DRAWING (n.)

AFTEKENING (nld.) · DESSIN (fra.) · DISEGNARE (ita.) · REIßKUNST (deu.) · ZEICHENKUNST (deu.) · ZEICHEN-WERCK (deu.) · ZEICHNUNG (deu.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
DESSIN (fra.) · ÉTUDE (fra.)
BAXANDALL, Michael, « English Disegno », dans CHANEY, Edward et MACK, Peter (éd.), England and the Continental Renaissance. Essays in Honour of J. B. Trapp, Woodbridge - Rochester, The Boydell Press, 1990, p. 203-214.
BERMINGHAM, Ann, Learning to Draw: Studies in the Cultural History of a Polite and Useful Art, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 2000.
BOUBLI, Lizzie, « DESSIN », dans HECK, Michèle-Caroline (éd.), LexArt. Les mots de la peinture (France, Allemagne, Angleterre, Pays-Bas, 1600-1750) [édition anglaise, 2018], Montpellier, Presses Universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2018, p. 167-172.
DICKEL, Hans, Deutsche Zeichenbücher des Barock: eine Studie zur Geschichte der Künstlerausbildung, Hildesheim - Zürich - New York, G. Olms Verl, 1987.
GIBSON-WOOD, Carol, Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 2000.
GIBSON-WOOD, Carol, « “A Judiciously Disposed Collection”: Jonathan Richardson Senior's Cabinet of Drawings », dans BAKER, Christopher, ELAM, Caroline et WARWICK, Genevieve (éd.), Collecting Prints and Drawings in Europe (c. 1500-1750), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2003, p. 155-171.
HEILMANN, Maria, NANOBASHVILI, Nino et PFISTERER, Ulrich (éd.), Punkt, Punkt, Komma, Strich. Zeichenbücher in Europa ca. 1525-1925, cat. exp., München, Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte - Hildesheim, Universitätsbibliothek, 2014-2016, Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2014.
HEILMANN, Maria, NANOBASHVILI, Nino, TEUTENBERG, Tobias et PFISTERER, Ulrich (éd.), Lernt Zeichnen ! Techniken zwischen Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1525-1925, cat. exp., Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, 2015-2016, Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2015.
LEVY, F. J., « Henry Peacham and the Art of Drawing », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 37, 1974, p. 174-190 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/750839 consulté le 30/03/2018].
OCCHIPINTI, Carmelo, Il disegno in Francia nella letteratura artistica del Cinquecento, Firenze, Studio per edizioni scelte, 2003.
PETRIOLI TOFANI, Annamaria, PROSPERI VALENTI RODINÒ, Simonetta et SCIOLLA, Gianni Carlo, Il Disegno. Forme, tecniche, significati, Milano, Silvava editoriale, 1991.
PRAT, Louis-Antoine, Le dessin français au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Somogy, 2017.
PRAT, Louis-Antoine, Le dessin français au XVIIe siècle, Paris, Somogy, 2013.
ROUGÉ, Bertrand (éd.), Ratures et repentirs, Actes du colloque de Pau, Pau, Publications de l'Université de Pau, 1996.
SCHLUETER, June, « Rereading the Peacham Drawing », Shakespeare Quarterly, 50/2, 1999, p. 171-184 [En ligne : https://ldr.lafayette.edu/bitstream/handle/10385/631/Schlueter-ShakespeareQuarterly-vol50-no2-1999.pdf?sequence=1 consulté le 30/03/2018].
TORDELLA, Piera Giovanna, Il disegno nell’Europa del Settecento. Regioni teoriche, ragioni critiche, Firenze, Olschki, 2012.
WHITE, Christopher, « The Theory and Practice of Drawing in Early Stuart England », dans WHITE, Christopher et STAINTON, Lindsay (éd.), Drawing in England from Hilliard to Hogarth, cat. exp., London, British Museum - New Haven, Yale Center for British Art, 1987, Cambridge - New Haven, Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 13-28.

FILTERS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

8 sources
20 quotations

Quotation

Of Drawing the Face or countenance of a Man.
[…]
The visage or countenance is (for the most part) drawn but three manner of wayes, the first is full faced, […] {The full face.}
The second is three quarter faced, as our Flanders and ordinary pictures are, that is when one part of the face is hid by a quarter as thus : [ndr : insertion d’un dessin explicatif].
{Halfe face.} The third is onely halfe faced, […] as this
Cæsars head [ndr : présence d’un dessin accôlé au texte illustrant le propos de Peacham].

