TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATIONCARNATION (fra.)
BATE, John, The Mysteryes of Nature and Art : Conteined in foure severall Tretises, The first of water workes The second of Fyer workes. The third of Drawing, Colouring, Painting, and Engraving. The fourth of divers Experiments as wel serviceable as delightful: partly Collected, and partly of the Authors Peculiar Pratice, and Invention, London, Ralph Mab - Thomas Harper, 1634.1 quotations
A Carnation, or Flesh-colour.
First you must lay on a white colour tempered with gumme-water, and when it is drie you must go it over againe with Vermilion or lake, or else you must temper ceruse and vermilleon together, and being dry, go over it againe with lake or vermillion.
PEACHAM, Henry, The Compleat Gentleman: Fashioning Him absolute in the most Necessary and Commendable Qualities, concerning Mind, or Body, that may be required in a Person of Honor. To which is added the Gentlemans Exercise or, An exquisite practise, as well for drawing all manner of Beasts, as for making Colours, to be used in Painting, Limning, &c. The Third Impression much inlarged, especially in the Art of Blazonry, by a very good Hand, London, E. Tyler, 1661.1 quotations
After you have made the white of the Eyes, and proportion of the Nose, &c. lay your Carnation or Flesh colour over the Face, casting in here and there some shadowes, which work in with the flesh colour by degrees. Your flesh-colour is commonly compounded of white lead, lake, and vermilion ; but you may heighthen or deepen it at your pleasure.
SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.1 quotations
CHAP. XXIV. Of Preparations for Limning.
V. Have ready a quantity of light carnation or flesh colour temperd up in a shell by it self with a weak gum water ; If it be a fair complexion mix white and red Lead together ; if a brown or swarthy, add to the former, Masticot, or English Oker, or both : but be sure the flesh colour be always lighter than the complexion you would limne ; for by working on it you may bring it to its true colour.
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.1 quotations
The manner of Laying the Ground Flesh-colour for a Face to be wrought upon with Cryons.
The best way is to colour the Paper that you intend to Draw on with a Carnatian or Flesh-colour, near the Complexion on the Party you intend to draw after ; […]. And because many times the Pastils will not sharpen to so good a point as Black or Red Chalk, you must be extremely careful to close and finish all your Work at last with Red and Black Chalk, which you may sharpen at your pleasure. I shall not need to insist upon particulars of this manner of Drawing, but if you please to take a view of that Book of Pictures, which are all drawn by the Life, by the Incomparable Hand of Hans Holbean, […] you will find something in those Ruines an Admirable Hand and Rare Manner of Working ; who with few Lines and little Labour expressed the Life so Extraordinarily well, that by many they are esteemed not much Inferiour to his Admirable Works in Oyl.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.2 quotations
Of Limning in Water-Colours, The Third Book, Chap. III, How to prepare a Table for a Picture in small for Limning, to make choice of your Light, the manner of Sitting in respect of Position and Distances, and what necessary Instruments are to lie by you when you are at work, p. 81
5. Have a pretty quantity of Carnation (as some call it) or Flesh-colour, somewhat lighter than the Complexion of the party your are to draw, tempered up in a shell by it self with a weak Gum-water. If it be a Fair complexion, White-lead and Red-lead mixed. If a Swarthie or Brown complexion, to your White and Red-lead add a quantity of Masticote, or English-Oker, or both if occasion be. But whatever the Complexion be, be sure you temper your Flesh-colour lighter than the party ; for by often working upon it you may bring it to its true colour, it being first too light ; but if it be first too sad, there then is no remedy.
Chap. III, How to order your Colours upon your Pallat, and how to temper Shadows for all Complexions.
Dispose your single Colours upon your Pallat in this order, laying them at a convenient distance one from another, so that they be not apt to intermix. First lay on your Vermilion, then lake, then burnt Oker, India Red, Pink, Umber, Blacks, and Smalt : lay the White next to your thumb, because it is oftenest used, for with it you lighten all your shadows ; next to your White lay a stiff sort of Lake : this done, your Pallat is furnished with the single Colours belonging to a Face ; then for the tempering of your Shadows to all Complexions, observe the following Directions.
1. For a Fair Complexion.
Take a little White, and twice as much Vermilion, and as much Lake temper these well together upon your Pallat with the flat blade of your knife ; lay aside by it self on your Pallat the greatest quantity of this to be used for the deepest Carnation of the Face […].
Your Carnations being thus tempered, and orderly laid upon your Pallat, prepare your faint Shadows. For which,
Take Smalt, and mix it with a little White, which may serve for the Eyes ; lay aside the greatest quantity, and to the rest add a little Pink, this well tempered and laid by it self, will serve for the faint greenish shadows in the Face.
Now prepare your deep Shadows : for which take Lake, Pink, […].
2. For a more Brown or Swarthy Complexion.
Lay your single Colours on your Pallat as before, and in like manner temper them, only amongst your White Lake, and Vermilion, put a little quantity of burnt Oker, to make it look somewhat Tawny […].
3. For a Tawny Complexion.
The general Colours must be the same as before, only the Shadows are different, for you are to prepare them of Umber, and burnt Oker, […].
4. For an Absolute Black Complexion.
Your dark Shadows must be the same as before ; but for your heightnings, you must take White, burnt Oker, Lake, and Black, put but a little White in at first, […].
Here note, that the single Colours at first laid upon your Pallat being tempered together according to the former directions, serve for shadows for all Complexions.
SMITH, Marshall, The Art of Painting According to the Theory and Practise of the Best Italian, French, and Germane Masters. Treating of The Antiquity of Painting. The Reputation it allways had. The Characters of severall Masters. Proportion. Action and Passion. The Effects of Light. Perspective. Draught. Colouring. Ordonnance. Far more Compleat and Compendious then hath yet been publisht by any, Ancient or Modern. By M. S. Gent., London, The Vendüe, 1692.1 quotations