PASSION

PASSION (n.)

AFFEKT (deu.) · AFFETTO DELL'ANIMO (ita.) · LEIDENSCHAFT (deu.) · ONTROERING (nld.) · ONTSTELTENIS (nld.) · PASSIE (nld.) · PASSION (deu.) · PASSION (fra.) · PASSIONE (ita.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
BEAUTÉ (fra.) · BEROERING (nld.) · BEWEGING (nld.) · HARTSTOCHT (nld.) · PASSIE (nld.) · PASSION (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
PASSION (fra.)
HARD, Frederick, « Ideas from Bacon and Wotton in William Sanderson's "Graphice" », Studies in Philology, 36/2, 1939, p. 227-234 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/4172440 consulté le 30/03/2018].
MONTAGU, Jennifer, The Expression of the Passions, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1994.

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CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

9 sources
19 quotations

Quotation

Aristides was the most excellent of his time for expressing sence and passion, as in that peece of his, of a mother deadly wounded, and giving her child sucke, in whose face he expressed a deadly feare, as loath to deny it food, and unwilling to give it the teate for feare of killing it with her blood, which with the milke issued forth in great abundance. This Table Alexander carried with him to Pella.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

The passions of the minde being divers as love, feare, joy, anger, hatred, despaire, desire, boldnesse, &c. must be expressed with great judgement and discretion, though you shall better expresse them in lively colours then with the pen, because palenesse, rednesse, fiery eyes, &c. are adjuncts to the same.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

{4. In expressing the passion or disposition of the mind, Qualis equos Threissa fatigat Harpalice. Æneid I.} The fourth [ndr : erreur fréquemment commise par le peintre] is in expressing passion or the disposition of the mind, as to draw Mars like a young Hippolytus with an effeminate countenance, Venus like an Amazon, or that same hotspurd Harpalice in Virgil, this proceedeth of a sencelesse and overcold judgement.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

Of Action and Passion.
{4. Action and Passion.} The next observation, is out of which,
Life and Motion doth result : It shews no Action or Passion in a Piece, barely upright, looking forward ; the Armes hanging down, the feet close together, and so seems unmoveable, and stiff.
{How to be expressed} In lineall
Pieces, there may be a deceitfull similitude of Life and Motion, and statues may seem to live and breathe but coloured Pictures shew a lively force in the severall effects, and properties of Life and Spirit.
{And to be improved} To be well acquainted with
Nature, Manner, guize and behaviour ; as to paint a Man, angry or sad ; joyfull earnest ; or idle ; all passions to be proper to the figure : […]. Indeed the severall postures of the head, describe the Numbers of passions ; […]. In a word, each severall member or part of the body, either of themselves, or in reference of some other part, expresses the passions of the mind, as you may easily observe in the Life.
[…].
{By example of Titian’ Pieces.} I have seen a piece of
Tytian’s : A Child in the Mothers Lap playing with a Bird ; so round and pleasing, it seem’s a doubt whether a Sculpture or Painting ; whether Nature or Art, made it ; the mother smiles and speaks to : the child starts, and answers.
{And of
Palma’s Piece.} Another of Palma’s ; a speaking Piece indeed. The young Damsell brought for Old Davids Bedfellow ; all the company in Passion and Action : some in admiration of her beauty, others in examining her features, which so please the good Old Man, that in some Extasie of passion, he imbraces her which her humility admits, yet with a silent modesty as best became her, only to be dumb and so suffer.
[…].
[...] And so have we done with an Example of all in One : For
 
                       Invention
allures the mind.
                       Proportion, attracts the Eyes.
                       Colour ;
delights the Fancie.
                      
Lively Motion, stirs up our Soul.
                      
Orderly Disposition, charmes our Senses.
 
{Conclude a rare Picture.} These produce gracefull
Comliness, which makes one fairer then fair ; […].
This Grace is the close of all, effected by a familiar facility in a free and quick spirit of a bold and resolute Artificer ; not to be done by too much double
diligence, or over doing ; a careless shew, hath much of Art.

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

IV. Drawing is, that whereby we represent the shape and form of any corporeal substance in rude lines onely.
V. It consists in proportion and passion, as it hath relation to motion and situation, in respect of Light and Vision.
VI.
Sanderson saith, This Admirable Art is the Imitation of the surface of Nature in Colour and proportion, 1. By Mathematical demonstration, 2. By Chorographical description, 3. By shapes of Living creatures, 4. And by the forms of Vegetables, in all which it prefers Likeness to the life, conserves it after death, and this altogether by the sense of seeing.
VII. The
proportion shews the true lengh, breadth or bigness of any part (in Known measures) in respect of the whole, and how they bear one to another : The passion represents the visual Quality, in respect of love or hatred, sorrow or joy, magnanimity or cowardise, majesty or humility, of all which things we shall speak in order.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

CHAP. IX. Of Expressing passions in the Countenance.
I. Love is expressed by a clear, fair and pleasant Countenance, without clouds, wrinkles, or unpleasant bendings : giving the forehead an ample height and breadth with majestick grace ; a full eye with a fine shadow at the bottom of the eye-lid, and a little at the corner : a proportionable nose ; nostrils not too wide : a clear cheek made by shadowing of it on one side : and a smiling mouth, made by a thin upper lip, and shadowing the mouth line at the corners.
            II. FEAR is expressed by making the eyes look hollow, heavy and downward, [...].
            III. ENVY is best decyphred by the only hanging of the cheeks, and a pale countenance, [...].
            IV. Let every passion be represented according to the outward appearance thereof, as it is in those persons in whom it reigns ; [...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

{Motion.} Furthermore it is added in the Definition [ndr : la définition de la peinture p. 24] : that it representeth the Bodily Motions, which is most true, for in that most Famous Picture of the last judgement, done by the Hand of the Divine Michael Angelo, in the Popes Chappel at Rome, who sees not what motions may be expressed in Bodies, and in what order they may be placed ; there may you see our Lady, St. John, and the other Saints represented with great Fear, whilest they beheld Christ moved with indignation against the wicked, who seem to fly away and hide themselves behind his Back, that they might not behold his angry countenance wholly inflamed with indignation : There shall you behold the guilty, who being astonished with Fear, and not able to indure his glorious presence, seek dark Dens and deep Caves to hide themselves in.
[…].
And to conclude there is no corporal Motion, whether it be forwards, or backwards ; on the right hand, or on the left ; upwards ; or downards, which may not be seen expressed, in this most artificial and admirable Picture, but if we shall farther consider the passions and motions of the Mind, whereof the Definition maketh mention likewise, they are also to be found in the same work, with no less Art then admiration to the beholder, especially in Christ in whom you may see Wrath and Indignation so kindled, that he seemeth to be altogether incensed therewith.
{
In the Saints a reverent in the damned, a desperate fear.} Again both in the Saints, and damned Soules, being appalled, and confused, is most lively expressed, an exceeding dread and horror of the wrathfull Judge, and in a Word, many motions as well of the Body, as of the Mind, are to be found in the Works of this Divine Bonaraot, of the rare Raphael Urbine, and of other worthy Painters both old and new, as well of love as hatred, sadness as mirth, and all other passions of the Mind.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

Of the Vertue and Efficacy of Motion.


It is generally confessed of all Men, that all such
Motions in Pictures, as do most neerly resemble the Life, are exceeding pleasant, and contrarywise those that which do farthest dissent from the same, are void of all gracious Beauty, committing the like discord in Nature, which untuned strings do in an instrument. Neither do these motions thus lively imitating Nature in Pictures, breed only an Eye-pleasing contentment, but do also performe the self same effects, which the natural do, for as he which laugheth, mourneth, or is otherwise effected, doth naturally move the beholders to the self same passion, of mirth or sorrow, so a picture artificially expressing the true natural motions, will (surely) procure laughter when it laugheth, pensiveness when it is grieved &c. […], All which points are (in truth) worthy of no less admiration then those miracles of the antient Musicians, who with the variety of their melodious harmony, were wont to stir Men up to wrath and indignation, love, warr, […]. 
But to return thither were I left, I am of Opinion that insomuch as these Motions are so Potent in affecting our Minds, when they be most artifcially counterfeited, we ought for our bettering in the knowledge thereof, to propose unto us the example of Leonard Vincent above all others : Of whom, it is reported, that he would never express any motion in a Picture, before he had first carefully beheld the Life, to the end he might come as neer the same, as was possible : whereunto afterwards joyning Art, his Pictures surpassed the Life.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Of the Necessity of Motion.


