl-painting, […] for in those Apostles, you might distincly perceive admiration, fear, grief, suspition, love &c. all which were sometimes to be seen together in one of them, and Finally in Judas a Treason-plotting countenance, as it were the very true counterfeit of a Traitor, so that therein he hath left a sufficient argument of his rare perfection, in the true understanding of the passions of the Mind, exemplified outwardly in the Body, which because it is the most necessary part of painting, I propose (as I say) to handle in this present Treatise
I may not omit
Michael Angelo in any case, whose skill and paintfulness in this point was so great, that his Pictures carry with them more hard motions, expressed after an unufual manner, but all of them tending to a certain stout boldness. And as for Titian he hath worthily purchased the name of a greater Painter in this matter, as his Pictures do sufficiently witness ; […].
Finally,
Gaudentius (though he be not much known) was inferiour unto few, in giving the apt motions to the Saints & Angels, […]. 

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Of a Graceful Posture.


The second thing in good Pictures is their
graceful Posture and Proper Actions ; that is, that the true and natural Motion of every thing be expressed in the Life and Spirit of it, that is, to quicken the Life by Art ; as in a King, to express the greatest Majesty by putting or designing him in such a Graceful posture, that may move the Spectators with Reverence to behold him. […]. So in all your Draughts the Inward Affections and Dispositions of the Mind may be most lively exprest in the Outward Action and Gesture of the Body. Now to attain to the Knowledge of this, you ought most diligently to observe the Works of several Famous Masters, and also to follow their Examples, who were used to delight themselves in beholding the Eyes of Private Murtherers, the Actions and Carriages of Wrestlers, and those that fought at Cuffs ; to observe the Actions of Stage-Players, the Inticing Allurements of Curtizans ; and for Thieves that are led to Execution, to mark the Contracting of their Brows, the Motions of their Eyes, and the Carriage of their whole Bodies, to the end they may express them to the Life in their Drawings and Works.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

Of Natural Guidances


The fifth thing in Good Drawing is, that every thing be done by
The Guidance of Nature ; that is, that nothing be exprest but what may accord and agree with Nature in every point. As if we were to design or draw a Man turning his Head over his Shoulder, I must not make him turn or wind more then Nature will admit, nor must any other Action be forced beyond the limits of Nature, neither should any thing be made to come short of Nature ; but Nature, though it is not to be strained beyond its certain bounds, yet it should be quickened to the Highest pitch of it. As if we were to express any man in any Violent Action, as in a Battel, either to strike, or to avoid the Stroke of his Enemy ; or as in Running, or Wrestling, or Leaping, or other Violent Actions : yet must none of these be drawn in a posture that cannot agree with the Motions of Nature, that is, which a Man cannot imitate with his Natural Body. And so for all things else whatsoever, Nature must be the Parent and Patern for all kind of Draughts.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

SECT. I. Of Actions or Gestures.
These are those that most nearly resemble the life, be it either in laughing, grieving, sleeping, fighting, wrastling, running, leaping, and the like.
Amongst the Ancients, famous for lively motion and gesture,
Leonard Vincent deserves much, whose custom was to behold clowns, condemned persons, and did mark the contracting of their brows, the motions of their eyes and whole bodies ; and doubtless it cannot but be very expedient for an Artist in this kind to behold the variety of exercises, that discovers various actions, where the motion is discovered between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and learned, the sad and the merry.
John de Bruges was the first inventer of Oyl-painting, that deserv’d excellently in this particular.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

SECT. II. Of the Passions or Complexions.
Man’s Body is composed of the Four Elements.
Melancholly resembles Earth.
Flegm the Water.
Choler the Fire.
Bloud the Air ; and answerable are the Gestures and Humours.
Melancholly bodies are slow, heavy, and restrained ; and the consequents are anxiety, disquietness, sadness, stubborness, &c. in which horror and despair will appear.
Flegmatick bodies are simple, humble, merciful.
Sanguine bodies are temperate, modest, gracious, princely, gentle, and merry ; to whom these affections of the mind best agree, viz. love, delight, pleasure, desire, mirth, and hope.
Cholerick bodies are violent, boisterous, arrogant, bold, and fierce ; to whom these passions appertain, anger, hatred, and boldness ; and accordingly the skillful Artist expresses the motions of these several bodies, which ought Philosophically to be understood.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

The same regard [ndr : que pour les airs de la tête] must be had to every Action, and Motion. The Figures must not only do what is Proper, and in the most Commodious Manner, but as People of the best Sense, and Breeding, (their Character being consider’d) would, or should perform such Actions. The Painter’s People must be good Actors ; they must have learn’d to use a Humane Body well ; they must Sit, Walk, Lye, Salute, do every thing with Grace. There must be no Awkard, Sheepish, or Affected Behaviour, no Strutting, or silly Pretence to Greatness ; no Bombast in Action : Nor must there be any Ridiculous Contorsion of the Body, Nor even such Appearances, or Fore-shortnings as are displeasing to the Eye, though the same Attitude in another View might be perfectly Good.

action

term translated by MOUVEMENT in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 153-154.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

He [ndr : Cimon de Cleonen] was the First bold and daring Man that took Courage to adventure into the Ocean of this ART [ndr : la peinture], that made many remarkable Discoveries of the incognita thereof, and left the Way open and fairly obvious to all his Followers ; for he enriched it with such a Variety of Embellishments, that in him first it began to have some Form of itself, and arrive to a competent Perfection ; what in their Paintings was Dead and Stiff, he gave Motion and Life to by his Skill, that he attained to in the Art of Fore-shortenings, turning the Faces of his Figures several Ways, either looking Upward, Backward, or Downward ; and by his Kowledge in the various Motions of the Limbs and Joints, and Muscling of the whole Body, which he was the first that attained and taught, what before either they knew nothing at all of Drapery, or, however, but some very unpleasant, flat and startch’d Way, he rectify’d, and, as Pliny tells us, taught a true and natural sort of Drapery, and the proper Plaiting and Foldings of all sorts of Garments.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai