BEURS, Willem, De groote waereld in ’t kleen geschildert, of schilderagtig tafereel van ’s waerelds schilderyen. kortelijk vervat in Ses Boeken. Verklarende de hooftverwen, haare verscheide mengelingen in oly, en der zelver gebruik. Omtrent de meeste vertoningen van de zigtbare natuire. Leersaamelijk den liefhebbers en leerlingen der Ed. Schilderkonst medegedeelt van Wilhelmus Beurs, Schilder, Amsterdam, Johannes en Gillis Janssonius van Waesberge, 1692.

Universiteitsbibliotheek Utrecht ODA 7671 Images hors-texte 271 quotations 160 terms
Willem Beurs (Dordrecht 1656 – Zwolle 1700) was active as a painter. Arnold Houbraken tells us that he painted landscapes, portraits and flower pieces in Deventer, Amsterdam and Zwolle.[1] In Zwolle, Beurs also worked as an instructor in painting, as indicated by the fact that De groote waereld in 't kleen geschildert is attributed to four of his pupils, all women from the local bourgeoisie.[2]

De groote waereld in 't kleen geschildert was published in 1692 with Johannes and Gilles Janssonius van Waesberge in Amsterdam. Coincidentally, the publishers were the brothers-in-law of Willem Goeree, the author of a number of treatises on art.[3] In fact, because of its rather practical approach, Beurs’ treatise resembles Goeree’s Verlichtery-konst (1st ed. 1668), which in turn was based on Geerard TerBrugghen’s Verlichtery kunst-boeck (1st ed. 1616). However, Beurs distinguished himself by showing a keen interest in recent scientific studies by Robert Boyle and Christiaan Huygens, amongst others, which he mentions in the introduction (and the knowledge of which echoes through the rest of the treatise).

De groote waereld is divided into six books, which in turn are divided into short chapters. In the first book, Beurs treats the main colours, discussing their preparation and use for painting, as well as different supports and tools. In each of the other five books, Beurs explains which (mix of) colours to use for different objects and elements of a painting and how to apply them. Despite the level of detail of the provided information, Beurs clearly expects the reader to have basic practical knowledge. The book has no illustrations and no art works are cited as examples.

Already in 1693, a German translation of Beurs’ treatise was published by the same publishing house in Amsterdam.[4] The text was translated by an anonymous translator and the content literally follows the Dutch edition, although the dedication is missing. No other translations or editions were published. At this point, it is impossible to establish how well the editio princeps and the German translation were received.

We would like to express our gratitude to the project team 'Recipes and Realities, An analysis of texture rendering in still-life painting and the pictorial procedures of Willem Beurs' (NICAS & Utrecht University), under supervision of Jeroen Stumpel, for allowing us to use their English translation of the treatise for the translations of the citations, before its publication.[5]

Marije Osnabrugge
 
[1] HOUBRAKEN, 1718-1721, book 3, p. 354-356.
[2] Sophia Holt, Cornelia van Marlen, Aleyda Greven, and Anna Cornelia Holt. See DE JONG, 1998.
[3] See Goeree’s publications elsewhere in this database.
[4] For more on the translation, see: OSNABRUGGE, forthcoming 2018.
[5] The translation was prepared by Myra Scholz. The project team will publish an annotated English translation (BEURS, en préparation). Within the context of this project, Lisa Wiersma is preparing a dissertation on Willem Beurs and his book, under supervision of prof.dr. Jeroen Stumpel.
in-8 dutch

Dedication
Sophie Holt , Cornelia van Marlen , Aleyda Greven and Anna Cornelia Holt

Structure
Table des matières at n.p.
Dédicace(s) at
Avis au lecteur at [unnumbered pages]
Avis au relieur at [unnumbered page]
Additions et corrections at [unnumbered page]

VON FRIMMEL, Theodor, « Auszüge aus Willem Beurs: De groote Waereld in't Kleen geschildert », Beilage der Blätter für Gemäldekunde, 1/1, 1905, p. 5-14.

DE JONG, Lamberthe, « "Mijn vermaak en Kroone": Schilderessen in het Vrouwenhuis in Zwolle », dans KLOEK, Els, PETERS-SENGERS, Catherine et TOBÉ, E. (éd.), Vrouwen en kunst in de Republiek, een overzicht, Hilversum, Verloren, 1998, p. 55-64.

WALLERT, Arie, « De groote waereld in ’t kleen geschildert (the Big World Painted Small) : a Dutch 17th-Century Treatise on Oil Painting Technique », dans EYB-GREEN, Sigrid et TOWNSEND, Joyce (éd.), The Artist's Process: Technology and Interpretation, Actes du colloque de Vienne, London, Archetype Publications Ltd, 2012, p. 130-137.

BEURS, Willem, The big world painted small, STUMPEL, Jeroen, LEHMANN, Anne-Sophie, WALLERT, Arie, HERMENS, Erma et WIERSMA, Lisa (éd.), trad. par SCHOLZ, Myra, Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute, 2018 (à paraître).

OSNABRUGGE, Marije, « German Translations of Dutch Art Literature: Goeree, Beurs and De Lairesse », dans VAN LEEUWEN, Rieke (éd.), La Haye, RKD, forthcoming 2018 [En ligne : http://www.rkdmonographs.nl/ consulté le 31/12/2017].

FILTERS

QUOTATIONS

{Aard der verwen.} 2. Dat’er geen verwen zijn zonder ligt, en datze alle haare verscheidentheid van de gesteltheid van de vlakten der lichchamen, waar op het ligt verscheidentlijk valt en werkt, ontfangen is (mein ik) wel te begrypen: dog hoeze eygentlijk door zulke vlakten en bewegingen veroorzaakt worden, en waar in den aard van yder der hooftverwen bestaat; […] daarwe’d ondervindingen hebben van den zoo vermaarden en ervarenen heer Boyle, en d’aanmerkingen van groote verstanden, die ook boven des Cartes in de onderzoekinge van den aard der dingen opgeklommen zijn.
{Hoe ver den schilderen noodig.} 3. Dog deze bespiegelinge gaat den schilderen weynig of niet aan, alsze maar de stoffen der verwen en haar behandelinge in ’t toebereiden en schilderen behoorlijk verstaan, […]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Nature of colors} 2. That there are no colors without light, and that they owe all their diversity to the composition of the surfaces of the objects on which light falls and acts in various ways, is (in my opinion) understandable. Yet how they are actually caused by such surfaces and movements, and what comprises the nature of each of the main colors […] since we have the experiments of the renowned and experienced Sir Boyle, and the remarks of great minds that have also risen above Descartes in investigating the nature of things. {To what extent necessary for painters; aim of this booklet} 3. But these reflections have little or no relevance for painters, as long as they have a good understanding of the pigments and how to prepare them and paint […]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
L’ARTISTE → règles et préceptes
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Nature of colors} 2. That there are no colors without light, and that they owe all their diversity to the composition of the surfaces of the objects on which light falls and acts in various ways, is (in my opinion) understandable. Yet how they are actually caused by such surfaces and movements, and what comprises the nature of each of the main colors […] since we have the experiments of the renowned and experienced Sir Boyle, and the remarks of great minds that have also risen above Descartes in investigating the nature of things. {To what extent necessary for painters; aim of this booklet} 3. But these reflections have little or no relevance for painters, as long as they have a good understanding of the pigments and how to prepare them and paint […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Wit en swart.} 4. Wit is ’t vlak eenes lichchaams, voor zoo veel het vele licht-stralen weer omkaatst met de zelven hoek, waar medeze op ’t zelve zijn gevallen, en zoo is dan swart dat vlak, dat’er geene of zeer weynige tot ons oog kan brengen; om dat merkelijk aan te doen.
{Hoemen ze kan aanmerken.} 5. Men kan daarom die stoffen of vlakten der lichchamen als ligt en donker aanmerken; waar mede men de saken, die men ziet, al redelijk verstanelijk voor ’t oog kan door dag en schaduwe verbeelden; {En gebruiken.} als men in prenten geetst, gearseert, of swarte konst, en in verscheydene schilderijen alleen met swart en wit op gemaakt, zien kan; gelijk men mede daar door alle verwen, na ’t noodig is, kan verligten en verdonkeren.

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {White and black} 4. White is the surface of an object to the extent that it reflects many light rays at the same angle from which they struck it, and thus black is a surface that can bring none or very few of them to our eye, to affect it in a noticeable way. {How they can be described, and their uses} 5. Those materials or surfaces of objects can therefore be described as light and dark, on which things are made reasonably recognizable for the eye by depictions of well-lit parts and shadows, as one can see in prints, with hatching or in mezzotint, and in various paintings made only with black and white; for this reason they can also be used to lighten or darken all colors, as needed.

licht en donker

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {White and black} 4. White is the surface of an object to the extent that it reflects many light rays at the same angle from which they struck it, and thus black is a surface that can bring none or very few of them to our eye, to affect it in a noticeable way. {How they can be described, and their uses} 5. Those materials or surfaces of objects can therefore be described as light and dark, on which things are made reasonably recognizable for the eye by depictions of well-lit parts and shadows, as one can see in prints, with hatching or in mezzotint, and in various paintings made only with black and white; for this reason they can also be used to lighten or darken all colors, as needed.

dag en schaduw

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {White and black} 4. White is the surface of an object to the extent that it reflects many light rays at the same angle from which they struck it, and thus black is a surface that can bring none or very few of them to our eye, to affect it in a noticeable way. {How they can be described, and their uses} 5. Those materials or surfaces of objects can therefore be described as light and dark, on which things are made reasonably recognizable for the eye by depictions of well-lit parts and shadows, as one can see in prints, with hatching or in mezzotint, and in various paintings made only with black and white; for this reason they can also be used to lighten or darken all colors, as needed.

zwart

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {White and black} 4. White is the surface of an object to the extent that it reflects many light rays at the same angle from which they struck it, and thus black is a surface that can bring none or very few of them to our eye, to affect it in a noticeable way. {How they can be described, and their uses} 5. Those materials or surfaces of objects can therefore be described as light and dark, on which things are made reasonably recognizable for the eye by depictions of well-lit parts and shadows, as one can see in prints, with hatching or in mezzotint, and in various paintings made only with black and white; for this reason they can also be used to lighten or darken all colors, as needed.

wit

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

{Dry Hooftverwen geel, rood en blaauw.} 7. Laat ons vry de Hooftverwen, of hooft-stoffen der olyverwen, zoo alsze den Schilderen dienstig zijn, drije stellen, teweten Geel, die de sterkste is, en naast by ’t wit komt, en dan Rood en Blaauw.

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {The main colors yellow, red, and blue} 7. Let us freely state that the main colors, or main constituents of oil colors, such as are useful to painters, are three, namely yellow, which is the strongest and the closest to white, then red and blue.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {The main colors yellow, red, and blue} 7. Let us freely state that the main colors, or main constituents of oil colors, such as are useful to painters, are three, namely yellow, which is the strongest and the closest to white, then red and blue.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {The main colors yellow, red, and blue} 7. Let us freely state that the main colors, or main constituents of oil colors, such as are useful to painters, are three, namely yellow, which is the strongest and the closest to white, then red and blue.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {The main colors yellow, red, and blue} 7. Let us freely state that the main colors, or main constituents of oil colors, such as are useful to painters, are three, namely yellow, which is the strongest and the closest to white, then red and blue.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

8. ’T Groen slaanwe daar om over; om dat men ’t uit geel en Blaauw temperen kan. ’t is waar, daar zijn groene stoffen in de nature; waar onder de beste zijn gedistilleert spaansgroen, ongedistilleert groen, terreverde, bequaam in verschieten van landschappen, en berggroen: maar dus heeftmen ook sonder mengelinge bruin in omber en keulze aarde; zonder dat men die behoeft een Hooftverwe daarom te noemen; waaromwe het (yeder nogtans zijn vryheid van gedagten, en leydinge van inbeeldinge latende) met de voornoemde drije zullen laten berusten, […]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] 8. We skip over green because it can be mixed from yellow and blue. It is true that there are green pigments in nature, the best of which are distilled Spanish green, verdigris, green earth, attractive in distant landscapes, and mountain green. But we also have unmixed brown in umber and Cologne earth, which does not mean they should be called main colors. We will therefore leave it at the aforesaid three (nevertheless allowing everyone the freedom to follow their own ideas) […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] 8. We skip over green because it can be mixed from yellow and blue. It is true that there are green pigments in nature, the best of which are distilled Spanish green, verdigris, green earth, attractive in distant landscapes, and mountain green. But we also have unmixed brown in umber and Cologne earth, which does not mean they should be called main colors. We will therefore leave it at the aforesaid three (nevertheless allowing everyone the freedom to follow their own ideas) […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] 8. We skip over green because it can be mixed from yellow and blue. It is true that there are green pigments in nature, the best of which are distilled Spanish green, verdigris, green earth, attractive in distant landscapes, and mountain green. But we also have unmixed brown in umber and Cologne earth, which does not mean they should be called main colors. We will therefore leave it at the aforesaid three (nevertheless allowing everyone the freedom to follow their own ideas) […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] 8. We skip over green because it can be mixed from yellow and blue. It is true that there are green pigments in nature, the best of which are distilled Spanish green, verdigris, green earth, attractive in distant landscapes, and mountain green. But we also have unmixed brown in umber and Cologne earth, which does not mean they should be called main colors. We will therefore leave it at the aforesaid three (nevertheless allowing everyone the freedom to follow their own ideas) […]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] 8. We skip over green because it can be mixed from yellow and blue. It is true that there are green pigments in nature, the best of which are distilled Spanish green, verdigris, green earth, attractive in distant landscapes, and mountain green. But we also have unmixed brown in umber and Cologne earth, which does not mean they should be called main colors. We will therefore leave it at the aforesaid three (nevertheless allowing everyone the freedom to follow their own ideas) […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] 8. We skip over green because it can be mixed from yellow and blue. It is true that there are green pigments in nature, the best of which are distilled Spanish green, verdigris, green earth, attractive in distant landscapes, and mountain green. But we also have unmixed brown in umber and Cologne earth, which does not mean they should be called main colors. We will therefore leave it at the aforesaid three (nevertheless allowing everyone the freedom to follow their own ideas) […]

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

{Stoffen van wit en swart.} 9 Om wit te maken, gebruikt men schulpwit en loodwit, en tot swart, bezigtmen yvoorswart, persike swart, koolswart en lampswart. [...]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Pigments of white and black} 9. To make white, one uses flake white and lead white, and for black one uses ivory black, peach black, carbon black, and lamp black.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{En van de hooftverwen, geel.} 10 Wat nu de Hooft-verwen betreft, tot geel neemtmen Koningsgeel, dat bekent zijnde ’t Parys geel buiten gebruik gebragt heeft ten grooten deele, en dan bezigtmen ook ligte en bruinen oker, mastikot, rusgeel, als ook ligte en bruine schytgeel, en deze stoffen zijn ’t die men weet tegenwoordig tot de geele verwe den schilderen dienstig te zijn. [...]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {And of the main colors—yellow} 10. Now regarding the main colors, for yellow one takes king’s yellow, which is known to have largely replaced Paris yellow. Also used are light and brown ochre, massicot, realgar, as well as light and brown yellow lake. These are the pigments presently known to be useful to painters for the color yellow.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {And of the main colors—yellow} 10. Now regarding the main colors, for yellow one takes king’s yellow, which is known to have largely replaced Paris yellow. Also used are light and brown ochre, massicot, realgar, as well as light and brown yellow lake. These are the pigments presently known to be useful to painters for the color yellow.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {And of the main colors—yellow} 10. Now regarding the main colors, for yellow one takes king’s yellow, which is known to have largely replaced Paris yellow. Also used are light and brown ochre, massicot, realgar, as well as light and brown yellow lake. These are the pigments presently known to be useful to painters for the color yellow.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {And of the main colors—yellow} 10. Now regarding the main colors, for yellow one takes king’s yellow, which is known to have largely replaced Paris yellow. Also used are light and brown ochre, massicot, realgar, as well as light and brown yellow lake. These are the pigments presently known to be useful to painters for the color yellow.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {And of the main colors—yellow} 10. Now regarding the main colors, for yellow one takes king’s yellow, which is known to have largely replaced Paris yellow. Also used are light and brown ochre, massicot, realgar, as well as light and brown yellow lake. These are the pigments presently known to be useful to painters for the color yellow.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {And of the main colors—yellow} 10. Now regarding the main colors, for yellow one takes king’s yellow, which is known to have largely replaced Paris yellow. Also used are light and brown ochre, massicot, realgar, as well as light and brown yellow lake. These are the pigments presently known to be useful to painters for the color yellow.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {And of the main colors—yellow} 10. Now regarding the main colors, for yellow one takes king’s yellow, which is known to have largely replaced Paris yellow. Also used are light and brown ochre, massicot, realgar, as well as light and brown yellow lake. These are the pigments presently known to be useful to painters for the color yellow.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Rood.} 11 Tot Rood nu gebruikenze vermilioen, bruin-rood en verscheyde lakken, als Florentynsche en Haarlemse, en kogellak, en gedistilleerde meny.
12 De
Florentynsche lak werd van cochenille gemaakt, en van des zelfs overschot, daar rooze-rood werd onder gemengt, de Haarlemse. De kogellak werd bereid van brasilyhout gekookt, daar kryt in gesmeten werd, en dan tot kogelen gemaakt. [...]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Red} 11. For red they use vermilion, red-brown, and various lakes, such as Florentine and Haarlem lake, also brazilin and distilled red lead. 12. Florentine lake is made of cochineals, and Haarlem lake by mixing the clippings of this with rose-red. Brazilin is prepared from brazilwood boiled with chalk thrown in, which is then made into pellets.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Red} 11. For red they use vermilion, red-brown, and various lakes, such as Florentine and Haarlem lake, also brazilin and distilled red lead. 12. Florentine lake is made of cochineals, and Haarlem lake by mixing the clippings of this with rose-red. Brazilin is prepared from brazilwood boiled with chalk thrown in, which is then made into pellets.

