BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.2 quotations
Observations and Directions in Drawing Garments.
First, be sure that you draw the Out-lines very True and Faint, because the whole Grace of a Picture consisteth most in the Outmost Draught, more then in the Curious Work within. And to perform this Exactly you must sute the Garments to the Body, and make them Bend and Yield with it ; […]. Indeed where the Body, or any part of it, sticks out more then the other, it should be shewn in a plain and visible manner through the Garments : Which thing you must take notice of, especially by the Life ; as you may see it extraordinarily well expressed in those Statues of Rome, done by the Hand of the aforementioned Biscup or Parier. Be sure to express it Lightly, and with a kind of Transparency.
You must begin at the Upper part of the Garment, and so draw down that part of the Garment (on both sides) that lies Close to the Body, before you draw the Loose parts that flie off from the Body ; […]. By these means you may be sure to place the Body streight, by drawing those parts of the Garment first that lie nearest upon the Body or Limbs.
You must draw the greatest Folds first, and so strike the greater Folds into less ; and be sure you let not one Fold cross another ; […].
Observations for Placing the Lights, and for Shadowing of Garments, and other things in general.
Let all the Lights be placed one way in those Piece of Work, whether in the Figure, Faces, or Garments. If the Lights fall sideways on the Picture, you make the other side (which is furthest from the Light) darkest. And let the Lights be placed all together on the one side, and not confusedly on both sides alike, […].
The Reason why the Shadows must generally fall one way.
First, because the Light doth not with all its brightness illuminate any more then that part that is directly opposite unto it.
The second Reason is taken from the nature of the Eye ; for the first part of the Body coming to the Eye with a bigger angle, is seen more distinctly ; but the second part being further off, is seen by the Eye in a lesser angle. […].
That part of the Body must be made lightest, which hath the Light most directly opposite to it ; as the Light be placed above the Head, descending then, the top of the Head must be made Lightest, the Shoulder next Lightest, and so you must lose by degrees. […]. As for Sattens and Silks, and all other Shining Stuffs, have certain Bright Reflections, exceeding Bright, with sudden Light Glances, especially where the Light falls brightest ; and so the Reflections are less bright, by how much the Garment falls more inward from the Light. The like is seen in Armour, and Brass Pots and Kettles, or any Glittering Metalls : you may see a sudden Brightness in the middle or centre of the Light, which causes the Shining nature of such things.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.2 quotations
Chap. VI, Of Garments of several colours, and of their proper Colouring.
The next thing I shall speak of, shall be of Drapery or Garments, and the true and proper manner of Colouring of them.
1. For a Red Garment.
For a light-red Garment, first dead-colour it with Vermilion, and when you would finish it, glaze it over with Lake, and heighten it with White.
For a Scarlet.
For a Crimson Velvet.
For a sad Red.
2. For Green Garments.
The best Green for holding, is Bise and Pink, heighten it with Masticote, and deepen it with Indico and Pink.
For Green Velvet.
3. For Blew Garments.
Take Indico and White, first lay the White in its due places, and then your mean colour, namely Indico and White mixed in their due places, then deepen it with Indico only, […].
4. For Yellow Garments.
For a Yellow Garment, Masticote, yellow Oker, and Umber ; lay the dead colour of Masticote and White in the lightest places, Oker and White in the mean places, and Umber in the darkest places ; when it is dry glaze it with Pink. […].
5. For Black Garments.
Let the dead colour be Lamp-black, and some Verdigrease ; when that is dry, go over it with Ivory-black and Verdigrease ; before you go over it the second time, heighten it with White.
6. For Purple Garments.
Oyl Smalt, tempered with Lake and White-Lead, heighten it with White Lead.
7. Orange Colour.
Red-Lead and Lake, lay the lightest parts of all with Red-Lead and White, the mean parts with Red-Lead alone, the deeper parts with Lake, if need require heighten it with White.
8. Hair Colour.
Umber and White for the ground, Umber and Black for the deeper shadows, Umber and English Oker for mean shadows, for heightning White with a little English Oker.
17. How to Shadow every colour in Garments, or Drapery.
Take this Rule, that every Colour is made to shadow it self, or if you mingle it with White for the light, and so shadow it with the same colour unmingled with White, else take off the thinnest of the colour for the light, and so shadow it with the thickest bottom of the colour ; if you will have your shadow of a darker colour, then the colour it self is to shadow the deepest places.