TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATIONCONVENABLE (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONSCONVENABLE (fra.)
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.2 quotations
Of Drapery, or drawing Apparel.
As for Apparel and Clothing of Personages, you ought to be extreme careful not onely in the Habiting every thing properly belonging to the Degrees and Functions of the Persons represented, but also in giving them their right and proper Colours. As for Example, the Blessed Virgin is universally and by commont consent represented in Purple and Azure ; […]. As for the manner of Drawing of Drapery, I find but two ways in Miniture.
The first way or manner of Working the Drapery.
The first way is that which the Italian and French do use, working it with the point of a Pencil, and Hatching it ; and other places stipled all over alike, yet so as when it is finished, you may perceive the Parchment appear in several places quite through the Work, which in my Opinion is too slight a way. That manner I do approve of better, for Washing or Drawing any Design with Indian Ink, and indeed ought not to be called Limning but Washing.
The second way or manner of Working a Drapery.
The second way is that which I shall recommend to you as the best and most proper way. First, lay a good full flat Ground all over where you design your Drapery, of what Colour you would have it. This Groud-colour being laid, you will find it much the easier to work on, upon which you both heighten and deepen, according as your Genius or as the Life shall direct you. […] ; and this was Isaac Olivar’s Way.
Of a Graceful Posture.
The second thing in good Pictures is their graceful Posture and Proper Actions ; that is, that the true and natural Motion of every thing be expressed in the Life and Spirit of it, that is, to quicken the Life by Art ; as in a King, to express the greatest Majesty by putting or designing him in such a Graceful posture, that may move the Spectators with Reverence to behold him. […]. So in all your Draughts the Inward Affections and Dispositions of the Mind may be most lively exprest in the Outward Action and Gesture of the Body. Now to attain to the Knowledge of this, you ought most diligently to observe the Works of several Famous Masters, and also to follow their Examples, who were used to delight themselves in beholding the Eyes of Private Murtherers, the Actions and Carriages of Wrestlers, and those that fought at Cuffs ; to observe the Actions of Stage-Players, the Inticing Allurements of Curtizans ; and for Thieves that are led to Execution, to mark the Contracting of their Brows, the Motions of their Eyes, and the Carriage of their whole Bodies, to the end they may express them to the Life in their Drawings and Works.
SMITH, Marshall, The Art of Painting According to the Theory and Practise of the Best Italian, French, and Germane Masters. Treating of The Antiquity of Painting. The Reputation it allways had. The Characters of severall Masters. Proportion. Action and Passion. The Effects of Light. Perspective. Draught. Colouring. Ordonnance. Far more Compleat and Compendious then hath yet been publisht by any, Ancient or Modern. By M. S. Gent., London, The Vendüe, 1692.1 quotations
Proportion is of two sorts either Proper, Expressing the exact Proportion of the Thing to be Represented, or else in Perspective, in Respect of the Eye, differing very much from the other, for according to the Distance of the Thing from the Eye is Judgeth what Proportion the Head hath with the Body.
For should a Carver make a Statue according to true Proportion and place it on high, he that below beholds it will judge it Disproportionable, by Reason the upper Parts will come to the Eye in a Sharp Angle, and the lower Parts in a Blunt.
So great is the Vertue of Proportion, that nothing delighteth the Eye without it, since the Grace of all Beautifull Forms consists in a Proportionable Measure of Parts, and as Vitruvious saith, that none can proceed with Judgment without Acquaintance with the Force thereof, it giving the Majesty and Beauty to Bodys, whence he calleth it Eurithmia.
It hath been of great Force in exciting Mens Minds to Reverence and Devotion, witness the Statue of Jupiter Carv’d by Phidias ; [...].
Proportion is a Correspondency and Agreement of the Measures of the Parts between themselves, and with the whole in every Work
. This Correspondency Vitruvius cals Commodulation, because a Modell is a Measure, which being taken at first, measures both the Parts and the Whole.
RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Two Discourses. I. An Essay on the whole Art of Criticism as it relates to Painting. Shewing how to judge I. Of the Goodness of a Picture ; II. Of the Hand of the Master ; and III. Whether ‘tis an Original, or a Copy. II. An Argument in behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur ; Wherein is shewn the Dignity, Certainty, Pleasure, and Advantage of it. Both by Mr. Richardson, London, W. Churchill, 1719.3 quotations
However I will here make him [ndr : au lecteur] an Offer of an Abstract of what I take to be those by which a Painter, or Connoisseur, may safely conduct himself, [...] II. The Expression must be Proper to the Subject, and the Characters of the Persons ; It must be strong, so that the Dumb-shew may be perfectly Well, and Readily understood. Every Part of the Picture must contribute to This End ; Colours, Animals, Draperies, and especially the Actions of the Figures, and above all the Airs of the Heads.
Gentlemen may do as they please, the following Method [ndr : pour juger un tableau] seems to Me to be the most Natural, Convenient, and Proper.
Before you come so near the Picture to be Consider’d as to look into Particulars, or even to be able to know what the Subject of it is, at least before you take notice of That, Observe the Tout-ensemble of the Masses, and what Kind of one the Whole makes together. It will be proper at the same Distance to consider the General Colouring ; whether That be Grateful, Chearing, and Delightful to the Eye, or Disagreeable ; Then let the Composition be Examin’d Near, and see the Contrasts, and other Particularities relating to it, and so finish your Observations on That Head. The same Then may be done with respect to the Colouring ; then the Handling, and afterwards the Drawing ; These being dispatch’d the Mind is at liberty carefully consider the Invention ; then to see how well the Expression is perform’d, And Lastly, What Grace and Greatness is spread throughout, and how suitable to each Character.
Rules may be establish’d so clearly derived from Reason as to be Incontestable. If the Design of the Picture be (as in General it is) to Please, and Improve the Mind (as in Poetry) the Story must have all possible Advantages given to it, and the Actors must have the Utmost Grace, and Dignity their several Characters will admit of : If Historical, and Natural Truth only be intended That must be follow’d ; tho’ the Best Choice of These must be made ; In Both Cases Unity of Time, Place, and Action ought to be observ’d : The Composition must be such as to make the Thoughts appear at first Sight, and the Principal of them the most conspicuously ; And the Whole must be so contrived as to be a Grateful Object to the Eye, both as to the Colours, and the Masses of Light, and Shadow. These things are so evident as not to admit of any Dispute, or Contradiction ; As it also is that the Expression must be Strong, the Drawing Just, the Colouring Clean, and Beautiful, the Handling Easy, and Light, and all These Proper to the Subject. Nor will it be difficult to know Assuredly what is so, unless with relation to the Justness of the Drawing ; but to know in the Main whether any thing is Lame, Distorded, Mis-shapen, ill Proportioned, or Flat, or on the contrary Round, and Beautiful is what any Eye that is tolerably Curious can judge of.
Whatever the general Character of the Story is, the Picture must discover it throughout, whether it be Joyous, Melancholy, Grave, Terrible, &c. The Nativity, Resurrection, and Ascension ought to have the General Colouring, the Ornaments, Background, and every thing in them Riant, and Joyous, and the contrary in a Crucifixion, Interment, or a Pietà. [The Blessed Virgin with the dead Christ]. [...] I have seen a fine Instance of a Colouring proper for Melancholy Subjects in a Pietà of Van-Dyck : That alone would make one not only Grave, but sad at first Sight ; And a Colour’d Drawing that I have of the Fall of Phaëton after Giulio Romano, shews how much This contributes to the Expression. ‘Tis different from any Colouring that ever I saw, and admirably adapted to the Subject, there is a Reddish Purple Tinct spread throughout, as if the World was all invelopp’d in Smould’ring Fire.
In Portraits it must be seen whether the Person is Grave, Gay, a Man of Business, or Wit, Plain, Gentile, &c. Each Character must have an Attitude, and Dress ; the Ornaments and Back-Ground proper to it : Every part of the Portrait, and all about it must be Expressive of the Man, and have a Resemblance as well as the Features of the Face.
But the Handling may be such as to be not only Good abstractedly consider’d, but as being Proper, and adding a real Advantage to the Picture : And then to say a Picture has such, and such good Properties, and is also Well Handled (in that Sense) is as to say a Man is Wise, Virtuous, and the like, and is also Handsome, and perfectly Well bred.
Generally if the Character of the Picture is Greatness, Terrible, or Savage, as Battels, Robberies, Witchcrafts, Apparitions, or even the Portraits of Men of such Characters there ought to be employ’d a Rough, Bold Pencil ; and contrarily, if the Character is Grace, Beauty, Love, Innocence, &c. a Softer Pencil, and more finishing is proper.