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Quotation

Of Drawing, and Designing in generall
{Drawing and Designing, their excellent use.} I Have marvailed, at the negligence of Parents in generall ; they not to enforce a Necessity, in the Education of their youth, to this Art of
Drawing and Designing, being so proper for any course of Life whatsoever. Since the use thereof for expressing the Conceptions of the Mind, seems little inferiour, to that of Writing ; which in no man, ought to be deficient. And in many Cases, Drawing and Designing performs, what by words are impossible ; and (to boot) perfects the hand, for all manner of writing.

designing

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Quotation

The Practice of Drawing or Designing.
{The practice of Drawing and Designing.} I Would prepare you with Rule and Compasse, and other Instruments, necessary for you to lye by you at hand ; but advise you to practise without them ; It is your eye must judge, without artificiall Measuring. And when you have past my first directions, and are perfect to draw by the Life, you may afterwards, in large Proportions and dimensions, use your Instruments, both for perfection, ease, and speed.
[…].

designing

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Chap. XIII, Of Drawing, Limning, and Painting: with the lives of the famous Italian Painters.
Since
Aristotle numbreth Graphicè, generally taken, for whatsoever is done with the Pen or Pencill (as writing fair, Drawing, Limning and Painting (amongst those his παιδενματα, or generous Practises of youth in a well governed Common-wealth : I am bound also to give it you in charge for your exercise at leasure, it being a quality most commendable, and so many waies usefull to a Gentleman. For should you (if necessity required) be employed for your Countries service in following the warre, you can describe no plot, manner of fortification, form of Battalia, situation of Town, Castle, Fort, Haven, Island, course of River, passage thorow Wood, Marish ; over Rock, Mountain, &c. […] without the help of the same. {The manifold use of Painting or Limning.} In all Mathematicall Demonstrations, nothing is more required in our travail in forrain Regions. It bringeth home with us from the farthest part of the world in our bosomes, whatsoever is rare and worthy the observance, as the generall Mappe of the Country, the Rivers, Harbourgs, Havens, Promontories, &c within the Landscap, of fair Hils, fruitfull Valleyes : the forms and colours of all Fruits, severall beauties of their Flowers ; […]. And since it is only the imitation of the surface of Nature, by it as in a book of golden and rare-limmed Letters, the chief use end of it, we read a continuall Lecture of the Wisdome of the Almighty Creator […].

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Quotation

I. POLYGRAPHICE is an Art, so much imitating Nature, as that by proportional lines with answerable Colours, it teacheth to represent to the life (and that in plano) the forms of all  corporeal things, with their respective passions.
II. It is called in general in Greek
Χρωματινη, in Latine Pictura, and in English the Art of Painting.
III. It is sevenfold (to wit) in
Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing and Colouring.
IV. Drawing is, that whereby we represent the shape and form of any corporeal substance in rude lines onely.
V. It consists in proportion and passion, as it hath relation to motion and situation, in respect of Light and Vision.
VI.
Sanderson saith, This Admirable Art is the Imitation of the surface of Nature in Colour and proportion, 1. By Mathematical demonstration, 2. By Chorographical description, 3. By shapes of Living creatures, 4. And by the forms of Vegetables, in all which it prefers Likeness to the life, conserves it after death, and this altogether by the sense of seeing.
VII. The
proportion shews the true lengh, breadth or bigness of any part (in Known measures) in respect of the whole, and how they bear one to another : The passion represents the visual Quality, in respect of love or hatred, sorrow or joy, magnanimity or cowardise, majesty or humility, of all which things we shall speak in order.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Quotation

CHAP. II. Of the Instrument of Drawing.
 
I. The
Instruments of Drawing are sevenfold, viz. Charcoals, feathers of a Ducks-wing, black and red Lead pensils, pens made of Ravens quils, Rulers, Compasses, and Pastils.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → outils
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Quotation

CHAP. III. Of the precepts of Drawing in General.
 
I. Be sure to have all the necessaries aforesaid in readiness, but it will be good to practise as much as may be without the help of your Rule and Compasses ; it is your eye and fansie must judge without artificial measurings.

II.
Then first begin with plain Geometrical figures, [...]. For these are the foundations of all other proportions.
[...]
IV. Having made your hand fit and ready in General proportions, then learn to give every object its due shade according to its convexity or concavity, and to elevate or depress the same, as the object appears either nearer or farther off the light, the which is indeed the life of the work.
V.
The second practice of drawing consists in forming fruits, as Apples, Peares, Cherries, [...] with their leaves : the imitation of flowers, as Roses, Tulips, Carnations, &c. Herbs, as Rosemary, Time, Hysop, &c. Trees, as the Oak, Fir, Ash, Wallnut, &c.
VI.
The third practice of drawing imitates, 1. Beats, as the Lamb, Elephant, [...]. 2. Fowls, as the Eagle, Swan, [...]. 3. Fishes, as the Whale, Herring, [...] of which variety of Prints may be bought at reasonables rates.
VII. The fourth praxis imitates the body of man with all its Lineaments, the Head, Nose, Eyes, Ears, Cheeks, Hands, Arms, and shaddows all exactly proportional both to the whole and one to another, as well to situation as magnitude.
VIII. The fifth praxis is in Drapery, imitating Cloathing, and Artificially setting off the outward Coverings, Habit & Ornaments of the Body, as Cloath, Stuff, Silk and Linnen, their natural and proper folds ; which although it may seem something hard to do, yet by much exercise and imitation of the choisest Prints will become facile and easie.
IX. In drawing of all the aforegoing forms, or what ever else, you must be perfect, first in the exact proportions : secondly in the general or outward lines before you fall to shadowing or trimming of your work within.
X. In mixed and uncertain forms, where Circle and Square will do no good (but onely the Idea thereof in your own fansie) as in Lions, Horses, and the like ; you must work by reason in your own judgment, and so obtain the true proportion by daily practice. Thus,
Having the shape of the thing in your mind, first draw it rudely with your coal, then more exactly with your lead or pensil ; then peruse it well, and consider where you have erred, and mend it, according to that Idea, which you carry in your mind ; this done, view it again, correcting by degrees the other parts, even to the least Jota, so far as your judgement will inform you ; and this you may do with twenty, thirty, fourty or more papers of several things at once : having done what you can, confer it with some excellent pattern or print of like kind, using no rule or compass at all, but your own reason, in mending every fault, giving every thing its due place, and just proportion ; by this means you may rectifie all your errours, and step and Incredible way on to perfection.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes

Quotation

CHAP. XXV. Of the Practice of Limning in Miniature, or Drawing of a Face in Colours.
I.
To begin the work.
[...] the ground thus laid, begin the work, the party being set, which must be done at three sittings : at the first sitting the face is only dead coloured, which takes up about two hours time : at the second sitting, go over the work more curiously, adding its particular graces or deformities, sweetly couching the colours, which will take up about five hours time : at the third sitting finish the face, in which you must perfect all that is imperfect and rough, putting the deep shadows in the face, as in the eyes, eyes-brows, and ears, which are the last of the work, and not to be done till the hair curtain, or back side of the picture, and the drapery be wholly finished.
II.
The operation or work at first sitting.
The ground for the complexion being laid, draw the out-lines of the face, which do with Lake and white mingled; [...].

III.
The operation or work at second sitting.
[...]

IV.
The operation or work at third sitting.
[...]

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Drawing consists of several General precepts to be learnt of every one that is desirous to attian to Perfection therein ; the practice of which requires Observation, Discretion, and Judgement ; in which, Proportions, Motions, and Actions are with great care and diligence to be followed : And therefore he that will attain to the perfection of this excellent Practice, it is necessary he should not be ignorant of Mathematical Demonstration in the Rules of Geometry and Perspective ; of which in this Book you shall receive Instructions. Of all other proportions, the Body of man hath the pre-eminence for excellency, from which all other Arts are derived, as many of the learned have concluded ; for Vitruvius noteth, that the Architect hence took the observations of his Buildings, Man being the first pattern of all Artificial things ; and Antiquity hath so graced Painting, (as being the chief Mistress of Proportion) so that all other Artificers are called Handy-crafts or Mechanicks.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Chap. IV, Of the first Practice of Drawing.
SECT. I.
Of Geometrical Figures.
Being provided of all necessary Instruments for Drawing, proceed to Practice ; and first begin with plain Geometrical figures, such as the
Circle, Oval, Square, Triangle, Cone, Cylinder ; all which your Rule and Compasses will help you in : but first endeavour to draw them by hand, which with a little practice you may attain. I have my self, by taking a Black-lead Pencil in my hand, and holding it as I do a Pen, and restling the end of my little finder upon my paper, turning the paper about with my left hand, and have described a Circle so exact, that a pair of Compasses could not discover an errour : I say, practice the making and drawing of these by hand, for they are all useful in one kind or other. […].


SECT. II.
Of the second practice of Drawing.
Having practised these Figures, proceed to the drawing of
Cherries, Pears, Apples, Apricocks, Peaches, Grapes, Strawberries, Peascods, Butterflies, and such like.


SECT. III.
Of the third Practice.
Imitate
Flowers, as Roses, Tulips, Carnations, &c. Also Beasts, […]. Then practice Birds, […]. Then Fishes, […]. Of all which there are Books to be bought at very reasonable rates.


SECT. IV.
Of the fourth Practice.
Imitate the Body and Parts of the Body of Man ; in the practice whereof beware of the common errors usually committed, as of drawing the Head too big for the Body, and others the like ; which to prevent, you have here presented to your view the
Heads, Noses, Mouths, Hands, Arms, Feet, Legs, Bodies ; also whole Figures of Men, Women, and Children in several postures, being Copies of the best Masters extant, with Rules and Directions for Drawing every particuler member of the Body, and that I would have you now to practice, you having gone sufficiently forward with the others before noted.

ANONYME, [Bouches, planche 4], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 27 - planche 4.
ANONYME, [Bras, planche 7], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 30 - planche 7.
ANONYME, [Enfant de face et de dos, planche 11], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 37 - planche 11.
ANONYME, [Enfants dans diverses positions, planche 12], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 38 - planche 12.
ANONYME, [Femme et homme de dos, planche 14], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 40 - planche 14.
ANONYME, [Femme et homme de face, planche non numérotée], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 39.
ANONYME, [Jambes, planche 10], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 33 - planche 10.
ANONYME, [Mains, planche 5], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 28 - planche 5.
ANONYME, [Mains, planche 6], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 29 - planche 6.
ANONYME, [Oreilles et yeux, planche 3], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 26 - planche 3.
ANONYME, [Pieds, planche 9], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 32 - planche 9.
ANONYME, [Torses, planche non numérotée], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 35.
ANONYME, [Visages, planche 1], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 24 - planche 1.
ANONYME, [Visages, planche 2], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 42 - planche 2.
ANONYME, [Visages, planche non numérotée], estampe, dans ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688, p. 43.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

However I will here make him [ndr : au lecteur] an Offer of an Abstract of what I take to be those by which a Painter, or Connoisseur, may safely conduct himself, [...] IV. The Drawing must be just ; nothing must be Flat, Lame, or Ill-Proportion’d ; and these Proportions shou’d vary according to the Characters of the Persons drawn.

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 12-13.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Quotation

The Kind of Picture, or Drawing having been consider’d, regard is to be had to the Parts of Painting ; we should see in which of These they excell, and in what Degree.
And these several Parts do not Equally contribute to the Ends of Painting : but (I think) ought to stand in this Order.

Grace and Greatness,
Invention,
Expression,
Composition,
Colouring,
Drawing,
Handling.


The last can only Please ; The next (by which I understand Pure Nature, for the Great, and Gentile Style of Drawing falls into another Part) This also can only Please, Colouring Pleases more ; Composition Pleases at least as much as Colouring, and moreover helps to Instruct, as it makes those Parts that do so more conspicuous ; Expression Pleases, and Instructs Greatly ; the Invention does both in a higher Degree, and Grace, and Greatness above all. Nor is it peculiar to That Story, Fable, or whatever the Subject is, but in General raises our Idea of the Species, gives a most Delightful, Vertuous Pride, and kindles in Noble Minds an Ambition to act up to That Dignity Thus conceived to be in Humane Nature. In the Former Parts the Eye is employ’d, in the Other the Understanding.

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 24-25

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → perception et regard
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Quotation

And thus too it is seen that Drawings (generally speaking) are Preferrable to Paintings, as having those Qualities which are most Excellent in a Higher Degree than Paintings generally have, or can possibly have, and the Others (excepting only Colouring) Equally with them. There is a Grace, a Delicacy, a Spirit in Drawings which when the Master attempts to give in Colours is commonly much diminish’d, both as being a sort of Coppying from those First Thoughts, and because the Nature of the Thing admits of no better.

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 26.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin

Quotation

The Composition is unexceptionable [ndr : dans Poussin, Tancrède et Herminie] : There are innumerable Instances of Beautiful Contrasts ; [...] You know (Sir) [ndr : ce passage est la retranscription d’une lettre de Richardson, père et fils, à un « gentleman at Rotterdam] the Drawing of Poussin who have several Admirable Pictures of his hand, This we believe is not Inferiour to any to be seen of him. But there is an Oversight, or two in the Perspective ; the Sword Erminia holds appears by the Pommel of it to incline with the point going off, but by the Blade it seems to be upright ; the other is not worth mentioning.
The Picture is highly finish’d, even in the parts the most inconsiderable, but in once, or two places there is a little heaviness of Hand ; The Drawing is firmly pronounc’d, and Sometimes, chiefly in the Faces, Hands and Feet ‘tis mark’d more than ordinary with the point of the Pencil.

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 51-52.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Quotation

In Drawings one finds a great Variety, from their being First Thoughts, (which are often very Slight, but Spirituous Scrabbles) or more Advanced, or Finish’d. So some are done one Way, some Another ; a Pen, Chalks, Washes of all Colours ; heightned with White, Wet, or Dry, or not Heightned.

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 79

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin

Quotation

DESIGN or DRAWING
By these Terms is sometimes understood the expressing our Thoughts upon Paper, or whatever other flat Superficies ; and that by Resemblances form’d by a Pen, Crayon, Chalk, or the like. But more commonly, The giving the Just Form, and Dimension of Visible Objects, according as they appear to the Eye ; if they are pretended to be describ’d in their Natural Dimensions ; If Not, but Bigger, or Lesser, then Drawing, or Designing signifies only the giving those Things their true Form, which implies an exact proportionable Magnifying, or Diminishing in every part alike
And this comprehends also giving the true Shapes, Places, and even Degrees of Lights, Shadows, and Reflections ; because if these are not right, if the thing has not its due Force, or Relief, the true Form of what is pretended to be drawn cannot be given : These shew the Out-Line all round, and in every part, as well as where the Object is terminated on its Back-Ground.

In a Composition of several Figures, or whatever other Bodies, if the Perspective is not just the Drawing of that Composition is false. This therefore is also imply’d by this Term. That the Perspective must be observ’d in the Drawing of a Single Figure cannot be doubted.
I know
Drawing is not commonly understood to comprehend the Clair-obscure, Relief, and Perspective, but it does not follow however that what I advance is not right.
But if the Out-Lines are only mark’d, this also is Drawing ; ‘tis giving the true Form of what is pretended to, that is, the Out-Line.
The Drawing in the latter, and most common Sense ;
besides that it must be Just, must be pronounced Boldly, Clearly, and without Ambiguity : Consequently, neither the Out-Lines, nor the Forms of the Lights, and Shadows must be Confus’d, and Uncertain, or Wooly (as Painters call it) upon pretence of Softness ; nor on the other hand may they be Sharp, Hard, or Dry ; for either of these are Extreams ; Nature lies between them.

design · designing

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 114-116.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Quotation

DESIGN or DRAWING
By these Terms is sometimes understood the expressing our Thoughts upon Paper, or whatever other flat Superficies ; and that by Resemblances form’d by a Pen, Crayon, Chalk, or the like. But more commonly, The giving the Just Form, and Dimension of Visible Objects, according as they appear to the Eye ; if they are pretended to be describ’d in their Natural Dimensions ; If Not, but Bigger, or Lesser, then Drawing, or Designing signifies only the giving those Things their true Form, which implies an exact proportionable Magnifying, or Diminishing in every part alike
And this comprehends also giving the true Shapes, Places, and even Degrees of Lights, Shadows, and Reflections ; because if these are not right, if the thing has not its due Force, or Relief, the true Form of what is pretended to be drawn cannot be given : These shew the Out-Line all round, and in every part, as well as where the Object is terminated on its Back-Ground.

In a Composition of several Figures, or whatever other Bodies, if the Perspective is not just the Drawing of that Composition is false. This therefore is also imply’d by this Term. That the Perspective must be observ’d in the Drawing of a Single Figure cannot be doubted.
I know
Drawing is not commonly understood to comprehend the Clair-obscure, Relief, and Perspective, but it does not follow however that what I advance is not right.
But if the Out-Lines are only mark’d, this also is Drawing ; ‘tis giving the true Form of what is pretended to, that is, the Out-Line.
The Drawing in the latter, and most common Sense ;
besides that it must be Just, must be pronounced Boldly, Clearly, and without Ambiguity : Consequently, neither the Out-Lines, nor the Forms of the Lights, and Shadows must be Confus’d, and Uncertain, or Wooly (as Painters call it) upon pretence of Softness ; nor on the other hand may they be Sharp, Hard, or Dry ; for either of these are Extreams ; Nature lies between them.

design · designing

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 114-116.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin

Quotation

When a Painter intends to make a History (for example) the way commonly is to design the thing in his Mind, to consider what Figures to bring in, and what they are to Think, Say, or Do ; and then to Sketch upon Paper this Idea of his ; and not only the Invention, but Composition of his intended Picture : This he may alter upon the same Paper, or by making other Sketches, till he is pretty well determin’d as to that ; (and this is that first Sense in which I said the Term Drawing, or Designing was to be understood.) In the next place his Business is to consult the Life, and to make Drawings of particular Figures, or parts of Figures, or of what else he intends to bring into his Work, as he finds necessary ; together also with such Ornaments, or other things of his Invention, as Vases, Frizes, Trophies, &c. till he has brought his Picture to some Perfection on Paper, either in these loose Studies, or in one entire Drawing. This is frequently done, and sometimes these Drawings are finish’d very highly by the Master, either that his Disciples might be able from them to make a greater Progress in the Grand Work, and so leave the less for Himself to do ; or because he made Advantage of such Drawings from the Person who employ’d him, or some other ; and perhaps sometimes for his own Pleasure.
Of these Drawings of all kinds, those great Masters […] made very many ; sometimes several for the same thing, and not only for the same Picture, but for one Figure, or part of a Figure ; and though too many are perish’d, and lost, a considerable Number have escap’d, and been preserved to our Times, some very well, others not, as it has happen’d : And these are exceedingly priz’d by all who understand, and can see their Beauty ; for they are the very Spirit, and Quintessence of the Art ; there we see the Steps the Master took, the Materials with which he made his Finish’d Paintings, which are little other than Copies of these, and frequently (at least in part) by some Other Hand ; but these are undoubtedly altogether his Own and true, and proper Originals.

designing · sketch · study

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 119
term translated by ÉTUDE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 119

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin
GENRES PICTURAUX → peinture d’histoire
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

The Thoughts, and Finishings are in a great Measure seen in the Prints of such Works of which Prints are made, nor is a Drawing destitute of Colouring absolutely ; on the contrary, one frequently sees beautiful Tints in the Paper, Washes, Ink, and Chalks of Drawings ; But what is wanting in some respects is abundantly recompenc’d in Others, for in These Works the Masters not being embarrass’d with Colours have had a full Scope, and perfect Liberty, which is a very considerable Advantage, especially to some of them. There is a Spirit, a Fire, a Freedom, and Delicacy in the Drawings of Giulio Romano, Polydoro, Parmeggiano, Battista Franco, &c. which are not to be seen in their Paintings : A Pen, or Chalk will perform what cannot possibly be done with a Pencil ; and a Pencil with a thin Liquid only what cannot be done when one has a Variety of Colours to manage, especially in Oil.

term translated by DESSIN in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 121-122.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin

Quotation

WE have been more particular in the Relation of this famous Piece [ndr : Bell fait ici référence au tableau commencé par Apelle et Protogènes sur lequel ces deux artistes ont successivement tracé des lignes – événement précédent de peu leur rencontre], because a large Dispute hangs upon it {Pliny, Lib. 35. Ch. 10.} : and the late Commentator upon our Author, Ludov. Demontiosius, seems very much offended at the generally received Acceptation of the Story of this noble Contention ; and would not by any Means admits that this Tryal of Skill was about the Subtilty of Lines ; for, as he says, with a good Share of Truth in the main, in a coloured Picture, or Painting, there is so little Use of Lines, that the very Appearance of any is justly reproveable ; for the Extremities should be lost and confounded in the Shadows, and ought to go off without any Thing of the least Stiffness, or Sharpness of a Line.
NEITHER will he admit it in Drawings, or Designs, with the Coal, or Pen, for that in those the true ARTIST never regarded so much the Fineness, or Courseness of his Touches ; but only how and where they served best to express the proper Shadowing and Raising of his Draught according to the Life ; and brings in for Instance many Drawings of the celebrated Masters of his Time, which he had seen of
Mich. Angela Bonoroti, Raphael de Urbin, Salviati, Polydore, and the Great Titian’s, where his Observation does not take Notice that any have in the least affected the Nicety of curious Lines.

design

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité du dessin
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique du dessin