LEVENDIG

LEVENDIG (adj.)

LEBENDIG (deu.) · LEBHAFT (deu.) · LEBHAFTIG (deu.) · LIVELY (eng.) · VIVANT (fra.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
FEU (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
/ · LEBENDIG (deu.) · LIVELY (eng.)

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4 sources
8 quotations

Quotation

Ghelijck dan de oude Konstenaers een seer treffelicke maniere van wercken ghehadt hebben, soo hadden sy mede een sonderlinghe gaeve om sich de waere verbeeldinghe van allerley beweghinghen onses ghemoeds op ’t aller levendighste voor te stellen; ja wy moghen ’t oock vrijelick daer voor houden, dat sy haere wercken nimmermeer met sulcke bequaeme uytdruckinghen van de verscheydene herts-tochten souden vervult hebben, ’t en waer saecke dat sy met pijne waerd gheacht hadden alle die naturelicke beroerten wijslick nae te speuren door de welcke ons ghemoed verruckt ende den gewoonlicken schijn onses wesens verscheydenlick verandert wordt. Zeuxis heeft de schilderije van Penelope gemaeckt, so dat hy de sedigheyd haeres eerbaeren wesens daer in konstighlick schijnt uytghedruckt te hebben. Plin. XXXV.9. Timomachus heeft den raesenden Aiax afghemaelt, en hoe hy sich in dese uytsinnighe dolligheyd al aenstelde Philostr. Lib. II. de vita Apollonii. Cap. 10. Silanion heeft den wrevelmoedighen Konstenaer Apollodorus ghemaeckt; ende overmids desen Apollodorus eenen rechten korselkop was, soo ist dat Silanion niet alleen den Konstenaer selver, maer sijn koppighe krijghelheydt met eenen oock in ’t koper heeft ghegoten Plin. XXXIV.8. Protogenes heeft Philiscus geschildert, als wesende met eenighe diepe bedenckinghen opghenomen Plin. XXXV.10. Praxiteles heeft Phryne ghemackt, als of men haer weelderigh herte in een volle Zee van vreughd en wellust sach swemmen, Plin. XXXIV.8. Parrhasius maeckten eenen jonghelingh die in sijne wapenrustinge om strijd loopt, Plin. XXXV.10. Den Anapanomenos van Aristides sterft uyt liefde van sijnen broeder, Plin. ibidem. Philostratus {Iconoum Lib. I. in Ariadne} beschrijft ons de schilderije van eenen Bacchus die maer alleen bekent wordt by de minne-stuypen die hem quellen. Dese exempelen gheven ons ghenoegh te verstaen, hoe grooten ervaerenheyd d’oude Meesters in’t uytdrucken van allerley beroerten ende beweghinghen ghehad hebben;

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Just like the old Artists had a very striking manner of working, as such they had a special gift to imagine the true representation of all sorts of movements of our mind in the most lively way; yes we may also interpret freely, that they would never have filled their works again with such able expressions of the different passions, if they had not have thought it painfully worthful to wisely trace all those natural commotions by which our mind delights and the common appearance of our being is changed varyingly. Zeuxis has made a painting of Penelope, in a way that he appears to have artfully depicted the modesty of her being. Plin. XXXV.9. Timomachus has depicted the raging Aiax, and how he behaved in this outrageous madness Philostr. Lib. II. de vita Apollonii.Cap. 10. Silanion has made the resentful Artist Apollodorus; and as this Apollodorus was a grumpy guy, Silanion did not only cast the Artist himself, but also his stubborn touchiness Plin. XXXIV.8. Protogenes has painted Philiscus, being taken by deep reflections Plin. XXXV.10. Praxiteles has made Phyrne, as if one saw her luxuriant heart bathe in a great see of happiness and lust, Plin. XXXIV.8. Parrhasius made a young man who is walking around in his armour looking for a fight, Plin. ibidem. Philostratus {…} describes a painting to us of a Bacchus who can only be recognized by the heartaches that torture him. These examples illustrate clearly enough, how big a skill the old Masters have had in expressing all sorts of commotions and movements;

Only the citations are mentioned in the Latin edition, but there is no commentary, like in the Dutch and English edition. [MO]

term translated by LIVELY in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 236-237

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
MANIÈRE ET STYLE → le faire et la main