Beurs distinguishes between Florentynsche and Haarlemse lak, as well as kogellak. Kogellak appears to be the same colour as Brezilje verf. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Red} 11. For red they use vermilion, red-brown, and various lakes, such as Florentine and Haarlem lake, also brazilin and distilled red lead. 12. Florentine lake is made of cochineals, and Haarlem lake by mixing the clippings of this with rose-red. Brazilin is prepared from brazilwood boiled with chalk thrown in, which is then made into pellets.

Beurs distinguishes between Florentynsche and Haarlemse lak, as well as kogellak. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Red} 11. For red they use vermilion, red-brown, and various lakes, such as Florentine and Haarlem lake, also brazilin and distilled red lead. 12. Florentine lake is made of cochineals, and Haarlem lake by mixing the clippings of this with rose-red. Brazilin is prepared from brazilwood boiled with chalk thrown in, which is then made into pellets.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Red} 11. For red they use vermilion, red-brown, and various lakes, such as Florentine and Haarlem lake, also brazilin and distilled red lead. 12. Florentine lake is made of cochineals, and Haarlem lake by mixing the clippings of this with rose-red. Brazilin is prepared from brazilwood boiled with chalk thrown in, which is then made into pellets.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Red} 11. For red they use vermilion, red-brown, and various lakes, such as Florentine and Haarlem lake, also brazilin and distilled red lead. 12. Florentine lake is made of cochineals, and Haarlem lake by mixing the clippings of this with rose-red. Brazilin is prepared from brazilwood boiled with chalk thrown in, which is then made into pellets.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Blaauw.} 13 Tot Blaauw zijn de stoffen van Ultramaryn, smalt, Duitsche en Engelsche as en Indigo dienstig; en dit is ’t al, mijns wetens, datmen tegenwoordig, voor zoo veel de stoffen hier bekent zijn, tot gebruik van nooden heeft;

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Blue} 13. For blue the pigments ultramarine, smalt, German and English ash, and indigo are used. And that, to my knowledge, is everything necessary for use as far as pigments are known here;

Beurs distinguishes between Duitsche and Engelsche as. As is presumably the same colour as ascus. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Blue} 13. For blue the pigments ultramarine, smalt, German and English ash, and indigo are used. And that, to my knowledge, is everything necessary for use as far as pigments are known here;

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Blue} 13. For blue the pigments ultramarine, smalt, German and English ash, and indigo are used. And that, to my knowledge, is everything necessary for use as far as pigments are known here;

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Blue} 13. For blue the pigments ultramarine, smalt, German and English ash, and indigo are used. And that, to my knowledge, is everything necessary for use as far as pigments are known here;

