SMITH, Marshall, The Art of Painting According to the Theory and Practise of the Best Italian, French, and Germane Masters. Treating of The Antiquity of Painting. The Reputation it allways had. The Characters of severall Masters. Proportion. Action and Passion. The Effects of Light. Perspective. Draught. Colouring. Ordonnance. Far more Compleat and Compendious then hath yet been publisht by any, Ancient or Modern. By M. S. Gent., London, The Vendüe, 1692.1 quotations
The Passions of the Minde are certain Motions, proceeding from the Apprehension of Something : and are either Sensitive, Rationall or Intellectual. Sensitive is, when we consider Good and Evil as Profitable or Unprofitable, Pleasant or Offensive. Rational, when we Consider good and Evil as Virtue or Vice ; Prayse or Disprayse ; and Intellectual, when we regard them as True or False.
The Artist is therefore diligently to observe that he is not only to show the Passion by Contraction, Dilation, &c. of Features, but likewise to adapt a Complexion sutable to the Character the Figure is to bare in the Design, whither a Soldier, a Lover, a Penitent, &c. as for Example.
A Martialist should have a Meager Body with large rays’d and hard Limbs, Great Bones well Knit with Joynts, the Complexion Swarthy with an adult, Red, large Eyes, Yellowish like a Flame of Fire, wide Nostrels, a wide Mouth, thick and purplelish Lips, small Ears, [...].
Thus he that can express the Propertys of one Complection may easily conceive of the Rest, since all Natural Things have a Correspondency in Method, Form, Proportion, Nature, aad Motion ; which Philosophically understood bring a Certain knowledg of all Passion and Action to be imagin’d in Bodys.
For most Certain it is that those Passions of the Minde, whence these Externall Actions flow, discover themselves more or less as the Bodys have Affinity with any of the four Complections arising from the four Elements.
RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Two Discourses. I. An Essay on the whole Art of Criticism as it relates to Painting. Shewing how to judge I. Of the Goodness of a Picture ; II. Of the Hand of the Master ; and III. Whether ‘tis an Original, or a Copy. II. An Argument in behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur ; Wherein is shewn the Dignity, Certainty, Pleasure, and Advantage of it. Both by Mr. Richardson, London, W. Churchill, 1719.2 quotations
Gentlemen may do as they please, the following Method [ndr : pour juger un tableau] seems to Me to be the most Natural, Convenient, and Proper.
Before you come so near the Picture to be Consider’d as to look into Particulars, or even to be able to know what the Subject of it is, at least before you take notice of That, Observe the Tout-ensemble of the Masses, and what Kind of one the Whole makes together. It will be proper at the same Distance to consider the General Colouring ; whether That be Grateful, Chearing, and Delightful to the Eye, or Disagreeable ; Then let the Composition be Examin’d Near, and see the Contrasts, and other Particularities relating to it, and so finish your Observations on That Head. The same Then may be done with respect to the Colouring ; then the Handling, and afterwards the Drawing ; These being dispatch’d the Mind is at liberty carefully consider the Invention ; then to see how well the Expression is perform’d, And Lastly, What Grace and Greatness is spread throughout, and how suitable to each Character.
And notwithstanding the Defects I have taken the Liberty to remark with the same Indifferency as I have observed the Beauties, that is, without the least regard to the Great Name of the Master, There is a Grace throughout that Charms, and a Greatness that Commands Respect [ndr : dans le portrait de la comtesse Dowager d’Exeter, par Van Dyck]; She appears at first Sight to be a Well-bred Woman of Quality ; ‘tis in her Face, and in her Mien ; and as her Dress, Ornaments, and Furniture contribute something to the Greatness, the Gause Veil coming over her Forehead, and the Hem of it hiding a Defect (which was want of Eye-brows,) is a fine Artifice to give more Grace. This Grace, and Greatness is not that of Raffaelle, or the Antique but ‘tis what is suitable to a Portrait ; and one of Her Age, and Character, and consequently better than if she had appear’d with the Grace of a Venus, or Helena, or the Majesty of a Minerva, or Semiramis.
Polydore, in a Drawing of the same Subject [ndr : la descente de la croix] […] has finely express’d the Excessive Grief the Virgin, by intimating ‘twas Otherwise Inexpressible : Her Attendants discover abundance of Passion, and Sorrow in their Faces, but Hers is hid by Drapery held up by both her Hands : The whole Figure is very Compos’d, and Quiet ; no Noise, no Outrage, but great Dignity appears in her, suitable to her Character.