Quotation

Die ghene onder en tusschen dewelcke het teyckenen langh ghenoegh en met eenene vlijtighen ernst gheoeffent hebben, moghen ’t hier by niet laeten blijven en d’aenghevoanghene Konste ten halven niet laeten steken; aengesien de Teycken-konst (alhoewelse met goed recht voor een gantsch ghewightigh point en voor den eenighen ghebaenden wegh tot de Schilder-Konst en d’andere Bootser-konsten gheouden wordt) maer alleenlick een aenleydinghe tot yet grootsers schijnt te wesen. De verwen hebben een sonderlinghe kracht om onse ooghen tot sich te trecken, seght Plutarchus {In Pericle circa ipsum initium}, vermids ’t menschelicke ghesicht door de bloeyende lieffelickheyd der selvighen krachtighlick opgheweckt ende ghespijst wordt. Ghelijck het oversulcks uyt ons voorighe bewijs lichtelicken is af te nemen, dat een welgheproportioneerde Teyckeningh de waere ghelijckenisse der afgheteyckender dinghen ghenoeghsaemlick uyt-druckt; soo en magh men evenwel de schaduwe deser onvolmaeckter ghelijckenisse met de levendighe volmaecktheyd van een veelverwighe Schilderye in ’t minste niet verghelijcken.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Meanwhile those who have practiced drawing long enough and with a diligent seriousness, can leave it to this and not abandon the commenced Art halfway; since the Art of Drawing (although she is thought with good reason to be a very important point and the only common road towards the Art of Painting and the other Imitation-arts) appears to only be occasion for something bigger. The colours have a remarkable power to draw our eyes towards them, says Plutarchus {…}, as the human sight is strongly excited and fed by its blooming loveliness. Just like it is therefore easy to deduct from our previous evidence, that a well-proportioned Drawing delightfully expresses the true similitude of the drawn things; as such one may nevertheless not compare the shadow of this imperfect similitude in the least with the living perfection of a Painting with many colours.

Junius states that the (art of) drawing (tekenen, tekenkunst) is the basis for Painting (schilderkunst) and for the other arts that consist in imitation. However, he argues that an artist should never be satisfied by only producing drawings, as the colours (verf) add enormously to the impact of a painting. The liveliness of a painting with many different colours (veelverwigh schilderij) is much closer to perfection than a drawing. As such, the effect of colour is connected to the liveliness of a painting. In this citation, ‘verf’ should be translated as colour. In the English edition, Junius refers to the collection of the earl of Arundel. This reference is missing in the Latin and Dutch edition. [MO]

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 164 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 271
term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 164 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 271

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

Alhoewel een Beeld alle de waerachtighe linien der afghebeelder dingen uytdruckt; nochtans derft het de rechte kracht der dinghen selver, als wesende onbeweghelick en sonder eenigh roersel, seght Tertullianus Lib. II. adversus Marcionem. Het manghelt de kley-stekerye, seght Apuleius {In Apologia.}, aen de behaeghelicke lustigheyd die het leven dapper plaght te verwackeren; het schort de steenen aen de Coleur; het liegt de Schilderyen aen stijvigheyd; en alle dese verscheydene soorten van naeboetsinghe hebben ’t roersel ghebreck, ’t welck de levende ghelijckenisse der dinghen met een sonderlinghe ghetrouwigheyd plaght te vertoonen. Ghelijck het oversulcks altijd waerachtigh is dat d’afghebeelde dinghen ’t naturelicke roersel derven, soo plaghtense oock somtijds heel end’al van het naegheboetste roersel ontbloot te sijn; ghemerckt d’aller oudste en d’eerste Meesters in haere wercken een gantsch swaere, lompe, ende onbeweghelicke maniere volghden, sonder eenigh levendighe roersel in de selvighe uyt te storten.

[Suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Although an Image only expresses the true lines of the depicted things; it nevertheless lacks the true power of the things themselves, like being unmoving and with any stir, says Tertullianus (…). The clay-sculpting misses, says Apuleius, the comforting delight that life strongly tends to incite; the stones lack Colour; the Paintings lack stiffness; and all these different sorts of imitation miss the stirring, which the living similitudees of things tend to show with a remarkable faithfulness. Like it is moreover always true that the depicted things lack the natural movement, as such they sometimes also are completely devoid of the imitated movement; seen that the oldest and first Masters followed a rather heavy, akward and still manner, without putting any lively movement in it.

term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 178 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 290
term translated by / in JUNIUS, Franciscus, De pictura veterum libri tres, Amsterdam, Joannes Blaeu, 1637., p. 178 in JUNIUS, Franciscus, The Painting of the Ancients, in Three Bookes : declaring by Historicall Observations and Examples, the Beginning, Progresse, and Consummation of that most Noble Art. And how those Ancient Artificers attained to their still so much admired Excellencie. Written first in latine by Franciscus Junius, F. F. And now by him englished, with some Additions and Alterations, trad. par JUNIUS, Franciscus, London, Richard Hodgkinsonne, 1638., p. 290

