BEDRIJF (n. n.)

ACTION (eng.) · ACTION (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
/ · ACTUS (lat.) · GESTURE (eng.)

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4 quotations

Quotation

Van dien tijd af sach men de Konst daghelicks toenemen; soo datter in ’t ghelaet, in ’t gebaer, in de gantsche ghestaltenisse der Schilderyen een sekere Actie ofte bedrijvenskracht beghost uyt te blijcken. Daer en is gheen sonderlinghe bevalligheyd in een opgherecht lichaem te vinden, seght Quintilianus {Lib. ii. Cap. 13.}, het aenghesicht behoort naemelick t’onswaerd ghewendt te sijn, de armen nederwaerds hanghende, de beenen t’saemen ghevoeght, en het gantsche werck moet van boven tot beneden een onbeweghelicke stijvigheyd behouden. d’Ombuyginghe, ende om soo te spreken, het roersel gheven de naegeboetste dinghen een sekere Actie ofte bedrijf. Dus worden de handen niet altijd op eenerley wijse ghemaeckt, en ’t aenghesicht heeft duysend verscheydene vertooninghen. Eenighe lichaemen sijn ghestelt tot het loopen ende om eenigh ander gheweld te bewijsen: Eenighe sietmen sitten, eenighe nederligghen: Eenighe sijn moedernaeckt, eenighe ghekleedt, eenighe half naeckt en half ghekleedt. Wat isser doch soo verdraeyt ende bearbeyt als Myrons schijf-werper, die eertijds Discobolos wierd ghenaemt. Oversulcks plaghten oock dieghene, dien dit stuck werck niet wel aen en stond, gheoordeelt te worden gantsch gheen verstand van de Konst te hebben, ghemerckt yeder een bekent stond, dat de moeyelicke seldsaemheyd deses beelds den hoogsten lof verdiende. Gelijck wy dan sien dat het roersel een van de ghewighstighste punten is, diemen in dese Konst moet waernemen; soo en is het mijnes dunckens, niet swaer den ghebaenden wegh daertoe uyt te vinden. Wy behoeven maer alleen onse oogen op de nature te slaen, en haere voetstappen naerstighlick te volghen.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] From that time onwards one could daily see the Art increase; such that a certain Action or power of movement to show in the face, in the gesture, in the whole appearance of the Paintings. There is no special loveliness to be found in an upright body, says Quintilianus {…}, the face should be turned towards us, the arms should hang downwards, the legs should be joined together, and the whole work should keep an unmoving stiffness from top to bottom. The Bending, and so to say, the movement give the imitated things a certain Action or activity. Thus the hands are not always made in one way, and the face has a thousand different expressions. Some bodies are positioned to walk and to show some other violence: Some one can see sitting, some laying: Some are completely naked, some dressed, some half naked and half dressed. What is more twisted and worked than Myron’s disk thrower, which was then called Discobolos. Regarding this those who did not like this piece of work very much, tended to be judged as having no knowledge at all of Art, seen that it was known to everyone, that the difficult rarity of this statue deserved the highest praise. Like we see that the movement is one of the most important point, that one has to observe in this Art; as such it is not hard, in my opinion, to find the beaten track towards it. We only have to cast our eyes on nature, and diligently follow in her footsteps.

MYRON, Discobolos

roersel · actie · bedrijvenskracht · ombuyginghe
stijvigheid

term translated by ACTUS in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 178
term translated by GESTURE in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 290-291

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Ghelijck dan de voornaemste kracht der Schilderyen gheleghen is in de bequaeme naeboetsinghe der eyghenschappen diemen in d’onroerende dinghen verneemt, als oock in de levendighe afbeeldinghe der beroeringhen diemen in de roerende dinghen speurt; soo moeten wy het mede daer voor houden, dat de welstandigheyd des gantschen wercks gheoordeelt wordt allermeest in ’t ghebaer ende in ’t roersel der figuren te bestaen, wanneer deselvighe yet merckelicks doen of lijden. Dies plaght oock het levendighe roersel, nae d’eene of d’andere gheleghenheyd der figuren, somtijds Actie somtijds de Passie ghenaemt te worden: Want de Beelden die de kracht van eenig ernstigh bedrijf in haer uyterlick ghebaer uyt-wijsen, worden geseyt een goede Actie te hebben; d’andere daerenteghen die d’inwendige beroeringhen haeres ghemoeds door d’uytwendighe ontseltheyd te kennen geven, worden gheseyt vol van Passie te sijn. Dit vervult de wercken met eenen levendighen gheest, ’t is de rechte ziele der Konste.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Just like the main power of Paintings lies in the capable imitation of the characteristics that one perceives in the unmoving things, as well as in the lively depiction of the movements that one detects in the moving things; as such we have to consider as well, that the harmony of the whole work is thought to exist most of all in the gesture and the movement of the figures, when they do something remarkable or suffer. As such the living movement also tends to be called after one or the other situation of the figures, sometimes Action and sometimes Passion: Because the Images that show the power of a serious occupation in their outward gesture, are said to have a good Action; the other on the other hand who demonstrate the internal movements of their mind by means of an outward dismay, are said to be full of Passion. This fills the works with a lively spirit, it is the true soul of the Art.

Junius explains that there are different types of movement (beroering) in an art work, which he also calls movement (roersel) and gesture (gebaar). On the one hand, he uses the term action (actie), which refers to the outer movement of the figures. On the other hand, there is the passion (passie), which reflects the inner movements. The correct depiction of the different movements should lead to a well-composed whole (welstand). The rest of paragraph IV.2 describes the different emotions, not necessarily in direct relation to art. The phrasing of this paragraph is different in the Latin and English edition. [MO]

beroeringh · roersel · ghebaer · actie · ontsteltheyd

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 178 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 291-292
term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 178 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 291-292

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Wy vinden schier over al in de wijdloopigheyt van de Historische materien eenen eersten, tweeden, derden sin, onstaende uyt het menighvuldigh bedrijf ’t welck daer in vertoont wordt, ghelijck het oversulcks niet ghenoegh en is, dat wy de veelvoudighe gheleghenheydt van een overvloedigh argument in een schijnschickelicke orden soecken te betrecken, het en sy saecke dese orden het bysondere vervolgh het welck in d’omstandigheden der gheschiedenisse selver te vinden is nae het leven voorstelle; soo behooren wy noch voorder ons uyterste beste daer toe aen te wenden, dat alle de bysondere ghedeelten der voorvallender materie met sulcken behendighen enden onuytvindelicken te saemen knoopinghe aen een ghehecht wierden, datse nu niet meer verscheydene ghedeelten, maer een gheheel ende volkomen lichaem schenen te sijn.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] In the diversity of the Historical matters we find a first, second, third meaning almost everywhere, coming from the manifold action which is shown in it, yet as such it is not enough that we attempt to involve the manifold circumstances of an abundant subject in an apparent order, unless this order depicts the specific sequence that can be found in the circumstances of the history itself after life; as such we should make an even greater effort to put all the separate parts of the occurring matter together with such an able and unfathomable connection, that they no longer appear to be separate parts, but a whole and perfect body.

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 192 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 310
term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 192 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 310

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Van de Stelling der Beelden volgens de Natuurlijke en toevallige stand der beweging in allerhande Doening.
Laat ons van de Tronie-stelling in ’t bysonder tot een ander voornaam en algemeen Deel der Mensch-kunde over gaan; Namelijk tot de Teykenkonstige stelling van de bewegende Stand der Werkende Mensch-beelden; En daar ontrent aanwijsen hoedanig de Beelden onder sekere Linie van Bestuur en Gewigt, en Tegen-wigt allerhande Doeningen en Actien van Staan, Gaan, Loopen, Torssen, Dragen, Werpen, als anders, welvoegsaam en Natuurlijk, sonder daar heen te vallen, of onmogelijkheyd in haar Doening te vertoonen, verrigten konnen: Op dat den Teykenaar en Schilder die sigh daar in wel afgerigt bevind, het Middel mogt in de Hand hebben, om sijn Beelden in allerhande voorval en Verkiesing, tot het Oogmerk van sijn voorgesteld bedrijf, soodanig te bepalen, datse noit tegen de Teykenkundige Trek, noch tegen de mogelijkheyd der Doening, ten opsigt van ’t Maaxel en samen-stel der Leden aanloopen. En gelijk dit een van de gewigtigste Hoofd-stukken der Schilder-Konst is, soo heeft het ook alle Groote en Verstandige Meesters niet alleen ter Herten gegaan, sig hier in wijselijk te dragen, maar veele hebben ook met alle vlijd hun Leerlingen geduurig vermaand daar op nauw agt te geven: En dat wel soo veel te meer alsse sigh ontblood vonden van de Onderwijsingen in de Boeken, en Voor-beelden.
Karel van Mander die beter Schrijver en Prater dan Schilder is geweest, seyde in sijnen tijd dat het te wenschen waar, datter van ymand een Onderwijsing aangaande de stelling der Beelden, volgs de Werkende Verkiesingh der Actien, en d’uytdrukking der Herts-togten, ontworpen wierde: En seyd hy, ik soude sulx geerne selfs gedaan hebben, in dien ik my daar bequaam toe gevonden had.

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] On the Composition of Figures according to the Natural and incidental posture of movement in all sorts of Action. Let us proceed from the composition of the Face in specific to another important and common Part of the Anatomy; Namely to the Artful composition of the moving Posture of Working human Figures; And in that context point out to which degree the Figures can carry out appropriately and Naturally, all sorts of Doings and Actions of Standing, Going, Walking, Hauling, Carrying, Throwing and others, within a certain Line of Conduct and Weight and Counter-weight, without falling or showing an impossibility in their Action: So the Draughtsman or Painter who finds himself well-trained in this, has the tools at hand to conceive his Figures such in all sorts of occurrences and choices, to the purpose of the proposed action, that they will never appear to be against the Draught, nor against the possibility of the Action, with regard to the Creation and structure of the Limbs. And as this is one of the most important Chapters of the Art of Painting, as such it has not only concerned all Great and Wise Masters, to act wisely in this regard, but many have continuously urged their Pupils with diligence to pay close attention to it: And even more so when they were without the Instruction in Books, and Examples. Carel van Mander, who was a better Author and Speaker than Painter, said in his time that it were commendable, that someone designed an Instruction regarding the composition of Figures, subsequently the Working Selection of Action and the expression of Passions: And he said, I would have been inclined to do so myself, if I had found myself capable of it.

actie · doening

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude