GAUDENTIUS

GAUDENTIUS


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Quotation

Of the Motions of all sorts of Cloth.


The
Motions of Cloth, that as the Folds or Plaits ought to runne out every way like boughs from the Stemme and Body of the Tree : and must be so made that one Plait rise from another, as one bough, or one stream of Water issueth out from another, in such wise, that there be no part of the Cloth wherein there appear not some of these motions ; now these motions would be moderate, gentle and free, without any interruptions, more to be admired for their grace and facility, then for affected pains and industry, and because all sorts of Cloth have their motions, as well as Bodies, it must needs be that they differ between themselves, according to the differences of the clothes themselves.
Wherefore, they must be more light in fine
Cloth, as Sarcenet, Linnen, Cypress, &c. in which the Plaits are small, raised up, trembling, […] ; gross and dul shadows are found in stiff cloths, where the Plaits are few and gross, so that they are capable but of flow motion, […].
Temperate
motions, which are neither too gross, nor too slight, are such as appear in the folds of stuff and other cloths of Fine wool, […]. And hence have Raphael, Michael Angelo, Leonard, Gaudentius, Albertus Durcrus, and other Famous Masters in Drapery, taken the method and way of giving the true motions unto garments, as from the most perfect pattern for their general use in making the mantells of the Saints, Pavilions or Tents, which are made with this kind of Drapery, besides these, there are also other kinds of motions called turnings and crossings, which are proper unto Damasks, Taffataes, Sattins, Cloth of gold &c : in which appeare folds crossing and breaking each other, by the divers Vertue of the Drapery.
Whence the
Venetians have taken their manner of Drapery, who make their folds much different from the said motions of Raphael and the rest, which indeed ought not to be used any where save in counterfeits by the life, where it seems they are not onlye tolerable, but also very requisite ;

Quotation

Of the Motions of all sorts of Cloth.


The
Motions of Cloth, that as the Folds or Plaits ought to runne out every way like boughs from the Stemme and Body of the Tree : and must be so made that one Plait rise from another, as one bough, or one stream of Water issueth out from another, in such wise, that there be no part of the Cloth wherein there appear not some of these motions ; now these motions would be moderate, gentle and free, without any interruptions, more to be admired for their grace and facility, then for affected pains and industry, and because all sorts of Cloth have their motions, as well as Bodies, it must needs be that they differ between themselves, according to the differences of the clothes themselves.
Wherefore, they must be more light in fine
Cloth, as Sarcenet, Linnen, Cypress, &c. in which the Plaits are small, raised up, trembling, […] ; gross and dul shadows are found in stiff cloths, where the Plaits are few and gross, so that they are capable but of flow motion, […].
Temperate
motions, which are neither too gross, nor too slight, are such as appear in the folds of stuff and other cloths of Fine wool, […]. And hence have Raphael, Michael Angelo, Leonard, Gaudentius, Albertus Durcrus, and other Famous Masters in Drapery, taken the method and way of giving the true motions unto garments, as from the most perfect pattern for their general use in making the mantells of the Saints, Pavilions or Tents, which are made with this kind of Drapery, besides these, there are also other kinds of motions called turnings and crossings, which are proper unto Damasks, Taffataes, Sattins, Cloth of gold &c : in which appeare folds crossing and breaking each other, by the divers Vertue of the Drapery.
Whence the
Venetians have taken their manner of Drapery, who make their folds much different from the said motions of Raphael and the rest, which indeed ought not to be used any where save in counterfeits by the life, where it seems they are not onlye tolerable, but also very requisite ;

Quotation

Notwithstanding, I am of Opinion, that it is possible to attain unto this so excellent a faculty [ndr : dans le choix des meilleures actions], (though perhaps not with that special eminency of natural facility,) as by industrious study in the knowledge of these motions ; and the causes whence they proceed. For from hence a Man may easily attain to a certain understanding, which afterwards putting in practice with patience, together with the other points, he may undoubtedly prove a judicious inventor, who never had any extraordinary natural inclination, my meaning is, that such an inventor, as guideth himself by understanding, shall attain to better perfection then the other, who is naturally indued with the dexterity, without industry and patience : for example, if a Man shall diligently peruse the whole History of Christ, out of doubt he shall gather the true Idea and Method, how he ought to represent the motions of Christ, the Apostles, the Jews, and all the rest, who had any part in that cruel Tragedy, so sufficiently, that the Mind of the beholder, shall be no less moved to pitty, tears and sorrow, at the sight of the picture, then Men are usually at the reading of the History, […]. 
Now amongst the
worthy Painters who excelled herein, Raphael Urbine, was not the least, who performed his Works, with a Divine kind of Majesty, neither was Polidore much behind him in his kind, whose Pictures seemed as it were passing furious, nor yet Andreas Montagnea whose vain shewed a very laborious curiosity. Nor yet Leonard del Vincent, in whose doings there was never any errour found in this point : Whereof amongst all other of his works, that admirable last supper of Christ in Refect. St. Mariæ de gratia in Milane, maketh most evident proof, in which he hath so lively expressed the passions of the Apostles minds in their countenances, and the rest of their Body, that a Man may boldly say, the truth was nothing superiour to his representation, and need not be afraid to reckon it amongst the best works of Oyl-painting, […] for in those Apostles, you might distincly perceive admiration, fear, grief, suspition, love &c. all which were sometimes to be seen together in one of them, and Finally in Judas a Treason-plotting countenance, as it were the very true counterfeit of a Traitor, so that therein he hath left a sufficient argument of his rare perfection, in the true understanding of the passions of the Mind, exemplified outwardly in the Body, which because it is the most necessary part of painting, I propose (as I say) to handle in this present Treatise
I may not omit
Michael Angelo in any case, whose skill and paintfulness in this point was so great, that his Pictures carry with them more hard motions, expressed after an unufual manner, but all of them tending to a certain stout boldness. And as for Titian he hath worthily purchased the name of a greater Painter in this matter, as his Pictures do sufficiently witness ; […].
Finally,
Gaudentius (though he be not much known) was inferiour unto few, in giving the apt motions to the Saints & Angels, […]. 