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

‘T en is oock niet onwaerschijnlijck of de Beelt-houwerye ende Giet-kunste, heeft occasie van Jalours over de Schilder-konst zijn, ghenomen, siende datse door haer groot vermoghen alles dede, ende daerom in groot achtingh ende aensien quam, ghemerckt sy haere wercken met eygen ende natuerlijcke Verwen seer levendigh tevoorschijn brachte. {Schilder-Konst verweckt andere Konsten tot jaloersheyt.} Niet te min soo hebben de Beelde-formers dickwils getracht hun boven de Schilder-Konst te verheffen, waer toe onder de Voorstanders van beyde dickwils is getwist-redent wiens haen in desen behoorde boven te krayen, de Beelt-houwers gaven voor dat de Schilder-Konst maer Sophistisch, waerschijnigh of toonschijnigh en was, overmits sy aenmerckten dat de dingen in een Tafereel alleen scheenen te wesen, maer datser in waerheyt niet en waren, en dat in tegendeel de dingen inde Beelt-houwerye, waerlijck, uytwendigh verheven, bevattelijck ende tastelijck waren, soo in haere lenghde als breete ende dickte. {Wat de Beelt-houwers by brengen om boven de Schilder-Konst te vliegen.} [ndr: paragone continues…]

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] It is moreover not unlikely that Sculpture and Casting need to be jealous of the Art of Painting, as, seeing that she can do anything thanks to her great power, and therefore came into great respect and esteem, because she brought forth her works very lively with proper and natural Colors. {The art of painting evokes jealousy from the other Arts.} Nevertheless the Sculptors have then often tried to surpass the Art of Painting, about which many discussions have taken place amongst the Supporters as to which of them was more successful than the other, the Sculptors argued that the Art of Painting was sophistic, appearing to be true and presentable as they pointed out that in a Painting the things only appeared to exist, but that they weren’t there in truth, and that to the contrary in the Art of Sculpture, the things were true, externally voluminous, comprehensible and touchable, both in their length and breadth and thickness. {What Sculptors evoked to fly higher than the Art of Painting.} [ndr: paragone continues…]

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

En nadien dan alle dese dingen genoegsaam bewijsen, dat de verscheydenheyd der Schoonheyd en Bevalligheyd, ten opsigt der navolging in de Schilderkonst, niet ligt onder soo net bepaalde regelen te brengen is, datmense daar na, als na een onfeylbare Leest met aangenaamheyd, sonder verder waarneming van ’t Leven, in de Konst-tafereelen sou konnen overstorten; Soo staat ons in ’t voorby gaan aan te merken, dat een Leersaam Schilder sich uyt al sijn vermogen behoorde te beneerstigen, om door een geduurige beschouwingh van al wat hem van ’t menschelijk schoon voorkomt, het uytgelesenste daar van soodanig sijn gedagten kragtelijk in te drukken, en aan sijn inbeelding gemeen te maken, dat hy buyten de beschouwing van de selve, sich de schoonheyd van een Mensch, op verscheyde wijsen, en in onderscheyde trappen, soo bevallig en levendig kan verbeelden, als of hy de Schoonheyd selver voor hem had. {Hoe de Schoonheyd in de gedagten en ’t gemoet van den Schilder moet ingedrukt zijn.} En dit sal hy aldergeluckigst konnen doen, wanneer hy niet alleen wel en aandagtig sal na gespeurd hebben, welke Deelen en Partyen Schoon gemaakt zijn, en wat Proportie sy hebben moeten, om sulx volgens de Teykenkundige trek te verbeelden; maar dan voornamelijck, wanneer hy tot al het vorige, net sal hebben af gesien, door welk een Trap en toeval, dese en gene deelen de Schoonheyd in dit of dat voorwerp onderlingh aan ’t geheel vereenigt, Verminderd of Vermeerderd:

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] And as all these things sufficiently prove, that the diversity of Beauty and Gracefulness with regard to the imitation in Painting, is not easily to accommodate in clearly defined rules, which one can then, as with an infallible model could overflow in Art-scenes with loveliness and without any further observation of Life; As such we should note in passing, that a diligent Painter should endeavor with all his might, through a consistent observation of all that he perceives of the human beauty, to imprint that which he deems the most exquisite of it so strongly in his mind, and to make it common to his imagination, that he will be able to depict, without its direct observation, the beauty of a Man in different ways and in distinct steps, so lovely and lively, as if he had Beauty itself before his eyes. {How Beauty has to be imprinted in the thoughts and mind of the Painter.} And he will be able to do this best, when he has not only studied well and carefully which Parts and Elements have been beautifully made, and which Proportion they should have, to depict them with the Draught; but then especially, when with regard to all the previous, will have observed precisely by which Step and coincidence this and other parts unites, lessens or increases the Beauty in this or that object to the whole:

