LANDSCAPE (n.)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTUREcouleur · lumière · composition
EFFET PICTURALperspective · qualité des couleurs
GENRES PICTURAUXpaysage
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUESnature, imitation et vrai
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVREcouleurs · technique de la peinture
SPECTATEURperception et regard
LANDOUW (nld.) · LANDSCHAFT (deu.) · LANDSCHAFT-GEMÄHL (deu.) · LANDSCHAFT-MALEREI (deu.) · LANDSCHAP (nld.) · LANDSCHAPSCHILDERIJ (nld.) · PAESE (ita.) · PAYSAGE (fra.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
LANDSCHAP (nld.) · PAYSAGE (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
PAYSAGE (fra.)
LEVY, F. J., « Henry Peacham and the Art of Drawing », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 37, 1974, p. 174-190 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/750839 consulté le 30/03/2018].
LHOT, Patrick, Peinture de paysage et esthétique de la dé-mesure : XVIIIe et début du XIXe siècle, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2000.
MÉROT, Alain, Du paysage en peinture dans l'Occident moderne, Paris, Gallimard, 2009.
MÉROT, Alain, « Le paysage idéal classique : la construction d’un modèle », dans BAYARD, Marc (éd.), L’histoire de l’art et le comparatisme. Les horizons du détour, Actes du colloque de Rome, Paris, Somogy, 2007, p. 185-199.
OGDEN, Henry et OGDEN, Margaret, « A Bibliography of Seventeenth-Century Writings on the Pictorial Arts in English », The Art Bulletin, 29/3, 1947, p. 196-201.
OGDEN, Henry , « The Principles of Variety and Contrast in Seventeenth Century Aesthetics, and Milton's Poetry », Journal of the History of Ideas, 10/2, 1949, p. 159-182.
SAINT GIRONS, Baldine et BURGARD, Chrystèle (éd.), Le paysage et la question du sublime, cat. exp., Valence, Musée de Valence, 1997, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1997.
TURNER, James, « Landscape and "Art Prospective" in England, 1584-1660 », Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 42, 1979, p. 290-293 [En ligne : http://www.jstor.org/stable/751107 consulté le 30/03/2018].
École espagnole
École italienne
École néerlandaise

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

11 sources
21 quotations

Quotation

Landtskip is a Dutch word, and it is as much as we should say in English Landship, or expressing of the land by hilles, woods, castles, seas, vallies, ruines, hanging rockes, cities, townes, &c. as farre as may bee shewed within our Horizon. If it be not drawne by it selfe or for the owne sake, but in respect, and for the sake of some thing else : it falleth out among those things which wee call Parerga, which are additions or adjuncts rather of ornament, then otherwise necessary.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Quotation

Generall rules for Landtskip.

You shall alwayes in your Landtskip shew a faire Horizon, and expresse the heaven more or lesse either over-cast by clouds, or with a cleere skie, […].
2. If you shew the Sunne, let all the light of your trees, hilles, rockes, buildings, &c. be given thitherward : shadow also your clouds from the Sunne : and you must be very daintie in lessening your bodies by their distance, […].
If you lay your Landskip in colours, the farther you goe, the more you must lighten it with a thinne and ayerie blew, to make it seeme farre off, begining it first with a darke greene, so driving it by degrees into a blew, which the densitie of the ayre betweene our sight, and that place doth (onely imaginarily) effect.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Of the Graces of Landtskip.
Though invention and imitation in this kinde are infinite, you must have a care to worke with a found judgement, that your worke become not ridiculous to the beholders eye, as well for true observation of the distance as absurditie of accident : that is, though your Landtship be good and true in generall, yet some particular error overslips your judgment either in mistaking or not observing the time and season of the yeere, the true shadow of your worke with the light of the Sunne, the bending of trees in winds and tempests, the naturall course of river and such like.
To settle therefore your judgement in these and the like, I whis you first to imitate the abstract or labour of every moneth. […].
  If you draw your Landtskip according to your invention, you shall please very well, if you shew in the same, the faire side of some goodly Citie, haven, forrest, stately house with gardens, I ever tooke delight in those peeces that shewed to the like a country village, faire or market,
Bergamascas cookerie, Morrice dancing, peasants together by the eares, and the like.
For your
Parergas or needlesse graces, you may set forth the same with farme houses, water-milles, pilgrimes travelling through the woods, the ruines of Churches, Castles, &c. but you shall finde your conceipt seconded with a thousand inventions.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Of the powers of a Painter and Painting
{In reference to Philosophy and Poetry And Painting.}
Philosophers, divide the universe (which is their subject) into three Regions ; Cælestiall, Aeriall, Terrestriall.
So the
POETS, (who imitate humain Life, in measured lines,) have lodged themselves, in three Regions of Mankind ; Court, Citty, and Country.
So the
PAINTERS, (whose Art is to imitate Nature) performe it in three severall Qualities ; Design, Proportion, and Colour.
{Into three sorts.} And these, into three sorts of
Painting ; Prospective, (or Landskip), Historicall, and Life.
Prospective ; a wonderfull freedome, and liberty, to draw, even, what you list, so various is Nature in that.
Historicall ; respects due Proportions and figures.
Life ; only the Colour.
In each of these ; you must have dependency upon all the
other, but necessarily, on each in particular.

prospective

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Quotation

The second Division by Landskips : The Tablet.
{Tablet for Landskip.} […].
Green, of all Colours is most delightfull to the Eye. Not in all Art of Painting such variety of Colour, more pleasing then is the Prospect of a well-wrought Landskip ; especially when your ingenious Industry hath already rendred you a Master of Art and contemplation. {Landskip after the Life, the way to draw it.} If you draw a Prospect from the Life ; Take your Station upon the rize of ground, or top of an Hill, where you shall have a large Horizon ; and skore your Tablet into three divisions downwards, from the top to the bottome, set your face directly opposite to the midst of your Horizon, and keeping your body fixed, Observe what is comprehended directly before your eyes, and draw that into forme upon your Tablet in the middle Division.
[…].
And as all things appear in
Distance and Truth, Proportion and Colour, so be carefull to express them ; […]. So then, the Dutch in composing a Piece of Prospect, of their own Fancie and Invention, for want of the Life most grosly erre in Proportion, Distance and Colour. Now for the want of the Life and Nature, if you will adventure on your fancie ; Go to work this way.
I cannot prescribe, how to order your light, in a piece of Landskip by the Life ; for according to the place, as you look North, or Southward, East, or West-ward, as the time of the day and the Sun’s declination, so must you order your shadows as they appear. But in all working of Painting by Fancie, let your light descend from your left, to your right hand : So will it appear upon the work, from the right to the left, the more gracefull. […].
{To make a Landskip.} In making it ; First, beginne with a large
skie or Element and if there be any shining or reflection of the Sunne, (in which only the Dutch are neat and curious,) then you must be carefull, by no meanes to mixe Red-lead, or Mene, in the purple of the skie, or Clouds, but only with Lake and White ; […] For you must not mingle the blew Colours of the Clouds with any Pensil that hath touched Masticoate ; It will make the skie Greenish and discoloured.
[…].

{
Paul Brell’s observations.} The most generall and absolute Rule in Landskip, was observed by that excellent Master at Rome, Paul Brell, whose delightfull works many of them extent in Prints, are set out by Raphael and John Sadler. Besides many Paintings of his own hand both in Frescoe and Oyle, in the Pallace of Cardinal Montaltre, by St. Maria Mahgior, Bentoglia in Mount Gaballo, and in the Church of St. Cecillia ; His observation is onely this, That an Artist must be sure to make all his shadows fall one way ; that is, to place light against dark, and dark against light. {Light against dark, et è contrario.} His meaning is, that to oppose Light to shadows, is only to remove and extend the Prospect, and to make it shew far off, yet so as ever they must lose their force of vigour as they remove from the eye, and if strongest alwaies neerest at hand, and as they fall on the first ground.
[…].

BRIL, Paul
École espagnole
École italienne
École néerlandaise
RAFFAELLO (Raffaello Sanzio)
SADELER, Jan

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

For Skie and Landscaps.
For a Skie or Landscaps, that seem a great way off, take Oyl Smalt, or Bice if you will, and with Linseed Oyl onely temper it on your pallat (for in grinding Smalt, or Bice, they utterly lose their colour) with white Lead, and where it looketh red as the morning, use Lake, &c.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

CHAP. XIII. Of Landskip.
I. Landskip is that which expresseth in lines the perfect vision of the earth, and all things thereupon, placed above the horizon, as towns, villages, castles, promontaries, mountains, rocks, valleys, ruines, rivers, woods, forests, chases, trees, houses and all other buildings, both beautiful and ruinous.
II. First, Always express a fair horizon, shewing the heavens, cloudy or clear, more or less according to the occasion ; [...].
III. Secondly, If you express the Sun, make his light to reflect upon all the trees, hills, mountains, rocks, or buildings ; shading the contrary sides ; [...].
IV. Thirdly, be very careful to augment or lessen every thing proportionably to their distance from the eye, making them either bigger or lesser.
[...]
VI. If Landskips be laid in Colours, the farther you go, the more you must lighten it, with a thin and airy blew, to make it seem as it were afar off, beginning at first with a dark green, so driving it by degrees into a blew, according to the distance.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Quotation

XII. If in Landskip, there be any standing waters, as rivers, ponds, and the like ; place the horizontal line level with the farthest sight or appearance of it.
[...]

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

CHAP. XXVII. Of Limning Landskip
All the variable expressions of Landskip are innumerable, they being as many as there are men and fancies ; the general rules follow.
I. Always begin with the Sky, Sun-beams, or lightest parts first ; [...].
[...].
            VII. Lastly, Let all shadows lose their force as they remove from the eye ; always letting the strongest shadow be nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

CHAP. IX. Of Colours for Landskip.
I. For
a light Green, use pink and masticot heightned with wihte : for a sad green, Indico and Pink heightned with masticot.
II. [...].

Ce chapitre porte sur les couleurs à utiliser pour peindre des paysages à l'huile.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

CHAP. XX. Of Colours for Landskips.
I. Green mixed with white, pink, bice, masticot, smalt, indico, or ceruse : or blew verditure mixt with a few yellow berries makes a good green for Landskips.
II. For the
saddest hills use umber burnt ; for the lightest places, put yellow to the burnt umber : [...].

Ce chapitre porte sur les couleurs qu'il convient d'utiliser pour les paysages en lavis.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → technique de la peinture

Quotation

Of Landskip.


{
Landskip.} In drawing Landskip with water colours ever begin with the Skie, and if there be any Sunbeams, do them first. 
{
Purple Clouds.} For the Purple Clouds, only mingle Lake and white.
{
Yellow.} The Sun-beams, Masticot and white.
{
Note 1.} Work your blew Skie with smalt only, or Ultramarine.
{
Note 2.} At your first working dead colour all the piece over, leave nothing uncovered, lay the colour smooth and even.
{
Note 3.} Work the Skie down in the Horizon fainter as you draw near the Earth, except in tempestuous skies, work your further Mountains so that they should seem to be lost in the Air.
{
Note 4.} Your first ground must be of the colour of the Earth and dark ; yellowish, brown, green, the next successively as they loose in their distance must also faint and abate in their colours
{
Note 5.} Beware of perfection at a distance.
{
Note 6.} Ever place light against dark, and dark against light (that is) the only way to extend the prospect far off, is by opposing light to shadows, yet so as ever they must loose their force and vigor in proportion as they remove from the Eye, and the strongest shadow ever nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

Titian was the best Colourer, perhaps, that ever was ; he Designed likewise very well, but not very exactly ; the Airs of his Heads for Women and Children are admirable, and his Drapery loose and noble ; his Portraits are all Master-pieces, no man having ever carried Face-Painting so far ; the Persons that he has drawn having all the Life and Spirit as if they were alive ; his Landskips are the Truest, best Coloured, and Strongest that ever were.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Chap. VIII, Of Landskip, and Rules to be observed therein.
Landskip is that which expresseth in Picture whatsoever may be beheld upon the Earth, within the species of Sight ; which is the termination of a fair Horizon, representing Towns, Villages, Castles, Promontaries, Mountains, Rocks, Vallies, Ruines, Rivers, and whatsoever else the Eye is capable of beholding within the species of the Sight. To express which, and to make all things appear in Draught or Picture according to true proportion and distance, there are several Rules to be observed, of which take these following.
RULE I.
In every Landskip shew a fair Horizon, the Sky either clear or overcast with Clouds, expressing the rising or setting of the Sun to issue (as it were) from or over some Hill, or Mountain, or Rock ; the Moon or Stars are never to be expressed in a fair Landskip, but in a Night-piece I have often seen it, as in a piece of our Sarinus being taken by night, and in others. As an Astronomer with his Quadrant taking the height of the Moon, and another with his Cross-staff taking the distance of certain Stars, their man standing at a distance with his Dark-lanthorn, to see their Degrees when they had made their observation ; these things, as taking of the Partridge with the Loo bell, and the like, become Night-pieces very well.
RULE II.
If you express the Light of the Sun in any Landskip, be sure that through your whole work you cast the light of your Trees, Buildings, Rocks, Ruines, and all things else expressed within the verge thereof thitherwards.
RULE III.
Be sure in Landskip that you lessen your bodies proportionably according to their distances, so that the farther the Landskip goeth from your eye, the fainter you must express any thing seen at distance, till at last the Sky and the Earth seem to meet, as the Colours in a Rain-bow do.
There are many excellent pieces of Landskip to be procured very easily ; as also of Landskip and Perspective intermixed, which pieces to me were ever the most delightful of any other ; and such I would advise you to practice by ; they, if they be good, being the only helps to teach you proportion of bodies in any position, either near or a-far off.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

Chap. VI, Of LANDKSIP.
The bounds and limits of
Landskip are inexpressible, they being as various as fancy is copious ; I will give you only some general Rules for Painting of Landskip, and so conclude this third Book.
In painting of any Landskip always begin with the Sky, the Sun-beams, or lightest parts first ; next the Yellow beams, which compose of Masticote and White ; next your Blew Skies, with Smalt only. At your first colouring leave no part of your ground uncovered ; but lay Your Colours smooth and even all over. Work your Sky downwards towards your Horizon fainter and fainter, as it draws nearer and nearer to the Earth ; you must work your tops of Mountains and objects far remote, so faint that they may appear as lost in the Air : Your lowest and nearest Ground must be of the colour of the earth, of a dark yellowish brown Green, the next lighter Green, and so successively as they lose in their distance, they must abate in their colour. Make nothing that you see at a distance perfect ; as if discerning a Building to be fourteen or fifteen miles off, I know not Church, Castle, House, or the like ; so that in drawing of it you must express no particular sign, as Bell, Portcullis, or the like ; but express it in colours as weakly and faintly as your eye judgeth of it. Ever in your Landskip place light against dark, and dark against light, which is the only way to extend the prospect far off, occasioned by opposing light to shadow ; yet so as the shadows must lose their force in proportion as they remove from the eye, and the strongest shadow must always be nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

In Landskip, variety of Colours are required ; I will therefore begin with those first.

Colours for the Skie.
For the Aiery skie that seems a great way off, take Oyl-Smalt or Bise, […] ; for a Red sky use Lake and White, […].

Colours for Trees.
For some use Lake, Umber, and White ; for others Charcoal and White, […].

Of several Greens in Landskip.
For a light Green use Pink and Masticote heightned with White.
For a sad Green, Indico and Pink heightned with Masticote.
You may make Greens of any degree whatsoever.
In Painting of Landskip I shall say nothing here, that which I have already said in the Sixth Chapter of the Book of
Limning being sufficient.

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

15. Colours for Landskips.
For the saddest Hills use burnt Umber, for the lightest places put some Yellow to the burnt Umber ; and for the other Hills lay Copper-green thickned on the fire, or in the Sun ; for the next Hills further off, mix some Yellow-berries with Copper green, and let the fourth part be done with green Verditer ; and the furthest, faintest places with the blew Bise, and for want of that, with blew Verditer mingled with White for the lightest places, and shadowed with blew Verditer in the shadows indifferent thick ; the Highways do with Red-Lead and White, […] ; the Rocks you may do with several colours, […] the Water must be black Verditer and White, […]

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs

Quotation

In Landskip we must observe, that the Air being universally overspread, carrys something of Light with it, and admits nothing Darke in places at distance and approaching the Horizon.
            That which way soever we carry the
Wind, the Clouds, Trees and all Things Subject to its Motion, tend the same way.
            That in Clouds for
Storms, &c. they be Painted in manner of a Group, and not to much Scattering by Breakes, which will disturb the Harmony of the Picture.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Quotation

When therefore we are to make a Judgment in what Degree of Goodness a Picture or Drawing is we should consider its Kind first, and then its several Parts. A History is preferrable to a Landscape, Sea-Piece, Animals, Fruit, Flowers, or any other Still-Life, pieces of Drollery, &c ; the reason is, the latter Kinds may Please, and in proportion as they do so they are Estimable, and that is according to every one’s Taste, but they cannot Improve the Mind, they excite no Noble Sentiments ; at least not as the other naturally does : These not only give us Pleasure, as being Beautiful Objects, and Furnishing us with Ideas as the Other do, but the Pleasure we receive from Hence is Greater (I speak in General, and what the nature of the thing is capable of) ‘tis of a Nobler Kind than the Other ; and Then moreover the Mind may be Inrich’d, and made Better.

term translated by PAYSAGE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 21-22.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
SPECTATEUR → perception et regard

Quotation

There are Instances where two Masses ; a Light, and a Dark one, divide the Picture, each possessing One Side. I have of This sort by Rubens, and as fine a Composition as can be seen ; the Masses are so well Rounded, the Principal Light being near the Middle of the Bright One, and the Other having Subordinate Lights upon it so as to Connect, but not to Confound it with the rest ; and they are in agreeable Shapes, and melting into One Another, but nevertheless sufficiently determined.
Very commonly a Picture consists of a Mass of Light, and another of Shadow upon a Ground of a Middle Tinct. And sometimes ‘tis composed of a Mass of Dark at the bottom, another Lighter above that, and another for the upper part still Lighter ; (as usually in a Landscape) Sometimes the Dark Mass employs one Side of the Picture also.

term translated by PAYSAGE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 99-100.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → composition
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage

Quotation

{Ludius.} ONE of principal Note that flourish’d in the Reign of Augustus, was Ludius, celebrated for the Invention of Painting Landskips, wherein he succeeded very well, and shew’d a great Variety of Invention in representation of Prospects both by Sea and Land ; of Cities, and particularly Structures, and Designs of Architecture ; in Views of Forests, Rivers, Plains, Walks, Huntings, Parrades, Grottoes, Fountains, with all the various Forms and Actions of Birds, Beasts and Men, appropriate and accommodate to each particular Circumstance, together with many other incident Occurrences, of which this Subject furnishes with a copious Variety ; and of all these, he was the first we meet with that made the Application, and painted upon the Fronts of their publick and private Buildings along the Streets, and upon their Walls, both without Doors and within.

prospect

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage