TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONSACADÉMIE (fra.)
RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Two Discourses. I. An Essay on the whole Art of Criticism as it relates to Painting. Shewing how to judge I. Of the Goodness of a Picture ; II. Of the Hand of the Master ; and III. Whether ‘tis an Original, or a Copy. II. An Argument in behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur ; Wherein is shewn the Dignity, Certainty, Pleasure, and Advantage of it. Both by Mr. Richardson, London, W. Churchill, 1719.1 quotations
And to This, and to the obtaining the Benefits to the Publick consequent thereupon, what I have Been pleading for would greatly contribute : For if our Nobility, and Gentry were Lovers, and Connoisseurs, Publick Encouragement, and Assistance would be given to the Art [ndr : en Angleterre] ; Academies would be set up, Well Regulated, and the Government of them put into Such Hands, as would not want Authority to maintain those Laws, without which no Society can Prosper, or long Subsist. These Academies would then be well provided of all Necessaries for Instruction in Geometry, Perspective, and Anatomy, as well as Designing, for without a competent Proficiency in the three former, no considerable Progress can be made in the Other. They would then be furnished with Good Masters to Direct the Students, and good Drawings, and Figures, whether Casts, or Originals, Antique, or Modern for their Imitation. Nor should these be consider’d merely as Schools, or Nurseries for Painting [ndr : il s’agit en fait du terme Painters et non de Painting, cf l’Errata, au début de l’ouvrage], and Sculptors, and other Artists of That kind, but as places for the better Education of Gentlemen, and to Complete the Civilizing, and Polishing of our People, as our Other Schools, and Universities, and the Other means of Instruction are.
In order to give this Just Representation of Nature […] I say in order to follow Nature exactly, a Man must be well acquainted with Nature, and have a reasonable Knowledge of Geometry, Proportion, (which must be varied according to the Sex, Age, and Quality of the Person) Anatomy, Osteology, and Perspective. I will add to these an Acquaintance with the Works of the best Painters, and Sculptors, Ancient, and Modern : For ‘tis a certain Maxim, No Man sees what things Are, that knows not what they Ought to be.
That this Maxim is true, will appear by an Academy Figure drawn by one ignorant in the Structure, and knitting of the Bones, and Anatomy, compar’d with another who understands these throughly :