In the German translation, this term is written as 'Schmelze'. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Blue} 13. For blue the pigments ultramarine, smalt, German and English ash, and indigo are used. And that, to my knowledge, is everything necessary for use as far as pigments are known here;

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Roem van wit.} Wy vangen dan aan ’t Wit nader te bezien, dat zuiverste en aangenaamste, ’t sinnebeeld van onschuld, waarheid, opregtigheid, en van overwinninge.
{Schulpwit.} Onder de Stoffen van wit te voren genoemt, is het
Schulpwit het beste, dat men onder ons nu weet; […]
{Loodwit zijn verkiezinge en bereydinge.} ’T
Loot wit  werd aldus in zijn deugt beproeft: […]
’T Goede ongemalen
Lootwit bereidmen op de zelve wyze, als het Schulp-wit; dog ’t is gemakkelijker om vryven; […]
{Swart.} Wat het
Swart belangt, dat de minste stralen weersteuit en zeer weynige, daar valt niets bysonders van te verklaren, in ’t verkiezen isser niets, als dat het eene hier, ’t andere daar voor dienstiger is

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {Fame of white} We begin then by looking more closely at white, the purest and most pleasing of all, emblem of innocence, truth, honesty, and victory. {Flake white} Of the white pigments mentioned earlier, flake white is the best presently known to us; […] {Lead white, its selection and preparation} Lead white is tested for its quality as follows: […] {It is not as good as flake white} Good unground lead white is prepared in the same way as flake white; but it is easier to grind, also less costly,[…] {Black} As for black, from which the least number of rays, actually very few, bounce back, nothing special needs to be explained—only that in selecting a pigment one is more useful for this and another for that. […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Roem van wit.} Wy vangen dan aan ’t Wit nader te bezien, dat zuiverste en aangenaamste, ’t sinnebeeld van onschuld, waarheid, opregtigheid, en van overwinninge.
{Schulpwit.} Onder de Stoffen van wit te voren genoemt, is het
Schulpwit het beste, dat men onder ons nu weet; […]
{Loodwit zijn verkiezinge en bereydinge.} ’T
Loot wit  werd aldus in zijn deugt beproeft: […]
’T Goede ongemalen
Lootwit bereidmen op de zelve wyze, als het Schulp-wit; dog ’t is gemakkelijker om vryven; […]
{Swart.} Wat het
Swart belangt, dat de minste stralen weersteuit en zeer weynige, daar valt niets bysonders van te verklaren, in ’t verkiezen isser niets, als dat het eene hier, ’t andere daar voor dienstiger is.

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {Fame of white} We begin then by looking more closely at white, the purest and most pleasing of all, emblem of innocence, truth, honesty, and victory. {Flake white} Of the white pigments mentioned earlier, flake white is the best presently known to us; […] {Lead white, its selection and preparation} Lead white is tested for its quality as follows: […] {It is not as good as flake white} Good unground lead white is prepared in the same way as flake white; but it is easier to grind, also less costly,[…] {Black} As for black, from which the least number of rays, actually very few, bounce back, nothing special needs to be explained—only that in selecting a pigment one is more useful for this and another for that. […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {Fame of white} We begin then by looking more closely at white, the purest and most pleasing of all, emblem of innocence, truth, honesty, and victory. {Flake white} Of the white pigments mentioned earlier, flake white is the best presently known to us; […] {Lead white, its selection and preparation} Lead white is tested for its quality as follows: […] {It is not as good as flake white} Good unground lead white is prepared in the same way as flake white; but it is easier to grind, also less costly,[…] {Black} As for black, from which the least number of rays, actually very few, bounce back, nothing special needs to be explained—only that in selecting a pigment one is more useful for this and another for that. […]