The order of the
place requireth, that I should consequently speak of Motion it self, namely with what Art the Painter ought to give Motions best fitting his Pictures, which is nothing else but a correspondency to the nature of the proportion of the forme and matter thereof, and herein consisteth the whole spirit and life of the Art, which the Painters call sometimes the fury, sometimes the grace, and sometimes the excellency of the Art, for hereby they express an evident distinction between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and the learned, the sad and the merry, and (in a Word) discover all the several passions and Gestures which Mans Body is able to perform, which here we term by the name of Motions, for the more significant expressing of the Mind by an outward and bodily demonstration, so that by this means inward motions and affections may be as well, (or rather better) signified as by their speech, which is wrought by the proper operations of the Body, […]. 
Now the perfect knowledge of this motion, is (as hath been shewed) accounted the most difficult part of the art, and reputed as a divine gift. Insomuch, as herein alone consisteth the comparison between Painting and Poetry, for as it is required in a Poet, that besides the excellency of his wit, he should moreover be furnished with a certain propension and inclination of will, inciting and moving him to versity, (which the antient called the fury of Apollo and the Muses) so likewise a Painter ought, together with those natural parts which are required at his hands, to be furnished with a natural dexterity and inborn flight of expressing the principal motions, even from his cradle ; otherwise it is a very hard (if not impossible) matter, to obtain to the absolute perfection of this Art.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Notwithstanding, I am of Opinion, that it is possible to attain unto this so excellent a faculty [ndr : dans le choix des meilleures actions], (though perhaps not with that special eminency of natural facility,) as by industrious study in the knowledge of these motions ; and the causes whence they proceed. For from hence a Man may easily attain to a certain understanding, which afterwards putting in practice with patience, together with the other points, he may undoubtedly prove a judicious inventor, who never had any extraordinary natural inclination, my meaning is, that such an inventor, as guideth himself by understanding, shall attain to better perfection then the other, who is naturally indued with the dexterity, without industry and patience : for example, if a Man shall diligently peruse the whole History of Christ, out of doubt he shall gather the true Idea and Method, how he ought to represent the motions of Christ, the Apostles, the Jews, and all the rest, who had any part in that cruel Tragedy, so sufficiently, that the Mind of the beholder, shall be no less moved to pitty, tears and sorrow, at the sight of the picture, then Men are usually at the reading of the History, […]. 
Now amongst the
worthy Painters who excelled herein, Raphael Urbine, was not the least, who performed his Works, with a Divine kind of Majesty, neither was Polidore much behind him in his kind, whose Pictures seemed as it were passing furious, nor yet Andreas Montagnea whose vain shewed a very laborious curiosity. Nor yet Leonard del Vincent, in whose doings there was never any errour found in this point : Whereof amongst all other of his works, that admirable last supper of Christ in Refect. St. Mariæ de gratia in Milane, maketh most evident proof, in which he hath so lively expressed the passions of the Apostles minds in their countenances, and the rest of their Body, that a Man may boldly say, the truth was nothing superiour to his representation, and need not be afraid to reckon it amongst the best works of Oyl-painting, […] for in those Apostles, you might distincly perceive admiration, fear, grief, suspition, love &c. all which were sometimes to be seen together in one of them, and Finally in Judas a Treason-plotting countenance, as it were the very true counterfeit of a Traitor, so that therein he hath left a sufficient argument of his rare perfection, in the true understanding of the passions of the Mind, exemplified outwardly in the Body, which because it is the most necessary part of painting, I propose (as I say) to handle in this present Treatise
I may not omit
Michael Angelo in any case, whose skill and paintfulness in this point was so great, that his Pictures carry with them more hard motions, expressed after an unufual manner, but all of them tending to a certain stout boldness. And as for Titian he hath worthily purchased the name of a greater Painter in this matter, as his Pictures do sufficiently witness ; […].
Finally,
Gaudentius (though he be not much known) was inferiour unto few, in giving the apt motions to the Saints & Angels, […]. 

