ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.1 quotations
Chap. VI, Of Shadowing, and Rules to be observed therein.
The out-lines of any Draught or Picture give the Symmetry or Proportion, which is enough to a good judgment : So the Figures before in this Book have only the out-lines, and those are best to practice first by : I say, the Out-lines shew the Proportion to a good judgment ; but the Lines and Shadows give the lively likeness. In Shadowing therefore of any Picture you must observe these Rules following.
DESIGN or DRAWING
By these Terms is sometimes understood the expressing our Thoughts upon Paper, or whatever other flat Superficies ; and that by Resemblances form’d by a Pen, Crayon, Chalk, or the like. But more commonly, The giving the Just Form, and Dimension of Visible Objects, according as they appear to the Eye ; if they are pretended to be describ’d in their Natural Dimensions ; If Not, but Bigger, or Lesser, then Drawing, or Designing signifies only the giving those Things their true Form, which implies an exact proportionable Magnifying, or Diminishing in every part alike
And this comprehends also giving the true Shapes, Places, and even Degrees of Lights, Shadows, and Reflections ; because if these are not right, if the thing has not its due Force, or Relief, the true Form of what is pretended to be drawn cannot be given : These shew the Out-Line all round, and in every part, as well as where the Object is terminated on its Back-Ground.
In a Composition of several Figures, or whatever other Bodies, if the Perspective is not just the Drawing of that Composition is false. This therefore is also imply’d by this Term. That the Perspective must be observ’d in the Drawing of a Single Figure cannot be doubted.
I know Drawing is not commonly understood to comprehend the Clair-obscure, Relief, and Perspective, but it does not follow however that what I advance is not right.
But if the Out-Lines are only mark’d, this also is Drawing ; ‘tis giving the true Form of what is pretended to, that is, the Out-Line.
The Drawing in the latter, and most common Sense ; besides that it must be Just, must be pronounced Boldly, Clearly, and without Ambiguity : Consequently, neither the Out-Lines, nor the Forms of the Lights, and Shadows must be Confus’d, and Uncertain, or Wooly (as Painters call it) upon pretence of Softness ; nor on the other hand may they be Sharp, Hard, or Dry ; for either of these are Extreams ; Nature lies between them.
BELL, Henry, The Perfect Painter : or, a Compleat History of the Original, Progress and Improvement of Painting. Shewing, I. The Antiquity, Excellency and Usefulness of that Divine Art, to Those who are desirous of being Acquainted with the true Knowledge and Secrets therein contain'd. II. Plain Instructions to form a right Judgment of the real Value of good Pictures, and how to distinguish Originals from Copies. III. A Chronological Account of the most celebrated Painters, from their Rise, to the Present Time, London, s.n., 1730.1 quotations
And what higher Expectations can we derive from a Portrait, or Profile of a Face drawn from the Shadow upon a Wall ; or when we find Gyges, whom Pliny sometime calls the first Painter, born in Lydia, which, as he says, was Tuscania, went into Egypt, found out the ART there, and all his Skill arrived only to some competency of Design, probably with a Coal, or some such coarse Material. From which Sort of Picture they advanced not much further, ‘till some competent Time after, came Polignotus, the first that painted Encaustice, or by Fire ; which was not enameling on Gold, but with hot glowing Irons, to draw, or cast their Design into Wood, or Ivory, and possibly to finish with some slight Shadowing within ; for before that, as Carel van Mander, in his Lives of the Painters observes, the First Pictures were only drawn, and consisted of Out-Lines only, and therefore called Linearis Pictura.