Quotation

There hath been a continual Altercation between Painters and Carvers for Superiority in the Excellency of Art : but that Carvers may not pretend to excel Painters in the Essential part we will lay down how far they agree and then wherein the Carvers are Excel’d.
[...].
            And as there is no
Essential difference between two particular Men, both being Rational Creatures, so there is not between Painting and Carving, for both tend to the same End, by Representing Individual Substances ; and both must observe the same Geometrical Quantity in what they Represent.
            Suppose a
Painter and Carver were to Counterfeit the same Person, doubtless both would conceive the same Idea of him, proceeding in their Minds with the same discourse of Reason and Art, and (as before) observe the same Geometrical Quantity, endeavouring to make it as like the Person they Represent as they could : and so the Draught expressing the Idea’s of both the Workmen, would agree in expressing the true Resemblance, which is the Essence of this Art.
            ’Tis true one
Painteth and the other Carveth ; but this is a Material Difference only, which argues no Specifical Difference in Art or Science, and it is the Essential Difference alone that maketh a Distinction of Species and Diversity of Science.
If it be Objected that the
Carver maketh more of the Figure then the Painter, it is answer’d, more or less makes no Specifical or Proper Difference ; therefore it is the Defect of Matter, and not of Art, thus far the Arts are Analogical.
Now that this
Art far Excels Carving is easily Demonstrated, since on a Flat, it Represents Roundness and Thickness, exceeding therein the Power of Nature it self, expressing Life and Spirit far beyond Carving, as in these Instances.
Apelles Painted Alexander the Great so to the Life, that his Horse Bucephalus brought into the Room, immediately kneeld down supposing it his Master : His Horse he likewise Painted with such Spirit that other Horses began to Neigh, when they saw him.
Andreas Mantegna represented a Servant in Porta Vercellina, so Natural, that the Horses left not Kicking at it till there was no shape of a Man left.
[...].
            A
Venus cannot be made with that Allectation in Carving, since the Complection of the skin, with Colour of Eyes, Hair, &c. are requisite to the Perfection of a Beauty.
            Nor can
History be Carvd without great Defects, since all Distances require a Faintness of Colouring, as well as Diminution of Body : with many more Observations in Nature, onely Obvious to Colouring, of absolute Necessity for the Animating of Figures.

Quotation

Notwithstanding, I am of Opinion, that it is possible to attain unto this so excellent a faculty [ndr : dans le choix des meilleures actions], (though perhaps not with that special eminency of natural facility,) as by industrious study in the knowledge of these motions ; and the causes whence they proceed. For from hence a Man may easily attain to a certain understanding, which afterwards putting in practice with patience, together with the other points, he may undoubtedly prove a judicious inventor, who never had any extraordinary natural inclination, my meaning is, that such an inventor, as guideth himself by understanding, shall attain to better perfection then the other, who is naturally indued with the dexterity, without industry and patience : for example, if a Man shall diligently peruse the whole History of Christ, out of doubt he shall gather the true Idea and Method, how he ought to represent the motions of Christ, the Apostles, the Jews, and all the rest, who had any part in that cruel Tragedy, so sufficiently, that the Mind of the beholder, shall be no less moved to pitty, tears and sorrow, at the sight of the picture, then Men are usually at the reading of the History, […]. 
Now amongst the
worthy Painters who excelled herein, Raphael Urbine, was not the least, who performed his Works, with a Divine kind of Majesty, neither was Polidore much behind him in his kind, whose Pictures seemed as it were passing furious, nor yet Andreas Montagnea whose vain shewed a very laborious curiosity. Nor yet Leonard del Vincent, in whose doings there was never any errour found in this point : Whereof amongst all other of his works, that admirable last supper of Christ in Refect. St. Mariæ de gratia in Milane, maketh most evident proof, in which he hath so lively expressed the passions of the Apostles minds in their countenances, and the rest of their Body, that a Man may boldly say, the truth was nothing superiour to his representation, and need not be afraid to reckon it amongst the best works of Oyl-painting, […] for in those Apostles, you might distincly perceive admiration, fear, grief, suspition, love &c. all which were sometimes to be seen together in one of them, and Finally in Judas a Treason-plotting countenance, as it were the very true counterfeit of a Traitor, so that therein he hath left a sufficient argument of his rare perfection, in the true understanding of the passions of the Mind, exemplified outwardly in the Body, which because it is the most necessary part of painting, I propose (as I say) to handle in this present Treatise
I may not omit
Michael Angelo in any case, whose skill and paintfulness in this point was so great, that his Pictures carry with them more hard motions, expressed after an unufual manner, but all of them tending to a certain stout boldness. And as for Titian he hath worthily purchased the name of a greater Painter in this matter, as his Pictures do sufficiently witness ; […].
Finally,
Gaudentius (though he be not much known) was inferiour unto few, in giving the apt motions to the Saints & Angels, […]. 

Quotation

Of the Motions of all sorts of Cloth.


The
Motions of Cloth, that as the Folds or Plaits ought to runne out every way like boughs from the Stemme and Body of the Tree : and must be so made that one Plait rise from another, as one bough, or one stream of Water issueth out from another, in such wise, that there be no part of the Cloth wherein there appear not some of these motions ; now these motions would be moderate, gentle and free, without any interruptions, more to be admired for their grace and facility, then for affected pains and industry, and because all sorts of Cloth have their motions, as well as Bodies, it must needs be that they differ between themselves, according to the differences of the clothes themselves.
Wherefore, they must be more light in fine
Cloth, as Sarcenet, Linnen, Cypress, &c. in which the Plaits are small, raised up, trembling, […] ; gross and dul shadows are found in stiff cloths, where the Plaits are few and gross, so that they are capable but of flow motion, […].
Temperate
motions, which are neither too gross, nor too slight, are such as appear in the folds of stuff and other cloths of Fine wool, […]. And hence have Raphael, Michael Angelo, Leonard, Gaudentius, Albertus Durcrus, and other Famous Masters in Drapery, taken the method and way of giving the true motions unto garments, as from the most perfect pattern for their general use in making the mantells of the Saints, Pavilions or Tents, which are made with this kind of Drapery, besides these, there are also other kinds of motions called turnings and crossings, which are proper unto Damasks, Taffataes, Sattins, Cloth of gold &c : in which appeare folds crossing and breaking each other, by the divers Vertue of the Drapery.
Whence the
Venetians have taken their manner of Drapery, who make their folds much different from the said motions of Raphael and the rest, which indeed ought not to be used any where save in counterfeits by the life, where it seems they are not onlye tolerable, but also very requisite ;

Quotation

There hath been a continual Altercation between Painters and Carvers for Superiority in the Excellency of Art : but that Carvers may not pretend to excel Painters in the Essential part we will lay down how far they agree and then wherein the Carvers are Excel’d.
[...].
            And as there is no
Essential difference between two particular Men, both being Rational Creatures, so there is not between Painting and Carving, for both tend to the same End, by Representing Individual Substances ; and both must observe the same Geometrical Quantity in what they Represent.
            Suppose a
Painter and Carver were to Counterfeit the same Person, doubtless both would conceive the same Idea of him, proceeding in their Minds with the same discourse of Reason and Art, and (as before) observe the same Geometrical Quantity, endeavouring to make it as like the Person they Represent as they could : and so the Draught expressing the Idea’s of both the Workmen, would agree in expressing the true Resemblance, which is the Essence of this Art.
            ’Tis true one
Painteth and the other Carveth ; but this is a Material Difference only, which argues no Specifical Difference in Art or Science, and it is the Essential Difference alone that maketh a Distinction of Species and Diversity of Science.
If it be Objected that the
Carver maketh more of the Figure then the Painter, it is answer’d, more or less makes no Specifical or Proper Difference ; therefore it is the Defect of Matter, and not of Art, thus far the Arts are Analogical.
Now that this
Art far Excels Carving is easily Demonstrated, since on a Flat, it Represents Roundness and Thickness, exceeding therein the Power of Nature it self, expressing Life and Spirit far beyond Carving, as in these Instances.
Apelles Painted Alexander the Great so to the Life, that his Horse Bucephalus brought into the Room, immediately kneeld down supposing it his Master : His Horse he likewise Painted with such Spirit that other Horses began to Neigh, when they saw him.
Andreas Mantegna represented a Servant in Porta Vercellina, so Natural, that the Horses left not Kicking at it till there was no shape of a Man left.
[...].
            A
Venus cannot be made with that Allectation in Carving, since the Complection of the skin, with Colour of Eyes, Hair, &c. are requisite to the Perfection of a Beauty.
            Nor can
History be Carvd without great Defects, since all Distances require a Faintness of Colouring, as well as Diminution of Body : with many more Observations in Nature, onely Obvious to Colouring, of absolute Necessity for the Animating of Figures.