BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.2 quotations
In imitation whereof, I hold it expedient for a Painter, to delight in seeing those which fight at cuffs, to observe the Eyes of privy murtherers, the courage of wrastlers, the actions of Stage-players, and the inticing allurements of curtesans, to the end he be not to seek many particulars, wherein the very Life and Soul of painting consisteth, wherefore, I could wish all Men carefully to keep their Brains waking, which whosoever shall omit his invention (out of doubt) will sleep, studying perhaps Ten Years about the action of one Figure, which in the end will prove nothing worth, whence all famous inventors, for the avoiding of such gross defects, have the rather shewed themselves subtile Searchers out of the effects of nature, being moved thereunto by a special delight of often seeing, and continually practizing that which they have preconceived, so that who so keepeth this Order, shall unawares attain to such an habit of practice, in lively expressing all Actions and Gestures, best fitting his purpose, that it will become an other nature.
Of the Necessity of Motion.
The order of the place requireth, that I should consequently speak of Motion it self, namely with what Art the Painter ought to give Motions best fitting his Pictures, which is nothing else but a correspondency to the nature of the proportion of the forme and matter thereof, and herein consisteth the whole spirit and life of the Art, which the Painters call sometimes the fury, sometimes the grace, and sometimes the excellency of the Art, for hereby they express an evident distinction between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and the learned, the sad and the merry, and (in a Word) discover all the several passions and Gestures which Mans Body is able to perform, which here we term by the name of Motions, for the more significant expressing of the Mind by an outward and bodily demonstration, so that by this means inward motions and affections may be as well, (or rather better) signified as by their speech, which is wrought by the proper operations of the Body, […].
Now the perfect knowledge of this motion, is (as hath been shewed) accounted the most difficult part of the art, and reputed as a divine gift. Insomuch, as herein alone consisteth the comparison between Painting and Poetry, for as it is required in a Poet, that besides the excellency of his wit, he should moreover be furnished with a certain propension and inclination of will, inciting and moving him to versity, (which the antient called the fury of Apollo and the Muses) so likewise a Painter ought, together with those natural parts which are required at his hands, to be furnished with a natural dexterity and inborn flight of expressing the principal motions, even from his cradle ; otherwise it is a very hard (if not impossible) matter, to obtain to the absolute perfection of this Art.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.2 quotations
SECT. I. Of Actions or Gestures.
These are those that most nearly resemble the life, be it either in laughing, grieving, sleeping, fighting, wrastling, running, leaping, and the like.
Amongst the Ancients, famous for lively motion and gesture, Leonard Vincent deserves much, whose custom was to behold clowns, condemned persons, and did mark the contracting of their brows, the motions of their eyes and whole bodies ; and doubtless it cannot but be very expedient for an Artist in this kind to behold the variety of exercises, that discovers various actions, where the motion is discovered between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and learned, the sad and the merry.
John de Bruges was the first inventer of Oyl-painting, that deserv’d excellently in this particular.
SECT. II. Of the Passions or Complexions.
Man’s Body is composed of the Four Elements.
Melancholly resembles Earth.
Flegm the Water.
Choler the Fire.
Bloud the Air ; and answerable are the Gestures and Humours.
Melancholly bodies are slow, heavy, and restrained ; and the consequents are anxiety, disquietness, sadness, stubborness, &c. in which horror and despair will appear.
Flegmatick bodies are simple, humble, merciful.
Sanguine bodies are temperate, modest, gracious, princely, gentle, and merry ; to whom these affections of the mind best agree, viz. love, delight, pleasure, desire, mirth, and hope.
Cholerick bodies are violent, boisterous, arrogant, bold, and fierce ; to whom these passions appertain, anger, hatred, and boldness ; and accordingly the skillful Artist expresses the motions of these several bodies, which ought Philosophically to be understood.