In the German translation, 'wit' is translated as 'Weisse Farbe'. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz :] {Fame of white} We begin then by looking more closely at white, the purest and most pleasing of all, emblem of innocence, truth, honesty, and victory. {Flake white} Of the white pigments mentioned earlier, flake white is the best presently known to us; […] {Lead white, its selection and preparation} Lead white is tested for its quality as follows: […] {It is not as good as flake white} Good unground lead white is prepared in the same way as flake white; but it is easier to grind, also less costly,[…] {Black} As for black, from which the least number of rays, actually very few, bounce back, nothing special needs to be explained—only that in selecting a pigment one is more useful for this and another for that. […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Eerste Hooftverwe. Koningsgeel.} ’t Is dan nu tijd, datwe op dezelve wijze de voorgenoemde hooftverwen beschouwen, daar we eerst het Konings-geel plaatzen. […]
{Rusgeel.} ’T
Rusgeel […]
{Ligte en bruinen oker.} De
ligte en bruinen oker […]
{Mastikot.} De
Mastikot is veel in gebruik by de landschap-schilders, […]
{Geele Schijtgeel.} De beste
Geele schijtgeel […] {Bruine Schijtgeel.} alsmede de Bruine Schijtgeel, die donker en gloejend moet zijn, […]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {First main color: king’s yellow} It is now time for us to consider in the same way the aforementioned main colors, dealing first with king’s yellow. […] {Realgar} Realgar, […] {Light and brown ochre} Light and brown ochre […] {Massicot} Massicot is much used by landscape painters. […] {Yellow lake, brown yellow lake} The best yellow lake […] This also applies to brown yellow lake, which should be dark and glowing,[…]

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {First main color: king’s yellow} It is now time for us to consider in the same way the aforementioned main colors, dealing first with king’s yellow. […] {Realgar} Realgar, […] {Light and brown ochre} Light and brown ochre […] {Massicot} Massicot is much used by landscape painters. […] {Yellow lake, brown yellow lake} The best yellow lake […] This also applies to brown yellow lake, which should be dark and glowing,[…]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {First main color: king’s yellow} It is now time for us to consider in the same way the aforementioned main colors, dealing first with king’s yellow. […] {Realgar} Realgar, […] {Light and brown ochre} Light and brown ochre […] {Massicot} Massicot is much used by landscape painters. […] {Yellow lake, brown yellow lake} The best yellow lake […] This also applies to brown yellow lake, which should be dark and glowing,[…]

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {First main color: king’s yellow} It is now time for us to consider in the same way the aforementioned main colors, dealing first with king’s yellow. […] {Realgar} Realgar, […] {Light and brown ochre} Light and brown ochre […] {Massicot} Massicot is much used by landscape painters. […] {Yellow lake, brown yellow lake} The best yellow lake […] This also applies to brown yellow lake, which should be dark and glowing,[…]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {First main color: king’s yellow} It is now time for us to consider in the same way the aforementioned main colors, dealing first with king’s yellow. […] {Realgar} Realgar, […] {Light and brown ochre} Light and brown ochre […] {Massicot} Massicot is much used by landscape painters. […] {Yellow lake, brown yellow lake} The best yellow lake […] This also applies to brown yellow lake, which should be dark and glowing,[…]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {First main color: king’s yellow} It is now time for us to consider in the same way the aforementioned main colors, dealing first with king’s yellow. […] {Realgar} Realgar, […] {Light and brown ochre} Light and brown ochre […] {Massicot} Massicot is much used by landscape painters. […] {Yellow lake, brown yellow lake} The best yellow lake […] This also applies to brown yellow lake, which should be dark and glowing,[…]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {First main color: king’s yellow} It is now time for us to consider in the same way the aforementioned main colors, dealing first with king’s yellow. […] {Realgar} Realgar, […] {Light and brown ochre} Light and brown ochre […] {Massicot} Massicot is much used by landscape painters. […] {Yellow lake, brown yellow lake} The best yellow lake […] This also applies to brown yellow lake, which should be dark and glowing,[…]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Wij komen dan tot de Tweede hooftverwe, namentlijk het rood, welkers stoffen wy gaan vervolgen.
{Tweeden Hooftverwe, Vermilioen.} ’T
Vermilioen […]
{Bruin-rood.} ’T
Bruinrood […]
{Lak.} De beste
Lak is d’opregte Florentijnsche, van Cochenille gemaakt, […]
{Gedestilleerde Menij.} De
Gedisitileerde Meny […]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] We now come to the second main color, namely red, and will proceed to its pigments. {Second main color: vermilion} Vermilion […] {Red-brown}The best red-brown […] {Lake} The best lake is the genuine Florentine variety, made from cochineal; […] {Distilled red lead} […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] We now come to the second main color, namely red, and will proceed to its pigments. {Second main color: vermilion} Vermilion […] {Red-brown}The best red-brown […] {Lake} The best lake is the genuine Florentine variety, made from cochineal; […] {Distilled red lead} […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] We now come to the second main color, namely red, and will proceed to its pigments. {Second main color: vermilion} Vermilion […] {Red-brown}The best red-brown […] {Lake} The best lake is the genuine Florentine variety, made from cochineal; […] {Distilled red lead} […]

Beurs specifies that he is refering to distilled minium (gedisitilleerde meny). [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en preparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] We now come to the second main color, namely red, and will proceed to its pigments. {Second main color: vermilion} Vermilion […] {Red-brown}The best red-brown […] {Lake} The best lake is the genuine Florentine variety, made from cochineal; […] {Distilled red lead} […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Derde Hooftverwe. Ultramarijn.} De Kostelijkste blaauwe verwe alhier werd geagt Ultramarijn: […]
{Smalt.} De
Smalt […]
{Duitsche en Engelsche as.} alsmede de
Duitsche en Engelsche as […] {Indigo.} den Indigo, […]

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Third main color: ultramarine} The most costly blue color here is said to be ultramarine, […] {Smalt, German and English ash, indigo} Smalt […] as German and English ash can as well. But indigo […]

Again, Beurs distinguishes between Duitsche and Engelsche as. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Third main color: ultramarine} The most costly blue color here is said to be ultramarine, […] {Smalt, German and English ash, indigo} Smalt […] as German and English ash can as well. But indigo […]

In the German translation, this term is written as 'Indich'. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Third main color: ultramarine} The most costly blue color here is said to be ultramarine, […] {Smalt, German and English ash, indigo} Smalt […] as German and English ash can as well. But indigo […]

In the German translation, this term is written as 'Schmelze'. [MO]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {Third main color: ultramarine} The most costly blue color here is said to be ultramarine, […] {Smalt, German and English ash, indigo} Smalt […] as German and English ash can as well. But indigo […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

{Vereisch in ’t gemeen.} Dewijle een schilder de nature vereeuwigen wil, en graag met zijn konstige werken zijne naam; zoo is vooral van nooden, dat hy Panneel en doek zoodanig bereide, dat hy zijn oogmerk bereike en de betaalder van de konst niet te klagen heeft: ’t welk met reden niet geschieden kan; als men op duirsaame tafereelen, duirsame Verwen konstig na de nature schildert.

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {General requirement} Since a painter wants to immortalize nature, and by means of his artworks his name as well, it is most important that he prepare the panel and canvas in such a way that he achieves his aim, and that the person who pays for the art has no complaints—and he will have no reason for such if one skillfully paints true to nature on durable painting surfaces with durable colors.

Conceptual field(s)

terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {General requirement} Since a painter wants to immortalize nature, and by means of his artworks his name as well, it is most important that he prepare the panel and canvas in such a way that he achieves his aim, and that the person who pays for the art has no complaints—and he will have no reason for such if one skillfully paints true to nature on durable painting surfaces with durable colors.

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {General requirement} Since a painter wants to immortalize nature, and by means of his artworks his name as well, it is most important that he prepare the panel and canvas in such a way that he achieves his aim, and that the person who pays for the art has no complaints—and he will have no reason for such if one skillfully paints true to nature on durable painting surfaces with durable colors.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → génie, esprit, imagination
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {General requirement} Since a painter wants to immortalize nature, and by means of his artworks his name as well, it is most important that he prepare the panel and canvas in such a way that he achieves his aim, and that the person who pays for the art has no complaints—and he will have no reason for such if one skillfully paints true to nature on durable painting surfaces with durable colors.

Conceptual field(s)

SPECTATEUR → jugement
terms translations

[translation: BEURS, en préparation, transl. Myra Scholz:] {General requirement} Since a painter wants to immortalize nature, and by means of his artworks his name as well, it is most important that he prepare the panel and canvas in such a way that he achieves his aim, and that the person who pays for the art has no complaints—and he will have no reason for such if one skillfully paints true to nature on durable painting surfaces with durable colors.