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Of the passions of the Mind, their original and difference.


The
passions of the mind, are nothing else but certain motions, proceeding from the apprehension of some thing, now this apprehension is Threefold, sensitive, rational, and intellectual, […] there are Eleven passions or affections in the mind, which are these, love, hatred, desire, fear, joy, sorrow, hope, dispair, audacity, timerousness and anger, from which there do consequently arise so many sorts of actions in the art, as there may be affections expressed in Mens Bodies, wherefore we ought carefully to observe the motions which are outwardly expressed, in such sort, as they do manifestly point to the roots, whence they spring, and discover the causes from which they proceed, distributing them and disposing them accordingly in the Bodies, or Physiognomies which whosoever shall fail in, shall (questionless) wholly pervert the Order of things, confounding the Beauty of Histories, whether they be Fables, or other Inventions, which are to be painted.

affection

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

SECT. II. Of the Passions or Complexions.
Man’s Body is composed of the Four Elements.
Melancholly resembles Earth.
Flegm the Water.
Choler the Fire.
Bloud the Air ; and answerable are the Gestures and Humours.
Melancholly bodies are slow, heavy, and restrained ; and the consequents are anxiety, disquietness, sadness, stubborness, &c. in which horror and despair will appear.
Flegmatick bodies are simple, humble, merciful.
Sanguine bodies are temperate, modest, gracious, princely, gentle, and merry ; to whom these affections of the mind best agree, viz. love, delight, pleasure, desire, mirth, and hope.
Cholerick bodies are violent, boisterous, arrogant, bold, and fierce ; to whom these passions appertain, anger, hatred, and boldness ; and accordingly the skillful Artist expresses the motions of these several bodies, which ought Philosophically to be understood.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

The Passions of the Minde are certain Motions, proceeding from the Apprehension of Something : and are either Sensitive, Rationall or Intellectual. Sensitive is, when we consider Good and Evil as Profitable or Unprofitable, Pleasant or Offensive. Rational, when we Consider good and Evil as Virtue or Vice ; Prayse or Disprayse ; and Intellectual, when we regard them as True or False.
[...].
            The
Artist is therefore diligently to observe that he is not only to show the Passion by Contraction, Dilation, &c. of Features, but likewise to adapt a Complexion sutable to the Character the Figure is to bare in the Design, whither a Soldier, a Lover, a Penitent, &c. as for Example.
            A
Martialist should have a Meager Body with large rays’d and hard Limbs, Great Bones well Knit with Joynts, the Complexion Swarthy with an adult, Red, large Eyes, Yellowish like a Flame of Fire, wide Nostrels, a wide Mouth, thick and purplelish Lips, small Ears, [...].
            Thus he that can express the
Propertys of one Complection may easily conceive of the Rest, since all Natural Things have a Correspondency in Method, Form, Proportion, Nature, aad Motion ; which Philosophically understood bring a Certain knowledg of all Passion and Action to be imagin’d in Bodys.
            For most Certain it is that those
Passions of the Minde, whence these Externall Actions flow, discover themselves more or less as the Bodys have Affinity with any of the four Complections arising from the four Elements.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

In Expression we must Regard the Sex, Man must appear more Resolute and Vigorous, his Actions more Free, Firm and Bold ; but Womans Actions more Tender, Easy and Modest.
            We must likewise Regard the
Age, whose different Times and Degrees carry them to different Actions, as well by the Agitations of the Minde as the Motions of the Body.
            We must also take Notice of the
Condition, if they be Men of great Extent and Honour, their Actions must be Reserv’d and Grave ; but if Plebeians, more Rude and Disorderly.
           
