TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONSÉCARLATE (fra.)
PEACHAM, Henry, The Gentlemans Exercise. Or, An exquisite practise, as well for drawing all manner of Beasts in their true Portraitures : as also the making of all kinds of colours, to be used in Limning, Painting, Tricking, and Blazon of Coates, and Armes, with divers other most delightfull and pleasurable observations, for all young Gentlemen and others. As also Serving for the necessary use and generall benefit of divers Trades-men and Artificers, as namely Painters, Ioners, Free-Masons, Cutters and Carvers, &c. for the farther gracing, beautifying, and garnishing of all their absolute and worthy pieces, either for Borders, Architects, or Columnes, &c., London, J. Legat, 1634.1 quotations
Of composed colours, Scarlet colour.
In French coleur d’escarlite. Italicè, color Scarlatino ô porposino. Hisp. color de grana. Belgicè Kermesin of Scharlacken root. […] Latine Coccineus colour. Græc. κοκκινος of κοκκος, the seed of Kernell of a Pomegranate. The Arabians call this colour Chermeb, from whence commeth our Crimson, as Scaliger saith, two parts of Vermelion, and one of lake make a perfect Scarlet.
PEACHAM, Henry, The Compleat Gentleman: Fashioning Him absolute in the most Necessary and Commendable Qualities, concerning Mind, or Body, that may be required in a Person of Honor. To which is added the Gentlemans Exercise or, An exquisite practise, as well for drawing all manner of Beasts, as for making Colours, to be used in Painting, Limning, &c. The Third Impression much inlarged, especially in the Art of Blazonry, by a very good Hand, London, E. Tyler, 1661.1 quotations
Chap XIV, Directions for Painting, or Colouring of Cuts, and printed Pictures in Water-Colours, p. 155-156
An Exposition of Colours.
Abram colour, i.e. brown
Auburne or Abborne, i.e. brown or brown-black.
Blanket colour, i. e. a light watchet.
Venice blew, i. e. a light blew.
A Prince blew.
Crimson, i. e. Scarlet.
Cumatical colour, i. e. blew.
Flesh colour, a certain mixture of red white.
Gangran colour, i. e. divers colours together, as in a Mallards, or Pigeons neck.
Sabell colour, i. e. flame colour.
Incardine, or flesh colour.
Peacocke colour, i. e. changeable blew, or red blew.
Patise, or a kinde of red or Arsenick colour.
Plumbet colour, i. e. like little Speks of gray clouds in a fair day.
Puke colour, i. e. between russet and black.
Purpurine, or Purple colour ; of which read Matth. 27.2. A colour much used heretofore, by the Tyrians ; but now it is not to be had.
Ried colour, or Diversified.
Scarlet, i. e. crimson, or stammel.
Shammy colour, a smoakie, or rain colour, which is a kind of yellow ; as you may see upon whited walls or in a Chymny.
Stammel, i. e. Scarlet, as before.
Turkie colour, i. e. Venice blew, or as others will have it, red.
Of the Names of Colours, read more in Aul. Gel. Noct. Attic.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.2 quotations
Of Limning in Water-Colours, The Third Book, Chap. II, Of Colours used in Limning : their names, and how to order them, p. 91-76
SECT. VII. Of Compounded Colours.
Of the six simple Colours before named, [ndr : White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, Blue, voir p. 86], together with the Browns, many others may be compounded for Faces of all Complexions, Garments, Lanskips, Building ; for Birds, Fishes, Beasts, and what not : I will shew how to compound some, and by those you may by practice find out and invent infinite more. I shall instance in these following, As,
A Violet. / A Lead-colour. / Flame-colour. / Scarlet.
Light-green. / Purple. / A Bay-colour. / A Murry. [...] Scarlet-colour.
Red-lead, Lake and Vermilion, very little or no Vermilion, for it is not good in Limning.
Of Painting in Oyl, Book IV, Chap. VI, Of Garments of several colours, and of their proper Colouring, p. 103-105
Chap. VI, Of Garments of several colours, and of their proper Colouring.
The next thing I shall speak of, shall be of Drapery or Garments, and the true and proper manner of Colouring of them.
1. For a Red Garment.
For a light-red Garment, first dead-colour it with Vermilion, and when you would finish it, glaze it over with Lake, and heighten it with White.
For a Scarlet.
For a Crimson Velvet.
For a sad Red.
2. For Green Garments.
The best Green for holding, is Bise and Pink, heighten it with Masticote, and deepen it with Indico and Pink.
For Green Velvet.
3. For Blew Garments.
Take Indico and White, first lay the White in its due places, and then your mean colour, namely Indico and White mixed in their due places, then deepen it with Indico only, […].
4. For Yellow Garments.
For a Yellow Garment, Masticote, yellow Oker, and Umber ; lay the dead colour of Masticote and White in the lightest places, Oker and White in the mean places, and Umber in the darkest places ; when it is dry glaze it with Pink. […].
5. For Black Garments.
Let the dead colour be Lamp-black, and some Verdigrease ; when that is dry, go over it with Ivory-black and Verdigrease ; before you go over it the second time, heighten it with White.
6. For Purple Garments.
Oyl Smalt, tempered with Lake and White-Lead, heighten it with White Lead.
7. Orange Colour.
Red-Lead and Lake, lay the lightest parts of all with Red-Lead and White, the mean parts with Red-Lead alone, the deeper parts with Lake, if need require heighten it with White.
8. Hair Colour.
Umber and White for the ground, Umber and Black for the deeper shadows, Umber and English Oker for mean shadows, for heightning White with a little English Oker.
RICHARDSON, Jonathan, An Essay on the Theory of Painting. By Mr. Richardson. The Second Edition, Enlarg'd, and Corrected, London, A. C. - A. Bettesworth, 1725.1 quotations
And sometimes the Painter happens to be Obliged to put a Figure in a Place, and with a Degree of Force which does not sufficiently distinguish it. In that Case, the Attention must be awakened by the Colour of its Drapery, or a Part of it, or by the Ground on which ‘tis painted, or some other Artifice.
Scarlet, or some Vivid Colour, is very proper on such Occasions : I think I have met with an Instance of This kind from Titian, in a Bacchus and Ariadne ; Her Figure is Thus distinguish’d for the reason I have given.
TIZIANO (Tiziano Vecellio), Le Triomphe de Bacchus ou Bacchus et Ariane, 1520 - 1523, huile sur toile, 176,5 x 191, London, National Gallery, NG35.