RED (n.)

BERGROT (deu.) · ROOD (nld.) · ROSSO (ita.) · ROT (deu.) · ROUGE (fra.)
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ROUGE (fra.)

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Quotation

Of Red.
Red, from the old Saxon
Rud, […] in high Dutch it is called Rot, in low Dutch Root, without doubt from the Greeke ἔρυθρος, which is the same, in French Rouge, in Italian Rubro, from the Latine Ruber […], from the rinds or seeds (as Scaliger saith) of a Pomegranate, which are of this colour. In Spanish it is called Vermeio, of Minium which is Vermilion.

The sorts of Red are these.
Vermilion.

Synaper lake.
Synaper tops.
Red Lead.
Roset.
Turnsoile.
Browne of Spaine.
Bole Armoniack.

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MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

A Flame colour.
In high Dutch it is called
Sewert-ro as you would say in English fire red, in the Belgicke or low Dutch vier-root, glinsterich root, in French Rouge come feu, resplendissante, In Italian color di fuoco, Hispan. color de fuego, Latinè rutilus aut igneus. in Greeke πύρωδες […].

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Quotation

A Blood red.
This colour is made of Cinaper, and afterwards sadded with Vermilleon at the sides, or else with a browne colour. A bloudy colour, grinde Cinaper, Lake, and Cinaper tops, put them into good water, and if they be too light, put to them a little Turnsole.

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Quotation

Red Colour.
Take Vermilion, and temper it with gumme water : His false colour is two parts vermillion, and a third part ceruse.

Another Red.
Take russet, and temper it with gumme-water, clay it with ceruse, and sad it with it selfe.

Another Red.
Take Brassill in grosse powder, allum in powder : steep them in gum water a night and a day : then straine it, and keepe it for use.

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Quotation

Of Limning in Water-Colours
The True Order and Names of Colours, the means to prepare them for the Pensill and to clense them from their corrupt mixtures, wherewith they are Sophisticate.
We name them
Seaven (though in truth the first and last White and Black are no Colours ; but Elements.) [...] Reds,
India-Lake.
Read-Lead, or Mene.

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Quotation

The five perfect Colours, with their Lights and Shaddowes.
{Murray, or Amethyst.} The best for
Limning, is a Lake of it self, of a Murray colour, which is best made, and to be had at Venice, or in Flanders at Antwerp ; […].
2.
Red, or Ruby.
{2. Fair Red, or Ruby.} If you will make a fair
Red for Limning, take India-Lake, (with breaks of a Scarlet, or Stammell-colour) there are fundry Lakes, which will shadow one upon another, and some so black, that they must be ground generally with Sugar-candy, amongst the Gum, and others with Sugar onely. You cannot grind them too much, nor need they washing. Vermilion also is another Red, which must be ground and wash’d.

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Quotation

Of sundry Greens in Oyl.
For a deep and sad Green, as in the inmost leaves of trees, mingle Indico and Pinke. 
For a light Green, Pinke and Masticote : for a middle and Grasse green, Verdigreace and Pinke.
Remember ever to lay-on your Yellows, Blews, Reds, and Greens, upon a white ground, which giveth them their life.

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Quotation

Of Colours there be seven Species, to wit, White, Red, Yellow, Green, Blew, Brown, and Black. White and Black are the extremities, and the parents of all other Colours ; for Red is an equal mixture of White and Black, and so is Green : Yellow is two parts of White, and one of Red, &c.

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Quotation

An Exposition of Colours.
Abram colour,
i.e. brown
Auburne or Abborne,
i.e. brown or brown-black.
Cole black.
Sable black.
Velvet black.
Pitchy black.
Blanket colour,
i. e. a light watchet.
Venice blew,
i. e. a light blew.
Lincolne blew.
Coventry blew.
A Prince blew.
Crimson,
i. e. Scarlet.
Cumatical colour,
i. e. blew.
Flesh colour, a certain mixture of red white.
Gangran colour,
i. e. divers colours together, as in a Mallards, or Pigeons neck.
Sabell colour,
i. e. flame colour.
Incardine, or flesh colour.
Peacocke colour,
i. e. changeable blew, or red blew. 
Patise, or a kinde of red or Arsenick colour.
Plumbet colour,
i. e. like little Speks of gray clouds in a fair day. 
Puke colour,
i. e. between russet and black.
Purpurine, or Purple colour ; of which read
Matth. 27.2. A colour much used heretofore, by the Tyrians ; but now it is not to be had.
Ried colour, or Diversified.
Scarlet,
i. e. crimson, or stammel.
Shammy colour, a smoakie, or rain colour, which is a kind of yellow ; as you may see upon whited walls or in a Chymny.
Stammel,
i. e. Scarlet, as before.
Lyon Tawny.
Turkie colour,
i. e. Venice blew, or as others will have it, red.
Milke white.
Paper white.
Snow white. 
Bastard yellow.
Bright yellow.
Dark yellow.