Bodys Deifyd must be Retrench’d of all those Corruptible Things which serve only for the Preservation of Humane Life, as the Veins, Nerves, Arterys ; and taking onely what serve for Beauty and Form.
            We must likewise observe to give to
Man Actions of Understanding ; to Children, Actions which only Express the Motions of their Passions ; to Brutes, purely the Motions of Sence.
[...].
            Nor is it sufficient that we observe
Action and Passion in their own Natures, in the Complection and Constitution ; in the Age, Sexe, and Condition : but we must likewise observe the Season of the Year in which we express them.
            The
Spring ; Merry, Nimble, Prompt and of a good Colour. The Summer, causeth Open and Wearisome Actions, Subject to sweating and Redness. Automn, Doutbfull, and something Inclining to Melancholly. Winter, Restrain’d, drawn in and Trembling.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

Wee must avoid an Injudicious Mixture of Passions, which will disturbe the Harmony of the Picture ; as the mixing Anxiety, and Roughness, with Chearfullness, Clemency, &c.
            We should never Express a Figure without first examining the Action from the Life ; since in every Action there is some Alteration in the Muscles, Joynts, Contorsions, &c.
            Passions must not only be form’d in the Features and Actions, but suited, also, to fit Constitutions and Complections.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

Never was a Calm Becoming Sorrow better Express’d than in this Face [ndr : il s’agit du portrait de la Comtesse Dowager d’Exeter, par Van Dyck] chiefly there where ‘tis always most conspicuous that is in the Eyes : Not Guido Reni, no, nor Raffaelle himself could have Conceiv’d a Passion with more Delicacy, or more Strongly Express’d it ! To which also the Whole Attitude of the Figure contributes not a little, her Right Hand drops easily from the Elbow of the Chair which her Wrist lightly rests upon, the other lies in her Lap towards her Left Knees, all which together appears so Easy, and Careless, that what is Lost in the Composition by the Regularity I have taken notice of, is Gain’d in the Expression ; which being of greater Consequence justifies V. Dyck in the main, and shows his great Judgment, for tho’ as it Is, there is (as I said) something amiss, I cannot conceive any way of Avoiding That Inconvenience without a Greater.

term translated by PASSION in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 35.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions

Quotation

Every Historical Picture is a Representation of one single point of Time ; This then must be chosen ; and That in the Story which is the most Advantageous must be It. Suppose, for Instance, the Story to be painted is that of the Woman taken in Adultery, the Painter Seems to be at liberty to choose whether he will represent the Scribes and Pharisees accusing her to our Lord ; Or our Lord writing on the Ground ; Or pronouncing the last of the Words, Let him that is among you without Sin cast the first Stone at her ; Or lastly his Absolution, Go thy way, Sin no more. […] When our Saviour says the Words, Let him that is without Sin cast the first Stone, He is the principal Actor, and with Dignity ; the Accusers are asham’d, Vex’d, Confounded, and perhaps Clamorous ; and the Accused in a fine Situation, Hope and Joy springing up after Shame, and Fear ; all which affords the Painter an opportunity of exerting himself, and giving a pleasing Variety to the Composition ; For besides the various Passions, and Sentiments naturally arising, the Accusers begin to disperse, which will occasion a fine Contrast in the Attitudes of the Figures, some being in Profile, some Fore-right, and some with their Backs turn’d ; some pressing forward as if they were attentive to what was said, and some going off : And this I should chuse ;

term translated by PASSION in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 41-42.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition

Quotation

Every Figure, and Animal must be affected in the Picture as one should suppose they Would, or Ought to be. And all the Expressions of the several Passions, and Sentiments must be made with regard to the Characters of the Persons moved in them. At the Raising of Lazarus, some may be allow’d to be made to hold something before their Noses, and this would be very just, to denote That Circumstance in the Story, the Time he had been dead ; but this is exceedingly improper in the laying our Lord in the Sepulchre, altho’ he had been dead much longer than he was ; however Pordenone has done it.

term translated by PASSION in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 74.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → convenance, bienséance

Quotation

ABOUT this Time flourish’d Arestides, whose Excellency lay in expressing the Passions and Affections, and decyphering all the Virtues and Vices, and as particularly appear’d by that Piece of his of the Indulgent Mother, mortally wounded in the Body, and a sucking Infant hanging at the same Time upon her Breast, where, unconcern’d for her own Life, she express’d a wonderful Reluctancy, and strange Strife within her in regard to the Infant, as loath to deny it Food, and unwilling to give it the Breast, for fear of destroying it with her Blood, which mingled with her Milk, issued forth in great abundance. This Table was dear to Alexander, and carried along with him to Pella.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions