TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATIONCONTRASTE (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONSCONTRASTE (fra.)
SMITH, Marshall, The Art of Painting According to the Theory and Practise of the Best Italian, French, and Germane Masters. Treating of The Antiquity of Painting. The Reputation it allways had. The Characters of severall Masters. Proportion. Action and Passion. The Effects of Light. Perspective. Draught. Colouring. Ordonnance. Far more Compleat and Compendious then hath yet been publisht by any, Ancient or Modern. By M. S. Gent., London, The Vendüe, 1692.2 quotations
In Carnations, we must avoid the Affectation of too many Clear Red Colours, which more resemble the Skin when Flead of, then the true Natural Skin.
Nor must we affect the diversity of Sparkling and Glowing Colours, as the Bright of Diaphanous Bodys, which represent reflections of the variety of Neighbouring Colours ; always remembring, that mans Skin how Beautiful soever, dwells in a delicate down-Colour.
We must observe in the Contrast, or the Opposition which Intervenes in the Union of Colours ; that by a sweet Interruption it may rayse up its Briskness, without it a fading Disagreeableness ensues.
RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Two Discourses. I. An Essay on the whole Art of Criticism as it relates to Painting. Shewing how to judge I. Of the Goodness of a Picture ; II. Of the Hand of the Master ; and III. Whether ‘tis an Original, or a Copy. II. An Argument in behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur ; Wherein is shewn the Dignity, Certainty, Pleasure, and Advantage of it. Both by Mr. Richardson, London, W. Churchill, 1719.1 quotations
The Composition is unexceptionable [ndr : dans Poussin, Tancrède et Herminie] : There are innumerable Instances of Beautiful Contrasts ; Of this kind are the several Characters of the Persons, (all which are Excellent in their several kinds) and the several Habits : Tancred is half Naked : Erminia’s Sex distinguishes Her from all the rest ; as Vafrino’s Armour, and Helmet shews Him to be Inferiour to Tancred, (His lying by him) and Argante’s Armour differs from both of them. The various positions of the Limbs in all the Figures are also finely Contrasted, and altogether have a lovely effect ; Nor did I ever see a greater Harmony, nor more Art to produce it in any Picture of what Master soever, whether as to the Easy Gradation from the Principal, to the Subordinate Parts, the Connection of one with another, by the degrees of the Lights, and Shadows, and the Tincts of the Colours.
Every Historical Picture is a Representation of one single point of Time ; This then must be chosen ; and That in the Story which is the most Advantageous must be It. Suppose, for Instance, the Story to be painted is that of the Woman taken in Adultery, the Painter Seems to be at liberty to choose whether he will represent the Scribes and Pharisees accusing her to our Lord ; Or our Lord writing on the Ground ; Or pronouncing the last of the Words, Let him that is among you without Sin cast the first Stone at her ; Or lastly his Absolution, Go thy way, Sin no more. […] When our Saviour says the Words, Let him that is without Sin cast the first Stone, He is the principal Actor, and with Dignity ; the Accusers are asham’d, Vex’d, Confounded, and perhaps Clamorous ; and the Accused in a fine Situation, Hope and Joy springing up after Shame, and Fear ; all which affords the Painter an opportunity of exerting himself, and giving a pleasing Variety to the Composition ; For besides the various Passions, and Sentiments naturally arising, the Accusers begin to disperse, which will occasion a fine Contrast in the Attitudes of the Figures, some being in Profile, some Fore-right, and some with their Backs turn’d ; some pressing forward as if they were attentive to what was said, and some going off : And this I should chuse ;
In a Composition, as well as in every Single Figure, or other part of which the Picture consists, one thing must Contrast, or be varied from another. Thus in a Figure, the Arms and Legs must not be placed to answer one another in Parallel Lines. In like manner if one Figure in a Composition Stands, another must Bend, or Lye on the Ground ; and of those that Stand, or are in any other Position, if there be several of them, they must be varied by Turns of the Head, or some other Artful Disposition of their Parts ; as may be seen (for instance) in the Carton of giving the Keys. The Masses must also have the like Contrast, two must not be alike in Form, or Size, nor the whole Mass compos’d of those lesser ones of too Regular a Shape. The Colours must be also Contrasted, and Oppos’d, so as to be grateful to the Eye : There must not (for example) be two Draperies in one Picture of the same Colour, and Strength, unless they are contiguous, and then they are but as one. If there be two Reds, Blews, or whatever other Colour, One must be of a Darker, or Paler Tinct, or be some way Varied by Lights, Shadows, of Reflections. Rafaëlle, and others have made great Advantage of Changeable Silks to unite the Contrasting Colours, as well as to make a part of the Contrast themselves. As in the Carton of Giving the Keys, the Apostle that stands in Profile, and immediately behind S. John, has a Yellow Garment with Red Sleeves, which connects that Figure with S. Peter, and S. John, whose Draperies are of the same Species of Colours. Then the same Anonymous Apostle has a loose changeable Drapery, the Lights of which are a Mixture of Red, and Yellow, the other Parts are Bluish. This Unites it self with the Other Colours already mentioned, and with the Blew Drapery of another Apostle which follows afterwards ; between which, and the changeable Silk is a Yellow Drapery something different from the other Yellows, but with Shadows bearing upon the Purple, as those of the Yellow Drapery of S. Peter incline to the Red : All which, together with several other Particulars, produce a wonderful Harmony.
Tho’ a Mass may consist of a Number of Little Parts, there ought to be one, or more, Larger, and as it were governing the rest, and this is another sort of Contrast. My Lord Burlington has a Good Samaritan by Bassau, which is a fine Instance of This. In the same Picture, there are two knees of two several Figures, pretty near together, and the Legs and Thighs of which make Angles too much alike, but this is contracted by one being Naked, and the other Clad, and over the latter, a little sort of Sash falls, which is an additional Expedient.