Of the Names of Colours, read more in
Aul. Gel. Noct. Attic.

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Quotation

CHAP. XVII. Of the seven Colours in General. [...] III. The chief REDS are these : Vermilion, Red-lead, Indian-lake, Red-oker. [...].

Les différents rouges mentionnés dans cette partie sont ceux que l'on doit utiliser dans le cas de la peinture à l'eau (limning).

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Quotation

CHAP. II. Of the Colours in General.
I. The chief
Whites for painting in oyl are, White lead, Ceruse, and Spodium. [...] III. The chief Reds are, Vermilion, Sinaper lake, Red lead, Indian Red, Ornotto.

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Quotation

The Colours to be used in Limning are termed thus,


Whites (Flake white / Serus)
Red (Carmine, / Indian Lake, / Red Lead, / Indian Red, / Burnt Ocur, &c.)
Yellow (Masticot, / Yellow ocur, / Eng. ocur, / Pinck.)
Greens (Sap Green, / Pinck and Bice, / Green Bice, / Terra Vert.)
Blews (Ultra Marine, / Dutch Bice, / Smalt, / Indigo.)
Browns (Gall Stone, / Mumme, / Cullins Earth, / Umber, / Rust.)
Blacks (Ivory black, / Sea-cole, / Lamp black, / Cherry Stone.)

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Quotation

The NAMES of the COLOURS Most useful and onely necessary for MINITURE.


(
Flake White)
Reds (Carmine / Indian Lake / Cynnabar LakeFlorence Lake / Cynnabar / Red Lead / Yellow Oker burnt)
Blews (Ultra Marine / Dutch Bice / Smalt / Indigo)
Yellows (Light Masticote / Deep Masticote /Yellow Oker / Roman Oker / Gall-stone / Light Pink / Dark Pink)
Greens (Green Pink / Green Bice / TerraVerte)
Browns (Collens Earth / Burnt Umber / Umber / Rust of Iron)
Blacks (Burnt Ivory / Sea Cole / Cherry-stone burnt / Verditer burnt)

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Quotation

SECT III. Of Colours.
There are simply six,
viz. White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, and Blew ; to which we may add Browns, but they are compounded. […].

Chap. II,
Of Colours used in Limning : their names, and how to order them.
SECT. I.
Of the Names of Colours, and how every Colour is to be prepared ; whether Ground, Wash’d, or Steep’d.

BLACKS. /
Cherry-stones burnt. / Ivory burnt. / Lamp black.

WHITES. /
Ceruse. / White-Lead.

REDS. /
Red-Lead. / Lake.

GREENS. /
Bise. / Pink. / Sapgreen. / Cedar-green.

BLEWS. /
Indico. / Ultramarine. / Bise. / Smalt.

YELLOWS. / English
Oker. / Masticote.

BROWNS. /
Umber. / Spanish Brown. / Colen’s Earth.

These are the principal Colours used in Limning ; I have omitted many others but they are such that are not fitting for this Work, which I shall speak of when I come to teach how to
wash Maps and printed Pictures, for which use those Colours I have omitted are only useful.
Of the Colours here mentioned, useful in Limning, they are to be used three several ways,
viz. either Washed, Grownd, or Steeped.

The Colours to be only
Washed are these :
Bise. / Smalt.
Cedar. / Ultramarine.
Red-Lead. / Masticote.

To be
Steeped, only Sap-green.

The Colours to be
Washed and Grownd, are these :
Ceruse. / White-Lead. / Lake. / English Oker.
Pink. / Indico. / Umber. / Colens Earth.
Spanish
Brown. / Ivory, / and Cherry-stone. ) black.

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Quotation

Note, that in all your Shadows you must use some White ; wherefore, 1. lay a good quantity of White by it self, besides what the Shadows are first tempered with. 2. For Red for the Cheeks and Lips, temper Lake and Red-lead together, some use Vermilion, but I like it not. 3. For your Blew Shadows, as under the Eyes, and in Veins, &c. Indico and White, or Ultamarine and White. 4. For your Gray, faintish Shadows, take White English-Oker and Indico, or sometimes Masticote. 5. For Deep shadows, White, English-Oker, and Umber. 6. For Dark-shadows in mens Faces, Lake and Pink, which make an excellent fleshy shadow. Many other Shadows you may temper up, but these are the chief ; your own judgment, when you look upon the party to be Drawn, will best direct you, and inform your fancy better than a thousand Words.

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Quotation

Chap. I. Of the Names of your Colours, and how to Grind and order them.

The Names of the Colours in Oyl.
BLACKS /
Lamp-black. / Seacoal-black. / Ivory-black. / Charcoal-black. / Earth of Colen.
WHITES /
White-Lead.
GREENS. /
Verdigrease. / Terra vert. / Verditer.
BLEWS. /
Bise. / Indico. / Smalt. / Ultamarine.
REDS. /
Vermilion. / Red-Lead. / Lake. / India-Red. / Ornotto.
YELLOWS. /
Pink. / Masticote. / English Oker. / Orpiment. / Spruse Oker.
Spanish
Brown, Burnt Spruse, Umber.

These are the chief Colours that are used in Painting in Oyl, the most part of which are to be grownd very fine upon your Stone with a Muller, with Linseed-Oyl : some must be Burnt before they be Grownd ; others must be only temper’d upon the Pallat, and not grownd at all.
The Colours to be burnt are these :
Ivory, Spruse, Oker, and Umber.
The Colours that are not to be Grownd at all, but only tempered with Oyl upon your Pallat, are these :
Lamp-black, Verditer, Vermilion, Bise, Smalt, Masticote, Orpiment, Ultamarine.
All the rest are to be Grownd upon your Stone with Linseed-Oyl ; only White-Lead, when you are to use that for Linnen, you must grind it with Oyl of Walnuts, for Linseed-Oyl will make it turn yellow.

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Quotation

Chap. VI, Of Garments of several colours, and of their proper Colouring.
The next thing I shall speak of, shall be of
Drapery or Garments, and the true and proper manner of Colouring of them.
And
1. For a Red Garment.
For a light-red Garment, first dead-colour it with Vermilion, and when you would finish it, glaze it over with Lake, and heighten it with White.
For a Scarlet.
[…]
For a Crimson Velvet.
[…]
For a sad Red.
[…]
2.
For Green Garments.
The best Green for holding, is Bise and Pink, heighten it with Masticote, and deepen it with Indico and Pink.
For Green Velvet.
[…].
3.
For Blew Garments.
Take Indico and White, first lay the White in its due places, and then your mean colour, namely Indico and White mixed in their due places, then deepen it with Indico only, […].
4. For
Yellow Garments.
For a Yellow Garment, Masticote, yellow Oker, and Umber ; lay the dead colour of Masticote and White in the lightest places, Oker and White in the mean places, and Umber in the darkest places ; when it is dry glaze it with Pink. […].
5.
For Black Garments.
Let the dead colour be Lamp-black, and some Verdigrease ; when that is dry, go over it with Ivory-black and Verdigrease ; before you go over it the second time, heighten it with White.
6.
For Purple Garments.
Oyl Smalt, tempered with Lake and White-Lead, heighten it with White Lead.
7.
Orange Colour.
Red-Lead and Lake, lay the lightest parts of all with Red-Lead and White, the mean parts with Red-Lead alone, the deeper parts with Lake, if need require heighten it with White.
8.
Hair Colour.
Umber and White for the ground, Umber and Black for the deeper shadows, Umber and
English Oker for mean shadows, for heightning White with a little English Oker.

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MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

Colours to be used in Washing, which are not used in Limning.
BLACKS. /
Printers Black, / or / Franckford-black, / to be had of the / Plate-Printers.
REDS /
Vermilion. / Rosset.
BLEWS. /
Verditure. / Litmos. / Flory.
YELLOWS.
Gumbooge, Yellow-berries, Orpiment.

Also these ;
Brazeel and Log-wood ground, and Turnsoil.
Of these Colours above-mentioned,
Printers Black, Vermilion. Rosset, Verditure, and Orpiment are to be Ground as is taught in the second Section of the second Chapter of the third Book, page 70. and therefore, I say, Grind them as you are there taught.

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Quotation

What Colours sets off best together.
1. Whites are very useful in all Colours, and sets off Black and Blew very well ; but Blacks are not much used, but upon necessary occasions in some things, as you judgement shall direct you.
2. Reds sets off well with Yellows.
3. Yellows sets off well with Reds, sad Blews Greens, Browns, Purples.
4. Blews sets off well with Reds, Yellows, Whites, Browns, and Blacks ; but Blews set not off well with Greens and Purples.
5. But Greens sets off well with Purples and Reds.

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Quotation

BEFORE we leave this eminent Master [ndr : Apelle], we cannot but take notice what Pliny in two several Places, has, with pretty positive Assurance asserted, that in all the stupendious Paintings of this ARTIST above-cited, he made use of but four Colours only, which were White, Yellow, Red, and Black ; his White Tripoli of Melos ; for Yellows, Okre of Athens ; for Reds, red Okre and Synopye of Pontos, and for Black, ordinary Vitrial, or Shoemakers Black. […] in another Place himself [ndr : Pline] tells us (besides the other Black above-mention’d) Apelles was the first that invented to make Black of Ivory, or the Tooth of an Elephant burnt, which was call’d Elephantinum, and gives us the Particulars of several other Colours, both Natural and Artificial, found out and used among the Greek, […]. 

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