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Wanneer nu een vast Teykenaar de schets deser Tronie-Geslagten eenmaal op sekere wijse sijn geheugenis heeft ingedrukt; {Hoemen sig moet bereyden om Tronien of Konterfeytsels by inbeelding te maken, dat is, uyt de Geest na ’t leven te Schilderen.} En hy vind gelegentheyd om ymand dien hy maar eens gesien heeft, te verbeelden, dat is te Konterfeyten, soo moet hy door een kragtige Inbeelding, alles dat hem van den begeerderden Mensch sijn Swemingh en opsigt, in sijn Gedagten speeld, wel Erinneren, en Levendig te voren brengen; En dat tot aan het Sweemsel van d’een of d’ander Tronie, of Model over brengen; En socken in welke soort of Model, d’algemeene Schets meest met sijn Gedagten over een stemd, en merkelijk gestijfd en geholpen, of tot de gelijkenis van sijn denk-Beeld gebragt werd. Dan moetmen tot de bysondere trek des Voor-Hoofds, Neus en Mond, en Kin overslag maken, en letten in wat Trap van Sweming sijn beschoude Voor-beelden met die van de ingebeelde Sweming de meeste gelijkenis hebben. In welk doen met sekerlijk sal ontwaar werden, datmen de middel in de Hand heeft, om dat volgens een sekeren Regel te doen. Van den Italiaanschen Schilder D. Girlandaio werd aangetekend, dat hy de Tronie-kunde soo vast had, dat hy in ’t Konterfeyten, by Inbeelding noyt en miste een kenbare gelijkenis aan te treffen. In welk doen ook eene Francisco Mossoli hem een Konst-genood verstrekte. Andere Geesten hebben sulx op ’t berigt van andere konnen doen: Sulx datse Konterfeytsels en Tafereelen maakten, van Luyden die al een wijle gestorven waren; en diese noyt met Oogen aanschouwd hadden.

[suggested translation, Marije Osnabrugge:] Now when a steady Draughtsman has planted the illustration of these Facial Categories in some way in his memory; (How one should prepare oneself to paint Faces or Portraits after his imagination, that is, from the Mind after Life.} And he will find the opportunity to depict, that is to portray, someone who he has only seen once, as such he has to remember and reproduce in a lively manner, all that comes to his mind about the Expression and Features of the proposed Man, by means of a powerful Imagination; And deliver this to the Expression of some or other Face, or Model; And determine which type or Model of the general illustration coincides best with his Thought, rather stylized and forced, or with the likeness of his mental Image. Then one has to move to the specific feature of the forehead, Nose or Mouth and Chin, and pay attention to which degree of expression the Examples that he has seen have a resemblance with that of the imagined Expression. By doing this one will certainly become aware, that one possesses a means to do this according to a certain Rule. It is written about the Italian Painter Domenico Ghirlandaio that he had mastered the Physiognomy so well, that through Imagination he never missed to notice a clear resemblance, while making a Portrait. In which a certain Francesco Mazzoli [ndr: Parmigianino] also was a fellow craftsman. Other Minds have been able to do it based on the description of others: Such that they made Portraits and Scenes of People who had long been deceased; and whom they had never seen with their own Eyes.

technical note: There is a mistake in the pdf, these are pages 230 and 223 of the pdf. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

En hoewelmen de dieren teekenen kan, dat is, met dag en schaduwe aanwijsen, of nader met krijonnen, of waterverwen vertegenwoordigen, zoo is ‘er nogtans niet leevendiger en duirsamer, te gelijk; als dat zulx door olyverwen geschiet.

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] And although animals can be drawn—that is, depicted just with light and shadow, or in a more detailed way with crayons or water colors—there is nevertheless no more lifelike, and at the same time more durable way to portray them than with oil paints.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

{Wat voor.} Om hier omtrent behoorlijke kennisse te bekomen, moet een Schilder denken, dat een dood mensche veeltijds eenerly koleur heeft, daar hy, wat geevende en neemende, zig de verwen kennende, aan zou konnen houden; te meer, dewijle de menschen grager de leevendige aanschouwen, en zonderlinge voorvallen, van geschiedenissen, bataillen, stukken van devotie enz. maar alleen de doode lichchamen onverschillig begeeren; maar ’t en is gants niet quaat en tot groot genoegen strekkende, dat hy ook nader overweege, hoe dat de menschen van haar leevendig kolorijt, dat door geesten, en voedinge en werkzzame beesigheid in haar word onderhouden, quynende ziekten allengskens veranderen, […]

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Things to be noted here} To learn this properly, a painter must realize that the complexion of a dead person is often unvaried, so he can limit himself to one shade, using his knowledge of colors for slight adjustments. Also, even though people prefer to look at depictions of living things and important historical events, battles, devotional pieces, etc., but show little interest in dead bodies, it can certainly do no harm—and can give great satisfaction—to consider as well how lingering illnesses can gradually change the healthy complexion that human beings derive from their spirit, their food, and the work they perform, or how swiftly they can be weakened by fevers that likewise strike them down. [...]

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs